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  title = {Beware the Middleman: Empirical Analysis of {Bitcoin}-Exchange Risk},
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  year = {2013},
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  author = {Michael Bedford Taylor},
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  year = {2013},
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  year = {2013},
  organization = {IEEE},
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  year = {2013},
  organization = {IEEE},
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  year = {2014},
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  year = {2014},
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  author = {Ittay Eyal and Emin G{\"u}n Sirer},
  title = {Majority is not enough: Bitcoin mining is vulnerable},
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  pages = {436--454},
  year = {2014},
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  pages = {345--364},
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  author = {Danny Yuxing Huang and Hitesh Dharmdasani and Sarah Meiklejohn and Vacha Dave and Chris Grier and Damon McCoy and Stefan Savage and Nicholas Weaver and Alex C Snoeren and Kirill Levchenko},
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  pages = {475--490},
  year = {2014},
  organization = {IEEE},
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  booktitle = {2014 USENIX Annual Technical Conference (USENIX ATC 14)},
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  year = {2014},
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}
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}
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  year = {2014},
  organization = {Springer},
  url = {http://photon.hu/~laszka/papers/johnson2014game.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{vasek2014empirical,
  author = {Marie Vasek and Micah Thornton and Tyler Moore},
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  year = {2014},
  organization = {Springer},
  url = {http://secon.utulsa.edu/vasek/vasekbtc14.pdf},
}
@article{groza2014cryptographic,
  author = {Bogdan Groza and Bogdan Warinschi},
  title = {Cryptographic puzzles and dos resilience, revisited},
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  number = {1},
  pages = {177--207},
  year = {2014},
  publisher = {Springer},
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}
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  author = {Nicolas T Courtois and Pinar Emirdag and Daniel A Nagy},
  title = {Could bitcoin transactions be 100x faster?},
  booktitle = {Security and Cryptography (SECRYPT), 2014 11th International Conference on},
  pages = {1--6},
  year = {2014},
  organization = {IEEE},
  url = {http://www.nicolascourtois.com/bitcoin/POSTER_100x_Secrypt2014_v1.0.pdf},
}
@article{yelowitz2015characteristics,
  author = {Aaron Yelowitz and Matthew Wilson},
  title = {Characteristics of Bitcoin users: an analysis of Google search data},
  journal = {Applied Economics Letters},
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}
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  author = {Andrew Miller and Rob Jansen},
  title = {Shadow-Bitcoin: scalable simulation via direct execution of multi-threaded applications},
  booktitle = {8th Workshop on Cyber Security Experimentation and Test (CSET 15)},
  year = {2015},
  url = {https://www.usenix.org/system/files/conference/cset15/cset15-miller.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{garay2015bitcoin,
  author = {Juan Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos},
  title = {The bitcoin backbone protocol: Analysis and applications},
  booktitle = {Advances in Cryptology-EUROCRYPT 2015},
  pages = {281--310},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
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}
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  author = {Yoad Lewenberg and Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {Inclusive block chain protocols},
  booktitle = {Financial Cryptography and Data Security},
  pages = {528--547},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
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}
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  author = {Joseph Bonneau and Andrew Miller and Jeremy Clark and Arvind Narayanan and Joshua A Kroll and Edward W Felten},
  title = {SoK: Research Perspectives and Challenges for Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies},
  booktitle = {IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy},
  year = {2015},
  url = {http://www.ieee-security.org/TC/SP2015/papers-archived/6949a104.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{tschorsch2015bitcoin,
  author = {Florian Tschorsch and Bj{\"o}rn Scheuermann},
  title = {Bitcoin and Beyond: A Technical Survey on Decentralized Digital Currencies},
  booktitle = {IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {PP},
  number = {99},
  pages = {1-1},
  keywords = {Contracts;Cryptography;Internet;Online banking;Protocols;Space exploration;Tutorials},
  doi = {10.1109/COMST.2016.2535718},
  ISSN = {1553-877X},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/464.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{mann2015two,
  author = {Christopher Mann and Daniel Loebenberger},
  title = {Two-factor authentication for the Bitcoin protocol},
  booktitle = {Security and Trust Management},
  pages = {155--171},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2014/629.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{melara2015keytransparency,
  author = {Marcela S. Melara and Aaron Blankstein and Joseph Bonneau and Edward W. Felten and Michael J. Freedman},
  title = {Bringing Deployable Key Transparency to End Users},
  booktitle = {24th USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 15)},
  year = {2015},
  month = {Aug},
  address = {Washington, D.C.},
  publisher = {USENIX Association},
  url = {https://www.usenix.org/system/files/conference/usenixsecurity15/sec15-paper-melara.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{kalodner2015namecoinempirical,
  author = {Harry Kalodner and Miles Carlsten and Paul Ellenbogen and Joseph Bonneau and Arvind Narayanan},
  title = {An empirical study of Namecoin and lessons for decentralized namespace design},
  year = {2015},
  booktitle = {WEIS},
  url = {http://randomwalker.info/publications/namespaces.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{eskandari2015usability,
  author = {Shayan Eskandari and David Barrera and Elizabeth Stobert and Jeremy Clark},
  title = {A first look at the usability of bitcoin key management},
  booktitle = {Workshop on Usable Security (USEC)},
  year = {2015},
  url = {http://users.encs.concordia.ca/~clark/papers/2015_usec_full.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{zyskind2015decentralizing,
  author = {Guy Zyskind and Oz Nathan and Alex'Sandy' Pentland},
  title = {Decentralizing Privacy: Using Blockchain to Protect Personal Data},
  booktitle = {Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW), 2015 IEEE},
  pages = {180--184},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {IEEE},
  url = {http://web.media.mit.edu/~guyzys/data/ZNP15.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{mcreynolds2015cryptographic,
  author = {Emily McReynolds and Adam Lerner and Will Scott and Franziska Roesner and Tadayoshi Kohno},
  title = {Cryptographic Currencies from a Tech-Policy Perspective: Policy Issues and Technical Directions},
  booktitle = {Financial Cryptography and Data Security},
  pages = {94--111},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {http://fc15.ifca.ai/preproceedings/bitcoin/paper_16.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{ali2015zombiecoin,
  author = {Syed Taha Ali and Patrick McCorry and Peter Hyun-Jeen Lee and Feng Hao},
  title = {ZombieCoin: powering next-generation botnets with bitcoin},
  booktitle = {Financial Cryptography and Data Security},
  pages = {34--48},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {http://homepages.cs.ncl.ac.uk/feng.hao/files/zcoin-camera-ready.pdf},
}
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  author = {Ghassan O Karame and Elli Androulaki and Marc Roeschlin and Arthur Gervais and Srdjan {\v{C}}apkun},
  title = {Misbehavior in Bitcoin: A Study of Double-Spending and Accountability},
  journal = {ACM Transactions on Information and System Security (TISSEC)},
  volume = {18},
  number = {1},
  pages = {2},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {ACM},
  url = {http://www.syssec.ethz.ch/content/dam/ethz/special-interest/infk/inst-infsec/system-security-group-dam/research/publications/pub2015/tissec15_karame.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{dagher2015provisions,
  author = {Gaby G Dagher and Benedikt B{\"u}nz and Joseph Bonneau and Jeremy Clark and Dan Boneh},
  title = {Provisions: Privacy-preserving proofs of solvency for Bitcoin exchanges},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security},
  pages = {720--731},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {http://users.encs.concordia.ca/~clark/papers/2015_ccs.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{ruffing2015liar,
  author = {Tim Ruffing and Aniket Kate and Dominique Schr{\"o}der},
  title = {Liar, Liar, Coins on Fire!: Penalizing Equivocation By Loss of Bitcoins},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security},
  pages = {219--230},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {https://people.mmci.uni-saarland.de/~aniket/publications/Non-equivocationWithBitcoinPenalties.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{kumaresan2015poker,
  author = {Ranjit Kumaresan and Tal Moran and Iddo Bentov},
  title = {How to Use Bitcoin to Play Decentralized Poker},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security},
  pages = {195--206},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {http://people.csail.mit.edu/ranjit/papers/poker.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{pass2015micropayments,
  author = {Rafael Pass and others},
  title = {Micropayments for Decentralized Currencies},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security},
  pages = {207--218},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {http://www.initc3.org/files/micropay2.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{miller2015nonoutsourceable,
  author = {Andrew Miller and Ahmed Kosba and Jonathan Katz and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Nonoutsourceable Scratch-Off Puzzles to Discourage Bitcoin Mining Coalitions},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security},
  pages = {680--691},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {https://cs.umd.edu/~amiller/nonoutsourceable_full.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{gervais2015tampering,
  author = {Arthur Gervais and Hubert Ritzdorf and Ghassan O Karame and Srdjan Capkun},
  title = {Tampering with the Delivery of Blocks and Transactions in Bitcoin},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security},
  pages = {692--705},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/578.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{decker2015making,
  author = {Christian Decker and James Guthrie and Jochen Seidel and Roger Wattenhofer},
  title = {Making Bitcoin Exchanges Transparent},
  booktitle = {Computer Security--ESORICS 2015},
  pages = {561--576},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {http://www.tik.ee.ethz.ch/file/b89cb24ad2fa4e7ef01426d318c9b98b/decker2015making.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{andrychowicz2015pow,
  author = {Marcin Andrychowicz and Stefan Dziembowski},
  title = {PoW-Based Distributed Cryptography with No Trusted Setup},
  booktitle = {Advances in Cryptology--CRYPTO 2015},
  pages = {379--399},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2014/796.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{zohar2015bitcoin,
  author = {Aviv Zohar},
  title = {Bitcoin: under the hood},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  volume = {58},
  number = {9},
  pages = {104--113},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {ACM},
  url = {http://users.encs.concordia.ca/~clark/biblio/bitcoin/Zohar%202015.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{gutoski2015hierarchical,
  author = {Gus Gutoski and Douglas Stebila},
  title = {Hierarchical deterministic Bitcoin wallets that tolerate key leakage (short paper)},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security (FC 2015)},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {Springer},
  url = {http://fc15.ifca.ai/preproceedings/paper_15.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{wilson2015pretty,
  author = {Duane Wilson and Giuseppe Ateniese},
  title = {From Pretty Good to Great: Enhancing PGP Using Bitcoin and the Blockchain},
  booktitle = {Network and System Security},
  pages = {368--375},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1508.04868},
}
@inproceedings{soska2015measuring,
  author = {Kyle Soska and Nicolas Christin},
  title = {Measuring the longitudinal evolution of the online anonymous marketplace ecosystem},
  booktitle = {24th USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 15)},
  pages = {33--48},
  year = {2015},
  url = {https://www.usenix.org/system/files/conference/usenixsecurity15/sec15-paper-soska.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{heilman2015eclipse,
  author = {Ethan Heilman and Alison Kendler and Aviv Zohar and Sharon Goldberg},
  title = {Eclipse Attacks on Bitcoin's Peer-to-Peer Network},
  booktitle = {24th USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 15)},
  pages = {129--144},
  year = {2015},
  url = {https://www.usenix.org/system/files/conference/usenixsecurity15/sec15-paper-heilman.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{eyal2015miner,
  author = {Ittay Eyal},
  title = {The miner's dilemma},
  booktitle = {Security and Privacy (SP), 2015 IEEE Symposium on},
  pages = {89--103},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {IEEE},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1411.7099},
}
@inproceedings{vasek2015there,
  author = {Marie Vasek and Tyler Moore},
  title = {There's No Free Lunch, Even Using Bitcoin: Tracking the Popularity and Profits of Virtual Currency Scams},
  booktitle = {Financial Cryptography and Data Security},
  pages = {44--61},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {http://secon.utulsa.edu/vasek/vasekfc15.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{sompolinsky2015secure,
  author = {Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {Secure high-rate transaction processing in Bitcoin},
  booktitle = {Financial Cryptography and Data Security},
  pages = {507--527},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {http://www.cs.huji.ac.il/~avivz/pubs/15/btc_ghost_full.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{lewenberg2015bitcoin,
  author = {Yoad Lewenberg and Yoram Bachrach and Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar and Jeffrey S Rosenschein},
  title = {Bitcoin mining pools: A cooperative game theoretic analysis},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems},
  pages = {919--927},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems},
  url = {http://www.cs.huji.ac.il/~avivz/pubs/15/fp245-lewenbergA.pdf},
}
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  author = {Marko Vukoli{\'c}},
  title = {The quest for scalable blockchain fabric: Proof-of-work vs. BFT replication},
  booktitle = {International Workshop on Open Problems in Network Security},
  pages = {112--125},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {Springer},
  url = {http://vukolic.com/iNetSec_2015.pdf},
}
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  title = {Demystifying incentives in the consensus computer},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security},
  pages = {706--719},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {http://www.comp.nus.edu.sg/~prateeks/papers/VeriEther.pdf},
}
@article{jimenez2015eventual,
  author = {Ernesto Jim{\'e}nez and Sergio Ar{\'e}valo and Carlos Herrera and Jian Tang},
  title = {Eventual election of multiple leaders for solving consensus in anonymous systems},
  journal = {The Journal of Supercomputing},
  volume = {71},
  number = {10},
  pages = {3726--3743},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
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}
@article{arevalo2015failure,
  author = {Sergio Ar{\'e}valo and Antonio Fern{\'a}ndez Anta and Damien Imbs and Ernesto Jim{\'e}nez and Michel Raynal},
  title = {Failure detectors in homonymous distributed systems (with an application to consensus)},
  journal = {Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing},
  volume = {83},
  pages = {83--95},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
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}
@article{herrera2015research,
  author = {Jordi Herrera-Joancomart{\'\i}},
  title = {Research and challenges on bitcoin anonymity},
  booktitle = {Data Privacy Management, Autonomous Spontaneous Security, and Security Assurance},
  pages = {3--16},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jordi_Herrera-Joancomarti/publication/281773799_Research_and_Challenges_on_Bitcoin_Anonymity/links/55f7c7d408ae07629dcbc471.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{moser2015trends,
  author = {Malte M{\"o}ser and Rainer B{\"o}hme},
  title = {Trends, tips, tolls: A longitudinal study of Bitcoin transaction fees},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security},
  pages = {19--33},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {Springer},
  url = {http://fc15.ifca.ai/preproceedings/bitcoin/paper_8.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{danezis2015centrally,
  author = {George Danezis and Sarah Meiklejohn},
  title = {Centrally Banked Cryptocurrencies},
  booktitle = {Network and Distributed System Security},
  publisher = {The Internet Society},
  year = {2016},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.06895},
}
@inproceedings{bonneau2016buy,
  author = {Joseph Bonneau},
  title = {Why buy when you can rent? Bribery attacks on Bitcoin consensus},
  booktitle = {BITCOIN '16: Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research},
  month = {February},
  year = {2016},
  url = {http://fc16.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/Bon16b.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{krombholz2016other,
  author = {Katharina Krombholz and Aljosha Judmayer and Matthias Gusenbauer and {Edgar R.} Weippl},
  title = {The Other Side of the Coin: User Experiences with Bitcoin Security and Privacy},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security (FC)},
  year = {2016},
  month = {2},
  url = {https://www.sba-research.org/wp-content/uploads/publications/TheOtherSideOfTheCoin_FC16preConf.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{kosba2016hawk,
  author = {Ahmed Kosba and Andrew Miller and Elaine Shi and Zikai Wen and Charalampos Papamanthou},
  title = {Hawk: The blockchain model of cryptography and privacy-preserving smart contracts},
  booktitle = {Symposium on Security \& Privacy},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2016},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2015/675.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{croman2016scaling,
  author = {Kyle Croman and Christian Decker and Ittay Eyal and Adem Efe Gencer and Ari Juels and Ahmed Kosba and Andrew Miller and Prateek Saxena and Elaine Shi and Emin G{\"u}n},
  title = {On Scaling Decentralized Blockchains},
  booktitle = {3rd Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research, Financial Cryptography 16},
  year = {2016},
  url = {http://www.tik.ee.ethz.ch/file/74bc987e6ab4a8478c04950616612f69/main.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{bonneau2016ethiks,
  author = {Joseph Bonneau},
  title = {EthIKS: Using Ethereum to audit a CONIKS key transparency log},
  booktitle = {3rd Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research, Financial Cryptography 16},
  year = {2016},
  url = {http://fc16.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/Bon16a.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{vasek2016bitcoin,
  author = {Marie Vasek and Joseph Bonneau and Ryan Castellucci and Cameron Keith and Tyler Moore},
  title = {The Bitcoin Brain Drain: Examining the Use and Abuse of Bitcoin Brain Wallets},
  booktitle = {FC '16: Proceedings of the the 20th International Conference on Financial Cryptography},
  month = {February},
  year = {2016},
  url = {http://www.jbonneau.com/doc/VBCKM16-FC-bitcoin_brain_wallets.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{moeser2016bitcoin,
  author = {Malte M{\"o}ser and Ittay Eyal and Emin G{\"u}n Sirer},
  title = {Bitcoin Covenants},
  booktitle = {FC '16: Proceedings of the the 20th International Conference on Financial Cryptography},
  month = {February},
  year = {2016},
  url = {http://fc16.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/MES16.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{schrijvers2016incentive,
  author = {Okke Schrijvers and Joseph Bonneau and Dan Boneh and Tim Roughgarden},
  title = {Incentive Compatibility of Bitcoin Mining Pool Reward Functions},
  booktitle = {FC '16: Proceedings of the the 20th International Conference on Financial Cryptography},
  month = {February},
  year = {2016},
  url = {http://www.jbonneau.com/doc/SBBR16-FC-mining_pool_reward_incentive_compatibility.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{nayak2015stubborn,
  author = {Kartik Nayak and Srijan Kumar and Andrew Miller and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Stubborn mining: Generalizing selfish mining and combining with an eclipse attack},
  booktitle = {1st IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy, 2016},
  year = {2016},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2015/796.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{eyal2016bitcoinng,
  author = {Ittay Eyal and Adem Efe Gencer and Emin Gun Sirer and Robbert Renesse},
  title = {Bitcoin-NG: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol},
  booktitle = {13th USENIX Security Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI'16)},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Mar},
  publisher = {USENIX Association},
  url = {http://www.usenix.org/system/files/conference/nsdi16/nsdi16-paper-eyal.pdf},
}
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  author = {Eleftherios Kokoris Kogias and Philipp Jovanovic and Nicolas Gailly and Ismail Khoffi and Linus Gasser and Bryan Ford},
  title = {Enhancing Bitcoin Security and Performance with Strong Consistency via Collective Signing},
  booktitle = {25th USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 16)},
  year = {2016},
  month = {August},
  address = {Austin, TX},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1602.06997.pdf},
  publisher = {USENIX Association},
}
@inproceedings{kraft2016difficulty,
  author = {Daniel Kraft},
  title = {Difficulty Control for Blockchain-Based Consensus Systems},
  booktitle = {Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications},
  volume = {9},
  number = {2},
  pages = {397--413},
  year = {2016},
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  url = {https://www.domob.eu/research/DifficultyControl.pdf},
}
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  author = {Loi Luu and Duc-Hiep Chu and Hrishi Olickel and Prateek Saxena and Aquinas Hobor},
  title = {Making Smart Contracts Smarter},
  booktitle = {23rd ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (ACM CCS 2016)},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Oct},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/633.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{idelberger2016evaluation,
  author = {Florian Idelberger and Guido Governatori and R{\'e}gis Riveret and Giovanni Sartor},
  title = {Evaluation of Logic-Based Smart Contracts for Blockchain Systems},
  booktitle = {International Symposium on Rules and Rule Markup Languages for the Semantic Web},
  pages = {167--183},
  year = {2016},
  organization = {Springer},
  url = {https://regisriveretdotorg.files.wordpress.com/2015/11/smart_ruleml.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{kiayias2016fair,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Hong-Sheng Zhou and Vassilis Zikas},
  title = {Fair and robust multi-party computation using a global transaction ledger},
  booktitle = {Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques},
  pages = {705--734},
  year = {2016},
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  title = {Enabling Secure Web Payments with GNU Taler},
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  pages = {251--270},
  year = {2016},
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  title = {Town Crier: An Authenticated Data Feed for Smart Contracts},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security},
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  year = {2016},
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  title = {On the instability of bitcoin without the block reward},
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  pages = {154--167},
  year = {2016},
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  author = {Christopher Natoli and Vincent Gramoli},
  title = {The blockchain anomaly},
  booktitle = {Network Computing and Applications (NCA), 2016 IEEE 15th International Symposium on},
  pages = {310--317},
  year = {2016},
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  author = {Arthur Gervais and Ghassan O Karame and Karl W{\"u}st and Vasileios Glykantzis and Hubert Ritzdo rf and Srdjan Capkun},
  title = {On the security and performance of proof of work blockchains},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC},
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  title = {Smart Contracts-Dumb Idea},
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  year = {2017},
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  author = {Karen EC Levy},
  title = {Book-Smart, Not Street-Smart: Blockchain-Based Smart Contracts and The Social Workings of Law},
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  year = {2017},
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  booktitle = {NDSS'17},
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  year = {2017},
  url = {https://crypsys.mmci.uni-saarland.de/projects/FastDC/paper.pdf},
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  title = {Trustworthy Provenance Recording using a blockchain-like database},
  year = {2017},
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  url = {http://elib.dlr.de/111772/1/thesis.pdf},
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  author = {Ali Dorri and Salil S Kanhere and Raja Jurdak and Praveen Gauravaram},
  title = {Blockchain for IoT security and privacy: The case study of a smart home},
  booktitle = {Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops), 2017 IEEE International Conference on},
  pages = {618--623},
  year = {2017},
  organization = {IEEE},
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  title = {Blockchain-based database to ensure data integrity in cloud computing environments},
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  year = {2017},
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  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/preproceedings/19.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{mavridou2018designing,
  author = {Anastasia Mavridou and Aron Laszka},
  title = {Designing Secure Ethereum Smart Contracts: A Finite State Machine Based Approach},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security (FC). Springer},
  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/preproceedings/101.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{atzei2018formal,
  author = {Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Stefano Lande and Roberto Zunino},
  title = {A formal model of Bitcoin transactions},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security (FC). Springer},
  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/preproceedings/92.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{mccorry2018smart,
  author = {Patrick McCorry and Alexander Hicks and Sarah Meiklejohn},
  title = {Smart Contracts for Bribing Miners},
  booktitle = {5th Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research, Financial Cryptography and Data Security 18 (FC). Springer},
  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final14.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{bowe2018multi,
  author = {Sean Bowe and Ariel Gabizon and Matthew D Green},
  title = {A multi-party protocol for constructing the public parameters of the Pinocchio zk-SNARK},
  booktitle = {5th Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research, Financial Cryptography and Data Security 18 (FC). Springer},
  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-full1.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{zhang2018paralysis,
  author = {Fan Zhang and Philip Daian and Iddo Bentov and Ari Juels},
  title = {Paralysis Proofs: Safe Access-Structure Updates for Cryptocurrencies and More},
  booktitle = {5th Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research, Financial Cryptography and Data Security 18 (FC). Springer},
  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final20.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{vasek2018analyzing,
  author = {Marie Vasek and Tyler Moore},
  title = {Analyzing the Bitcoin Ponzi Scheme Ecosystem},
  booktitle = {5th Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research, Financial Cryptography and Data Security 18 (FC). Springer},
  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final11.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{chepurnoy2018systematic,
  author = {Alexander Chepurnoy and Vasily Kharin and Dmitry Meshkov},
  title = {A Systematic Approach To Cryptocurrency Fees},
  booktitle = {5th Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research, Financial Cryptography and Data Security 18 (FC). Springer},
  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final18.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{azouvi2018egalitarian,
  author = {Sarah Azouvi and Mary Maller and Sarah Meiklejohn},
  title = {Egalitarian Society or Benevolent Dictatorship: The State of Cryptocurrency Governance},
  booktitle = {5th Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research, Financial Cryptography and Data Security 18 (FC). Springer},
  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final13.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{bonneau2018hostile,
  author = {Joseph Bonneau},
  title = {Hostile blockchain takeovers (short paper)},
  booktitle = {5th Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research, Financial Cryptography and Data Security 18 (FC). Springer},
  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final17.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{delgado2018analysis,
  author = {Sergi Delgado-Segura and Cristina P{\'e}rez-Sola and Guillermo Navarro-Arribas and Jordi Herrera-Joancomart{\i}},
  title = {Analysis of the Bitcoin UTXO set},
  booktitle = {5th Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research, Financial Cryptography and Data Security 18 (FC). Springer},
  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final6.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{grundmann2018exploiting,
  author = {Matthias Grundmann and Till Neudecker and Hannes Hartenstein},
  title = {Exploiting Transaction Accumulation and Double Spends for Topology Inference in Bitcoin},
  booktitle = {5th Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research, Financial Cryptography and Data Security 18 (FC). Springer},
  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final10.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{judmayer2018pitchfork,
  author = {Aljosha Judmayer and Nicholas Stifter and Philipp Schindler and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {Pitchforks in Cryptocurrencies: Enforcing rule changes through offensive forking- and consensus techniques (Short Paper)},
  booktitle = {CBT'18: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain Technology},
  year = {2018},
  month = {Sep},
  url = {https://www.sba-research.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/judmayer2018pitchfork_2018-09-05.pdf},
}
@misc{dai1998bmoney,
  author = {Wei Dai},
  title = {bmoney},
  year = {1998},
  howpublished = {\url{http://www.weidai.com/bmoney.txt}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-04-31},
  url = {http://www.weidai.com/bmoney.txt},
}
@misc{back2002hashcash,
  author = {Adam Back and others},
  title = {Hashcash-a denial of service counter-measure},
  year = {2002},
  howpublished = {\url{http://www.hashcash.org/papers/hashcash.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-03-09},
  url = {http://www.hashcash.org/papers/hashcash.pdf},
}
@misc{szabo2003advances,
  author = {Nick Szabo},
  title = {Advances in Distributed Security},
  year = {2003},
  howpublished = {\url{http://szabo.best.vwh.net/distributed.html}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-04-31},
}
@misc{finney2004rpow,
  author = {Hal Finney},
  title = {Reusable Proofs of Work (RPOW)},
  year = {2004},
  howpublished = {\url{http://web.archive.org/web/20071222072154/http://rpow.net/}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-04-31},
  url = {http://web.archive.org/web/20071222072154/http://rpow.net/},
}
@misc{szabo2005bitgold,
  author = {Nick Szabo},
  title = {Bit gold},
  year = {2005},
  howpublished = {\url{http://unenumerated.blogspot.co.at/2005/12/bit-gold.html}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-04-31},
  url = {http://unenumerated.blogspot.co.at/2005/12/bit-gold.html},
}
@misc{nakamoto2008bitcoin,
  author = {Satoshi Nakamoto},
  title = {Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System},
  year = {2008},
  month = {Dec},
  howpublished = {\url{https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2015-07-01},
  url = {https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf},
}
@misc{percival2009scrypt,
  author = {Colin Percival},
  title = {Stronger key derivation via sequential memory-hard functions},
  year = {2009},
  howpublished = {\url{http://www.bsdcan.org/2009/schedule/attachments/87_scrypt.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-03-09},
  url = {http://www.bsdcan.org/2009/schedule/attachments/87_scrypt.pdf},
}
@phdthesis{golze2009fairness,
  author = {Sebastian Golze},
  title = {Fairness in \"{U}berlastsituationen mittels Proof-of-Work-Funktionen.},
  year = {2009},
  school = {Berlin Institute of Technology},
  howpublished = {\url{https://depositonce.tu-berlin.de/bitstream/11303/2499/2/Dokument_41.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-03-09},
  url = {https://depositonce.tu-berlin.de/bitstream/11303/2499/2/Dokument_41.pdf},
}
@misc{schwarz2011zooko,
  author = {Aaron Schwarz},
  title = {{Squaring the Triangle: Secure, Decentralized, Human-Readable Names}},
  year = {2011},
  month = {Jan},
  howpublished = {\url{http://www.aaronsw.com/weblog/squarezooko}},
  note = {Accessed 2014-11-14},
  url = {http://www.aaronsw.com/weblog/squarezooko},
}
@misc{laurie2011decentralised,
  author = {Ben Laurie},
  title = {Decentralised currencies are probably impossible (but let's at least make them efficient)},
  year = {2011},
  howpublished = {\url{http://w.fipr.org/files/decentralised-currencies.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed 2016-09-02},
  url = {http://w.fipr.org/files/decentralised-currencies.pdf},
}
@article{rosenfeld2011analysis,
  author = {Meni Rosenfeld},
  title = {Analysis of Bitcoin pooled mining reward systems},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1112.4980},
  year = {2011},
  note = {Accessed 2017-11-24},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1112.4980.pdf},
}
@misc{rosenfeld2012overview,
  author = {Meni Rosenfeld},
  title = {Overview of colored coins},
  journal = {White paper, bitcoil. co. il},
  year = {2012},
  howpublished = {\url{https://bitcoil.co.il/BitcoinX.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-03-09},
  url = {https://bitcoil.co.il/BitcoinX.pdf},
}
@misc{ron2012quantitative,
  author = {D. Ron and A. Shamir},
  title = {Quantitative Analysis of the Full Bitcoin Transaction Graph},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2012/584},
  year = {2012},
  howpublished = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2012/584.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-03-09},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2012/584.pdf},
}
@misc{taylor2012bitmessage,
  author = {M. B. Taylor},
  title = {Bitmessage: A Peer-to-Peer Message Authentication and Delivery System},
  year = {2012},
  month = {nov},
  howpublished = {\url{https://bitmessage.org/bitmessage.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2015-05-06},
  url = {https://bitmessage.org/bitmessage.pdf},
}
@mastersthesis{herrmann2012implementation,
  author = {Matthias Herrmann},
  title = {Implementation, evaluation and detection of a doublespend-attack on Bitcoin},
  year = {2012},
  month = {Apr},
  school = {Master Thesis ETH Z{\"u}rich, 2012},
  url = {http://e-collection.library.ethz.ch/eserv/eth:5606/eth-5606-01.pdf?pid=eth:5606&dsID=eth-5606-01.pdf},
}
@misc{bahack2013theoretical,
  author = {Lear Bahack},
  title = {Theoretical Bitcoin Attacks with less than Half of the Computational Power},
  year = {2013},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-11-23},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1312.7013.pdf},
}
@misc{sompolinsky2013accelerating,
  author = {Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {Accelerating Bitcoin's Transaction Processing. Fast Money Grows on Trees, Not Chains},
  journal = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {881},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2013/881.pdf},
}
@misc{sun2014solving,
  author = {Felix Sun and Peitong Duan},
  title = {Solving Byzantine Problems in Synchronized Systems using Bitcoin},
  year = {2014},
  howpublished = {\url{http://web.mit.edu/felixsun/www/projects/bitcoin.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-09-02},
  url = {http://web.mit.edu/felixsun/www/projects/bitcoin.pdf},
}
@misc{courtois2013unreasonable,
  author = {Nicolas T Courtois and Marek Grajek and Rahul Naik},
  title = {The unreasonable fundamental incertitudes behind bitcoin mining},
  howpublished = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1310.7935},
  year = {2013},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-07-04},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1310.7935.pdf},
}
@phdthesis{naik2013optimising,
  author = {Rahul P Naik and Nicolas T Courtois},
  title = {Optimising the SHA256 Hashing Algorithm for Faster and More Efficient Bitcoin Mining},
  year = {2013},
  month = {Sep},
  school = {University College London},
  url = {http://www.nicolascourtois.com/bitcoin/Optimising%20the%20SHA256%20Hashing%20Algorithm%20for%20Faster%20and%20More%20Efficient%20Bitcoin%20Mining_Rahul_Naik.pdf},
}
@misc{rosenfeld2014doublespending,
  author = {M. Rosenfeld},
  title = {Analysis of Hashrate-Based Double Spending},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1402.2009},
  year = {2014},
  howpublished = {\url{http://arxiv.org/abs/1402.2009}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-03-09},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1402.2009.pdf},
}
@article{fromknecht2014decentralized,
  author = {Conner Fromknecht and Dragos Velicanu and Sophia Yakoubov},
  title = {A Decentralized Public Key Infrastructure with Identity Retention.},
  journal = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
  volume = {2014},
  pages = {803},
  year = {2014},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2014/803.pdf},
}
@misc{bentov2014cryptocurrencies,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Ariel Gabizon and Alex Mizrahi},
  title = {Cryptocurrencies without proof of work},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1406.5694},
  year = {2014},
  howpublished = {\url{http://arxiv.org/pdf/1406.5694.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-03-09},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1406.5694.pdf},
}
@misc{miller2014anonymous,
  author = {A Miller and LaViola JJ},
  title = {Anonymous byzantine consensus from moderately-hard puzzles: A model for bitcoin},
  year = {2014},
  howpublished = {\url{https://socrates1024.s3.amazonaws.com/consensus.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-03-09},
  url = {https://socrates1024.s3.amazonaws.com/consensus.pdf},
}
@misc{bruce2014miniblock,
  author = {J. D. Bruce},
  title = {The Mini-Blockchain Scheme (a.k.a Purely P2P Crypto-Currency With Finite Mini-Blockchain)},
  year = {2014},
  month = {Jul},
  howpublished = {\url{http://cryptonite.info/files/mbc-scheme-rev2.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2014-04-05},
  url = {http://cryptonite.info/files/mbc-scheme-rev2.pdf},
}
@misc{jacobs2014namecoin,
  author = {F. Jacobs},
  title = {Providing better confidentiality and authentication on the Internet using Namecoin and MinimaLT},
  year = {2014},
  month = {apr},
  howpublished = {\url{https://raw.githubusercontent.com/FredericJacobs/safeweb/master/paper.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2014-04-02},
  url = {https://raw.githubusercontent.com/FredericJacobs/safeweb/master/paper.pdf},
}
@misc{filecoin2014filecoin,
  author = {Filecoin community},
  title = {Filecoin: A Cryptocurrency Operated File Storage Network},
  organization = {filecoin.io},
  year = {2014},
  month = {Oct},
  howpublished = {\url{http://filecoin.io/filecoin.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2014-10-14},
  url = {http://filecoin.io/filecoin.pdf},
}
@misc{back2014enabling,
  author = {Adam Back and Matt Corallo and Luke Dashjr and Mark Friedenbach and Gregory Maxwell and Andrew Miller and Andrew Poelstra and Jorge Tim{\'o}n and Pieter Wuille},
  title = {Enabling blockchain innovations with pegged sidechains},
  year = {2014},
  howpublished = {\url{http://newspaper23.com/ripped/2014/11/http-_____-___-_www___-blockstream___-com__-_sidechains.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-07-05},
  url = {http://newspaper23.com/ripped/2014/11/http-_____-___-_www___-blockstream___-com__-_sidechains.pdf},
}
@misc{beukema2014formalising,
  author = {WJB Beukema},
  title = {Formalising the Bitcoin protocol},
  year = {2014},
  howpublished = {\url{http://referaat.cs.utwente.nl/conference/21/paper/7450/formalising-the-bitcoin-protocol.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-01},
  url = {http://referaat.cs.utwente.nl/conference/21/paper/7450/formalising-the-bitcoin-protocol.pdf},
}
@misc{schwartz2014ripple,
  author = {David Schwartz and Noah Youngs and Arthur Britto},
  title = {The Ripple protocol consensus algorithm},
  journal = {Ripple Labs Inc White Paper},
  year = {2014},
  howpublished = {\url{https://ripple.com/files/ripple_consensus_whitepaper.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-08},
  url = {https://ripple.com/files/ripple_consensus_whitepaper.pdf},
}
@misc{buterin2014ethereum,
  author = {Vitalik Buterin},
  title = {Ethereum: A next-generation smart contract and decentralized application platform},
  year = {2014},
  howpublished = {\url{https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-22},
  url = {https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper},
}
@misc{wood2014ethereum,
  author = {Gavin Wood},
  title = {Ethereum: A secure decentralised generalised transaction ledger EIP-150 REVISION (759dccd - 2017-08-07)},
  journal = {Ethereum Project Yellow Paper},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2018-01-03},
  url = {https://ethereum.github.io/yellowpaper/paper.pdf},
}
@misc{shomer2014phase,
  author = {Assaf Shomer},
  title = {On the Phase Space of Block-Hiding Strategies in Bitcoin-like networks},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1402.4233},
  year = {2014},
  month = {Feb},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.4233v1.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-10-17},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.4233v1.pdf},
}
@misc{katz2014pseudonymous,
  author = {Jonathan Katz and Andrew Miller and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Pseudonymous Broadcast and Secure Computation from Cryptographic Puzzles},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2014/857},
  year = {2014},
  note = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2014/857}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2014/857.pdf},
}
@misc{courtois2014subversive,
  author = {Nicolas T Courtois and Lear Bahack},
  title = {On subversive miner strategies and block withholding attack in bitcoin digital currency},
  howpublished = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1402.1718},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-07-04},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.1718.pdf},
}
@misc{courtois2014longest,
  author = {Nicolas T Courtois},
  title = {On the longest chain rule and programmed self-destruction of crypto currencies},
  howpublished = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1405.0534},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-07-04},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1405.0534.pdf},
}
@article{o2014bitcoin,
  author = {Karl J O'Dwyer and David Malone},
  title = {Bitcoin mining and its energy footprint},
  year = {2014},
  publisher = {IET},
  url = {http://karlodwyer.com/publications/pdf/bitcoin_KJOD_2014.pdf},
}
@misc{miller2015topology,
  author = {Andrew Miller and James Litton and Andrew Pachulski and Neal Gupta and Dave Levin and Neil Spring and Bobby Bhattacharjee},
  title = {Discovering bitcoin's public topology and influential nodes},
  year = {2015},
  month = {May},
  howpublished = {\url{http://cs.umd.edu/projects/coinscope/coinscope.pdf}},
  note = {Accsessed: 2016-03-09},
  url = {http://cs.umd.edu/projects/coinscope/coinscope.pdf},
}
@misc{bonneau2015random,
  author = {Joseph Bonneau and Jeremy Clark and Steven Goldfeder},
  title = {On Bitcoin as a public randomness source},
  year = {2015},
  howpublished = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/1015.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2015-10-25},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/1015.pdf},
}
@misc{goldfeder2015threshold,
  author = {Steven Goldfeder and Rosario Gennaro and Harry Kalodner and Joseph Bonneau and Joshua Kroll and Edward W. Felten and Arvind Narayanan},
  title = {{Securing Bitcoin wallets via a new DSA/ECDSA threshold signature scheme}},
  year = {2015},
  howpublished = {\url{http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~stevenag/threshold_sigs.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2015-07-13},
  url = {http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~stevenag/threshold_sigs.pdf},
}
@misc{gobel2015simulation,
  author = {Johannes G{\"o}bel and Paul Keeler and Anthony E Krzesinski and Peter G Taylor},
  title = {Bitcoin Blockchain Dynamics: the Selfish-Mine Strategy in the Presence of Propagation Delay},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1505.05343},
  year = {2015},
  howpublished = {\url{http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.05343.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2015-03-01},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.05343.pdf},
}
@misc{chaudhary2015modeling,
  author = {Kaylash Chaudhary and Ansgar Fehnker and Jaco Pol and Marielle Stoelinga},
  title = {Modeling and verification of the bitcoin protocol},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1511.04173},
  year = {2015},
  howpublished = {\url{http://arxiv.org/pdf/1511.04173.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-01},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1511.04173.pdf},
}
@misc{mazieres2015modeling,
  author = {David Mazieres},
  title = {The Stellar Consensus Protocol: A Federated Model for Internet-level Consensus},
  year = {2015},
  howpublished = {\url{https://www.stellar.org/papers/stellar-consensus-protocol.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-01},
  url = {https://www.stellar.org/papers/stellar-consensus-protocol.pdf},
}
@misc{luu2015scp,
  author = {Loi Luu and Viswesh Narayanan and Kunal Baweja and Chaodong Zheng and Seth Gilbert and Prateek Saxena},
  title = {SCP: a computationally-scalable Byzantine consensus protocol for blockchains},
  year = {2015},
  howpublished = {\url{https://www.weusecoins.com/assets/pdf/library/SCP - A Computationally-Scalable Byzantine.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-10},
  url = {https://www.weusecoins.com/assets/pdf/library/SCP - +A Computationally-Scalable Byzantine.pdf},
}
@misc{delmolino2015step,
  author = {Kevin Delmolino and Mitchell Arnett and Ahmed E Kosba and Andrew Miller and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Step by Step Towards Creating a Safe Smart Contract: Lessons and Insights from a Cryptocurrency Lab.},
  journal = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
  year = {2015},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2015/460.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-10},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2015/460.pdf},
}
@misc{sapirshtein2015optimal,
  author = {Ayelet Sapirshtein and Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {Optimal selfish mining strategies in Bitcoin},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1507.06183},
  year = {2015},
  howpublished = {\url{http://arxiv.org/pdf/1507.06183.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-22},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1507.06183.pdf},
}
@misc{kiayias2015speed,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Giorgos Panagiotakos},
  title = {Speed-Security Tradeoff s in Blockchain Protocols},
  year = {2015},
  month = {Oct},
  howpublished = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/1019.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-10-17},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/1019.pdf},
}
@misc{andrychowicz2015multiparty,
  author = {Marcin Andrychowicz},
  title = {Multiparty Computation Protocols Based on Cryptocurrencies},
  year = {2015},
  howpublished = {\url{https://depotuw.ceon.pl/bitstream/handle/item/1327/dis.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-15},
  url = {https://depotuw.ceon.pl/bitstream/handle/item/1327/dis.pdf},
}
@misc{mazieres2015stellar,
  author = {David Mazieres},
  title = {The stellar consensus protocol: A federated model for internet-level consensus},
  year = {2015},
  howpublished = {\url{http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.696.93&=&rep=rep1&=&type=pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-20},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.696.93&=&rep=rep1&=&type=pdf},
}
@misc{park2015spacemint,
  author = {Sunoo Park and Krzysztof Pietrzak and Albert Kwon and Jo{\"e}l Alwen and Georg Fuchsbauer and Peter Ga{\v z}i},
  title = {SpaceMint: A Cryptocurrency Based on Proofs of Space},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2015/528},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/528.pdf},
}
@misc{zyskind2015enigma,
  author = {Guy Zyskind and Oz Nathan and Alex Pentland},
  title = {Enigma: Decentralized computation platform with guaranteed privacy},
  howpublished = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1506.03471},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-08-22},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1506.03471.pdf},
}
@misc{swanson2015consensus,
  author = {Tim Swanson},
  title = {Consensus-as-a-service: a brief report on the emergence of permissioned, distributed ledger systems},
  howpublished = {\url{http://www.ofnumbers.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Permissioned-distributed-ledgers.pdf}},
  year = {2015},
  month = {Apr},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-10-03},
  url = {http://www.ofnumbers.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Permissioned-distributed-ledgers.pdf},
}
@misc{ali2016blockstack,
  author = {Muneeb Ali and Jude Nelson and Ryan Shea and Michael J Freedman},
  title = {Blockstack: Design and Implementation of a Global Naming System with Blockchains},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{http://www.the-blockchain.com/docs/Blockstack Design and Implementation of a Global Naming System.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-03-29},
  url = {http://www.the-blockchain.com/docs/Blockstack Design and Implementation of a Global Naming System.pdf},
}
@misc{narayanan2016bitcoin,
  author = {{Narayanan, Arvind and Bonneau, Joseph and Felten, Edward and Miller, Andrew and Goldfeder, Steven}},
  title = {Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies},
  year = {2016},
  booktitle = {Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies},
  howpublished = {http://bitcoinbook.cs.princeton.edu/},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-03-29},
  url = {https://d28rh4a8wq0iu5.cloudfront.net/bitcointech/readings/princeton_bitcoin_book.pdf},
}
@misc{judmayer2016c4,
  author = {Aljosha Judmayer and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {Cryptographic Currencies Crash Course (C4)},
  journal = {Tutorial at WWW2016},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Apr},
  howpublished = {\url{http://www2016.net/proceedings/companion/p1021.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-06-06},
  url = {http://www2016.net/proceedings/companion/p1021.pdf},
}
@misc{bentov2016bitcoin,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Ariel Gabizon and David Zuckerman},
  title = {Bitcoin Beacon},
  journal = {arXiv prepring arXiv:1605.04559},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.04559v2},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-06-06},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.04559v2.pdf},
}
@misc{sompolinsky2016bitcoin,
  author = {Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {Bitcoin's Security Model Revisited},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1605.09193},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{http://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.09193}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-07-04},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.09193.pdf},
}
@misc{anderson2016new,
  author = {Luke Anderson and Ralph Holz and Alexander Ponomarev and Paul Rimba and Ingo Weber},
  title = {New kids on the block: an analysis of modern blockchains},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.06530},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{http://arxiv.org/pdf/1606.06530.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-07-04},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1606.06530.pdf},
}
@misc{poon2016bitcoin,
  author = {Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja},
  title = {The bitcoin lightning network},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{https://lightning.network/lightning-network-paper.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-07-07},
  url = {https://lightning.network/lightning-network-paper.pdf},
}
@misc{pass2016analysis,
  author = {Rafael Pass and Lior Seeman and abhi shelat},
  title = {Analysis of the Blockchain Protocol in Asynchronous Networks},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/454.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-01},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/454.pdf},
}
@misc{pass2016hybrid,
  author = {Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Hybrid Consensus: Scalable Permissionless Consensus},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Sep},
  howpublished = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/917.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-10-17},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/917.pdf},
}
@misc{nelson2016extending,
  author = {Jude Nelson and Muneeb Ali and Ryan Shea and Michael J Freedman},
  title = {Extending Existing Blockchains with Virtualchain},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{https://www.zurich.ibm.com/dccl/papers/nelson_dccl.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-01},
  url = {https://www.zurich.ibm.com/dccl/papers/nelson_dccl.pdf},
}
@misc{cachin2016architecture,
  author = {Christian Cachin},
  title = {Architecture of the Hyperledger Blockchain Fabric},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{https://www.zurich.ibm.com/dccl/papers/cachin_dccl.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-10},
  url = {https://www.zurich.ibm.com/dccl/papers/cachin_dccl.pdf},
}
@misc{vukolic2016eventually,
  author = {Marko Vukolic},
  title = {Eventually Returning to Strong Consistency},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a6a1/b70305b27c556aac779fb65429db9c2e1ef2.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-10},
  url = {https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a6a1/b70305b27c556aac779fb65429db9c2e1ef2.pdf},
}
@misc{gramoli2016danger,
  author = {Vincent Gramoli},
  title = {On the Danger of Private Blockchains},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{https://www.zurich.ibm.com/dccl/papers/gramoli_dccl.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-10},
  url = {https://www.zurich.ibm.com/dccl/papers/gramoli_dccl.pdf},
}
@misc{bhargavan2016short,
  author = {Karthikeyan Bhargavan and Antoine Delignat-Lavaud and C{\'e}dric Fournet and Anitha Gollamudi and Georges Gonthier and Nadim Kobeissi and Aseem Rastogi and Thomas Sibut-Pinote and Nikhil Swamy and Santiago Zanella-B{\'e}guelin},
  title = {Short Paper: Formal Verification of Smart Contracts},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Aug},
  howpublished = {\url{https://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/nswamy/papers/solidether.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-10},
  url = {https://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/nswamy/papers/solidether.pdf},
}
@misc{pettersson2016safer,
  author = {Jack Pettersson and Robert Edstr{\"o}m},
  title = {Safer smart contracts through type-driven development},
  school = {Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg},
  year = {2016},
  address = {Gothenburg, Sweden},
  howpublished = {\url{https://publications.lib.chalmers.se/records/fulltext/234939/234939.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-10},
  url = {https://publications.lib.chalmers.se/records/fulltext/234939/234939.pdf},
}
@misc{blocki2016designing,
  author = {Jeremiah Blocki and Hong-Sheng Zhou},
  title = {Designing Proof of Human-work Puzzles for Cryptocurrency and Beyond},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/145},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Aug},
  howpublished = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/145.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-10-17},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/145.pdf},
}
@misc{cachin2016non,
  author = {Christian Cachin and Simon Schubert and Marko Vukolic},
  title = {Non-determinism in Byzantine Fault-Tolerant Replication},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Mar},
  howpublished = {\url{http://www.zurich.ibm.com/~cca/papers/sieve.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-11-08},
  url = {http://www.zurich.ibm.com/~cca/papers/sieve.pdf},
}
@misc{abraham2016bvp,
  author = {Ittai Abraham and Dahlia Malkhi},
  title = {BVP: Byzantine Vertical Paxos},
  year = {2016},
  month = {May},
  howpublished = {\url{https://www.zurich.ibm.com/dccl/papers/abraham_dccl.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-11-08},
  url = {https://www.zurich.ibm.com/dccl/papers/abraham_dccl.pdf},
}
@misc{wust2016security,
  author = {Karl W{\"u}st},
  title = {Security of Blockchain Technologies},
  publisher = {Master's Thesis - Department of Computer Science, ETH Z{\"u}rich},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Jul},
  howpublished = {\url{http://e-collection.library.ethz.ch/eserv/eth:49632/eth-49632-01.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-11-08},
  url = {http://e-collection.library.ethz.ch/eserv/eth:49632/eth-49632-01.pdf},
}
@phdthesis{miller2016provable,
  author = {Andrew Miller},
  title = {Provable Security for Cryptocurrencies},
  year = {2016},
  school = {University of Maryland, College Park},
  howpublished = {\url{http://www.cs.umd.edu/~jkatz/THESES/amiller-thesis.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-11-08},
  url = {http://www.cs.umd.edu/~jkatz/THESES/amiller-thesis.pdf},
}
@misc{pass2016fruitchains,
  author = {Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Fruitchains: A fair blockchain},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/916},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/916.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-11-08},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/916.pdf},
}
@misc{bentov2016sleepy,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi},
  title = {The sleepy model of consensus},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/918},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/918.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-11-08},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/918.pdf},
}
@misc{bentov2016snow,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Snow White: Provably Secure Proofs of Stake},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/919},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/919.pdf},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-11-08},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/919.pdf},
}
@misc{garay2016bootstrapping,
  author = {Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos and Giorgos Panagiotakos},
  title = {Bootstrapping the Blockchain --- Directly},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/991},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Oct},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/991}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-11-08},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/991.pdf},
}
@misc{atzei2016survey,
  author = {Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Tiziana Cimoli},
  title = {A survey of attacks on Ethereum smart contracts},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/1007},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Oct},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1007}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-11-08},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1007.pdf},
}
@misc{kiayias2016provably,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Ioannis Konstantinou and Alexander Russell and Bernardo David and Roman Oliynykov},
  title = {A Provably Secure Proof-of-Stake Blockchain Protocol},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/889},
  month = {Sep},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/889}},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-11-09},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/889.pdf},
}
@misc{miller2016honey,
  author = {Andrew Miller and Yu Xia and Kyle Croman and Elaine Shi and Dawn Song},
  title = {The honey badger of BFT protocols},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2016/199},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/199.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-01-10},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/199.pdf},
}
@misc{clack2016smart,
  author = {Christopher D. Clack and Vikram A. Bakshi and Lee Braine},
  title = {Smart Contract Templates: foundations, design landscape and research directions},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1608.00771},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/pdf/1608.00771v2.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-01-10},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1608.00771v2.pdf},
}
@misc{lajoie2016increasing,
  author = {Thibaut Lajoie-Mazenc},
  title = {Increasing the robustness of the Bitcoincrypto-system in presence of undesirable behaviours},
  publisher = {Master's Thesis sumbmitted at KTH CSC},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{http://www.nada.kth.se/~ann/exjobb/thibaut_lajoie-mazenc.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-01-19},
  url = {http://www.nada.kth.se/~ann/exjobb/thibaut_lajoie-mazenc.pdf},
}
@misc{baars2016towards,
  author = {Djuri Baars},
  title = {Towards Self-Sovereign Identity using Blockchain Technology},
  year = {2016},
  publisher = {Master's Thesis at University of Twente},
  howpublished = {\url{http://essay.utwente.nl/71274/1/Baars_MA_BMS.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-01-19},
  url = {http://essay.utwente.nl/71274/1/Baars_MA_BMS.pdf},
}
@misc{abraham2016solidus,
  author = {Ittai Abraham and Dahlia Malkhi and Kartik Nayak and Ling Ren and Alexander Spiegelman},
  title = {Solidus: An Incentive-compatible Cryptocurrency Based on Permissionless Byzantine Consensus},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1612.02916},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Dec},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/abs/1612.02916}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-06},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.02916.pdf},
}
@misc{buchman2016tendermint,
  author = {Ethan Buchman},
  title = {Tendermint: Byzantine Fault Tolerance in the Age of Blockchains},
  publisher = {Master's Thesis at University of Guelph, Ontario},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Jun},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-06},
  howpublished = {\url{http://atrium.lib.uoguelph.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10214/9769/Buchman_Ethan_201606_MAsc.pdf}},
  url = {http://atrium.lib.uoguelph.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10214/9769/Buchman_Ethan_201606_MAsc.pdf},
}
@misc{duong2016hop,
  author = {Tuyet Duong and Lei Fan and Hong-Sheng Zhou},
  title = {2-hop Blockchain: Combining Proof-of-Work and Proof-of-Stake Securely},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/716},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-06},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/716.pdf},
}
@misc{garay2016bitcoin,
  author = {Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos},
  title = {The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol with Chains of Variable Difficulty},
  journal = {{IACR} Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/1048},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-06},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1048.pdf}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1048.pdf},
}
@misc{kiayias2016trees,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Giorgos Panagiotakos},
  title = {On Trees, Chains and Fast Transactions in the Blockchain.},
  journal = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/545},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-06},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/545.pdf}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/545.pdf},
}
@misc{jarecki2016highly,
  author = {Stanislaw Jarecki and Aggelos Kiayias and Hugo Krawczyk and Jiayu Xu},
  title = {Highly-Efficient and Composable Password-Protected Secret Sharing (Or: How to Protect Your Bitcoin Wallet Online)},
  journal = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/144},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-06},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/144.pdf}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/144.pdf},
}
@misc{gencer2016service,
  author = {Adem Efe Gencer and Robbert Renesse and Emin G{\"u}n Sirer},
  title = {Service-Oriented Sharding with Aspen},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1611.06816},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{http://arxiv.org/pdf/1611.06816.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-06},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1611.06816.pdf},
}
@misc{kiayias2016blockchain,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Elias Koutsoupias and Maria Kyropoulou and Yiannis Tselekounis},
  title = {Blockchain Mining Games},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1607.02420},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-07},
  howpublished = {\url{http://arxiv.org/abs/1607.02420}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1607.02420.pdf},
}
@misc{micali2016algorand,
  author = {Silvio Micali},
  title = {ALGORAND: The Efficient and Democratic Ledger},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1607.01341},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1607.01341},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-09},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1607.01341.pdf},
}
@misc{miller2016zero,
  author = {Andrew Miller and Iddo Bentov},
  title = {Zero-Collateral Lotteries in Bitcoin and Ethereum},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1612.05390},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1612.05390},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-13},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.05390.pdf},
}
@misc{natoli2016balance,
  author = {Christopher Natoli and Vincent Gramoli},
  title = {The Balance Attack Against Proof-Of-Work Blockchains: The {R3} Testbed as an Example},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1612.09426},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1612.09426},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-15},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.09426.pdf},
}
@misc{jain2016verify,
  author = {Sanjay Jain and Prateek Saxena and Frank Stephan and Jason Teutsch},
  title = {How to verify computation with a rational network},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.05917},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1606.05917},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-15},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1606.05917.pdf},
}
@misc{duong2016securing,
  author = {Tuyet Duong and Lei Fan and Thomas Veale and Hong-Sheng Zhou},
  title = {Securing Bitcoin-like Backbone Protocols against a Malicious Majority of Computing Power},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/716}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-15},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/eprint-bin/getfile.pl?entry=2016/716&version=20160721:174624&file=716.pdf},
}
@misc{kiayias2016ouroboros,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Alexander Russell and Bernardo David and Roman Oliynykov},
  title = {Ouroboros: A Provably Secure Proof-of-Stake Blockchain Protocol},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1c14/549f7ba7d6a000d79a7d12255eb11113e6fa.pdf},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-20},
  url = {https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1c14/549f7ba7d6a000d79a7d12255eb11113e6fa.pdf},
}
@misc{sompolinsky2016spectre,
  author = {Yonatan Sompolinsky and Yoad Lewenberg and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {SPECTRE: A Fast and Scalable Cryptocurrency Protocol},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/1159},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-20},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1159.pdf},
}
@misc{camacho2016decor,
  author = {Philippe Camacho and Sergio Demian Lerner},
  title = {DECOR+ LAMI: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-20},
  howpublished = {https://scalingbitcoin.org/papers/DECOR-LAMI.pdf},
  url = {https://scalingbitcoin.org/papers/DECOR-LAMI.pdf},
}
@misc{boyen2016blockchain,
  author = {Xavier Boyen and Christopher Carr and Thomas Haines},
  title = {Blockchain-Free Cryptocurrencies. A Rational Framework for Truly Decentralised Fast Transactions},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/871},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-20},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/871.pdf},
}
@misc{mccorry2016removing,
  author = {Patrick McCorry and Ehsan Toreini and Maryam Mehrnezhad},
  title = {Removing Trusted Tallying Authorities},
  year = {2016},
  publisher = {Newcastle University},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-20},
  howpublished = {\url{https://internal.ncl.ac.uk/computing/annex/research/techreports/pdfs/1502.pdf}},
  url = {https://internal.ncl.ac.uk/computing/annex/research/techreports/pdfs/1502.pdf},
}
@misc{reyzin2016improving,
  author = {Leonid Reyzin and Dmitry Meshkov and Alexander Chepurnoy and Sasha Ivanov},
  title = {Improving Authenticated Dynamic Dictionaries, with Applications to Cryptocurrencies},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/994},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-27},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/994.pdf},
}
@misc{seijas2016scripting,
  author = {Pablo Lamela Seijas and Simon Thompson and Darryl McAdams},
  title = {Scripting smart contracts for distributed ledger technology},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/1156},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1156}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-03},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1156.pdf},
}
@misc{bartoletti2016constant,
  author = {Massimo Bartoletti and Roberto Zunino},
  title = {Constant-deposit multiparty lotteries on Bitcoin},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/955},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-09},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/955.pdf},
}
@misc{lind2016teechan,
  author = {Joshua Lind and Ittay Eyal and Peter R. Pietzuch and Emin G{\"{u}}n Sirer},
  title = {Teechan: Payment Channels Using Trusted Execution Environments},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1612.07766},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-09},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/abs/1612.07766}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.07766.pdf},
}
@misc{norta2016designing,
  author = {Alex Norta},
  title = {Designing a Smart-Contract Application Layer for Transacting Decentralized Autonomous Organizations},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-16},
  howpublished = {\url{https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Alex_Norta/publication/308986556_Designing_a_Smart-Contract_Application_Layer_for_Transacting_Decentralized_Autonomous_Organizations/links/57fcddf608aeb857afa0943d/Designing-a-Smart-Contract-Application-Layer-for-Transacting-Decentralized-Autonomous-Organizations.pdf}},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Alex_Norta/publication/308986556_Designing_a_Smart-Contract_Application_Layer_for_Transacting_Decentralized_Autonomous_Organizations/links/57fcddf608aeb857afa0943d/Designing-a-Smart-Contract-Application-Layer-for-Transacting-Decentralized-Autonomous-Organizations.pdf},
}
@misc{ateniese2016redactable,
  author = {Giuseppe Ateniese and Bernardo Magri and Daniele Venturi and Ewerton Andrade},
  title = {Redactable Blockchain--or--Rewriting History in Bitcoin and Friends},
  year = {2016},
  institution = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/757.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-23},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/757.pdf},
}
@misc{apostolaki2016,
  author = {Maria Apostolaki and Aviv Zohar and Laurent Vanbever},
  title = {Hijacking Bitcoin: Large-scale Network Attacks on Cryptocurrencies},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1605.07524},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.07524.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-28},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.07524.pdf},
}
@misc{ozisik2016secure,
  author = {A Pinar Ozisik and Gavin Andresen and George Bissias and Amir Houmansadr and Brian N Levine},
  title = {A Secure, Efficient, and Transparent Network Architecture for Bitcoin},
  year = {2016},
  institution = {UMass Amherst, Tech. Rep. UM-CS-2016-006, 2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-04-24},
  url = {https://people.cs.umass.edu/~gbiss/bitcoin_architecture.pdf},
}
@misc{reijers2016governance,
  author = {Wessel Reijers and Fiachra O'Brolch{\'a}in and Paul Haynes},
  title = {Governance in Blockchain Technologies \& Social Contract Theories},
  journal = {Ledger},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {134--151},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{http://ledger.pitt.edu/ojs/index.php/ledger/article/view/62}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-05-09},
  url = {http://ledger.pitt.edu/ojs/index.php/ledger/article/download/62/51},
}
@misc{noyes2016bitav,
  author = {Charles Noyes},
  title = {BitAV: Fast Anti-Malware by Distributed Blockchain Consensus and Feedforward Scanning},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1601.01405},
  year = {2016},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/abs/1601.01405}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-05-09},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1601.01405.pdf},
}
@misc{vitalik2016chain,
  author = {Vitalik Buterin},
  title = {Chain Interoperability},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-25},
  howpublished = {\url{https://static1.squarespace.com/static/55f73743e4b051cfcc0b02cf/t/5886800ecd0f68de303349b1/1485209617040/Chain+Interoperability.pdfi}},
  url = {https://static1.squarespace.com/static/55f73743e4b051cfcc0b02cf/t/5886800ecd0f68de303349b1/1485209617040/Chain+Interoperability.pdf},
}
@misc{malavolta2016silentwhispers,
  author = {Giulio Malavolta and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Aniket Kate and Matteo Maffei},
  title = {SilentWhispers: Enforcing Security and Privacy in Decentralized Credit Networks},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/1054},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1054.pdf},
}
@misc{green2016bolt,
  author = {Matthew Green and Ian Miers},
  title = {Bolt: Anonymous Payment Channels for Decentralized Currencies},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/701},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-08-07},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/701},
}
@misc{siamak2016,
  author = {Siamak Solat and Maria Potop-Butucaru},
  Title = {ZeroBlock: Timestamp-Free Prevention of Block-Withholding Attack in Bitcoin},
  Year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-08-03},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/abs/1605.02435}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.02435.pdf},
}
@misc{heilman2016tumblebit,
  author = {Ethan Heilman and Leen Alshenibr and Foteini Baldimtsi and Alessandra Scafuro and Sharon Goldberg},
  title = {TumbleBit: An untrusted Bitcoin-compatible anonymous payment hub},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/575, Tech. Rep.},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-09-29},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/575.pdf},
}
@misc{heilman2016blindly,
  author = {Ethan Heilman and Foteini Baldimtsi and Sharon Goldberg},
  title = {Blindly Signed Contracts: Anonymous On-Blockchain and Off-Blockchain Bitcoin Transactions},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/056},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-10-03},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/056.pdf},
}
@article{egbertsen2016replacing,
  author = {Wesley Egbertsen and Gerdinand Hardeman and Maarten Hoven and Gert Kolk and Arthur Rijsewijk},
  title = {Replacing Paper Contracts With Ethereum Smart Contracts},
  year = {2016},
  url = {https://wesleyegbertsen.nl/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/replacing-paper-contracts.pdf},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-10-24},
}
@article{rizun2016subchains,
  author = {Peter R Rizun},
  title = {Subchains: A Technique to Scale Bitcoin and Improve the User Experience},
  journal = {Ledger},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {38--52},
  year = {2016},
  url = {https://www.bitcoinunlimited.info/resources/subchains.pdf},
}
@misc{bentov2017instantaneous,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Ranjit Kumaresan and Andrew Miller},
  title = {Instantaneous Decentralized Poker},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1701.06726},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{http://arxiv.org/abs/1701.06726.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-16},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1701.06726.pdf},
}
@misc{bartoletti2017analysis,
  author = {Massimo Bartoletti and Livio Pompianu},
  title = {An analysis of Bitcoin OP\_RETURN metadata},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.01024},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.01024.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-09},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.01024.pdf},
}
@misc{dickerson2017adding,
  author = {Thomas Dickerson and Paul Gazzillo and Maurice Herlihy and Eric Koskinen},
  title = {Adding Concurrency to Smart Contracts},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.04467},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.04467.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-16},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.04467.pdf},
}
@misc{sergey2017concurrent,
  author = {Ilya Sergey and Aquinas Hobor},
  title = {A Concurrent Perspective on Smart Contracts},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.05511},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.05511.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-16},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.05511.pdf},
}
@misc{luu2017smart,
  author = {Loi Luu and Yaron Velner and Jason Teutsch and Prateek Saxena},
  title = {SMART POOL : Practical Decentralized Pooled Mining},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/019},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/019}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/019.pdf},
}
@misc{dinh2017blockbench,
  author = {Tien Tuan Anh Dinh and Ji Wang and Gang Chen and Rui Liu and Beng Chin Ooi and Kian-Lee Tan},
  title = {BLOCKBENCH: A Framework for Analyzing Private Blockchains},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.04057},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.04057.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.04057.pdf},
}
@misc{crain2017leader,
  author = {Tyler Crain and Vincent Gramoli and Mikel Larrea and Michel Raynal},
  title = {(Leader/Randomization/Signature)-free Byzantine Consensus for Consortium Blockchains},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.03068},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.03068.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.03068.pdf},
}
@misc{di2017smart,
  author = {Emanuele Di Pascale and Jasmina McMenamy and Irene Macaluso and Linda Doyle},
  title = {Smart Contract SLAs for Dense Small-Cell-as-a-Service},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.04502},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.04502.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.04502.pdf},
}
@misc{chen2017under,
  author = {Ting Chen and Xiaoqi Li and Xiapu Luo and Xiaosong Zhang},
  title = {Under-Optimized Smart Contracts Devour Your Money},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.03994},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.03994.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.03994.pdf},
}
@misc{bartoletti2017dissecting,
  author = {Massimo Bartoletti and Salvatore Carta and Tiziana Cimoli and Roberto Saia},
  title = {Dissecting Ponzi schemes on Ethereum: identification, analysis, and impact},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.03779},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.03779.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/17@misc{1605.02435, Author = {Siamak Solat and Maria Potop-Butucaru}, Title = {ZeroBlock: Timestamp-Free Prevention of Block-Withholding Attack in Bitcoin}, Year = {2016}, Eprint = {arXiv:1605.02435}, }03.03779.pdf},
}
@misc{miller2017sprites,
  author = {Andrew Miller and Iddo Bentov and Ranjit Kumaresan and Patrick McCorry},
  title = {Sprites: Payment Channels that Go Faster than Lightning},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.05812},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.05812.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.05812.pdf},
}
@misc{boyd2017key,
  author = {Colin Boyd and Xavier Boyen and Christopher Carr and Thomas Haines},
  title = {Key Recovery: Inert and Public},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/243},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/243}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/243.pdf},
}
@misc{kaptchuk2017managing,
  author = {Gabriel Kaptchuk and Ian Miers and Matthew Green},
  title = {Managing Secrets with Consensus Networks: Fairness, Ransomware and Access Control},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/201},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/201}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/201.pdf},
}
@misc{puddu2017muchain,
  author = {Srdjan Capkun Ivan Puddu},
  title = {$\mu$chain: How to Forget without Hard Forks},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/106},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/106}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/106.pdf},
}
@misc{ruffing2017mixing,
  author = {Tim Ruffing and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez},
  title = {Mixing Confidential Transactions: Comprehensive Transaction Privacy for Bitcoin},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/238},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/238}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/238.pdf},
}
@misc{ruffing2017switch,
  author = {Tim Ruffing and Giulio Malavolta},
  title = {Switch Commitments: A Safety Switch for Confidential Transactions},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/237},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/237}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/237.pdf},
}
@misc{chepurnoy2017twinscoin,
  author = {Alexander Chepurnoy and Tuyet Duong and Lei Fan and Hong-Sheng Zhou},
  title = {TwinsCoin: A Cryptocurrency via Proof-of-Work and Proof-of-Stake},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/232},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/232}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/232.pdf},
}
@misc{zhang2017rem,
  author = {Fan Zhang and Ittay Eyal and Robert Escriva and Ari Juels and Robbert Renesse},
  title = {REM: Resource-Efficient Mining for Blockchains},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/179},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/179}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-24},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/179.pdf},
}
@misc{cascudo2017scrape,
  author = {Ignacio Cascudo and Bernardo David},
  title = {SCRAPE: Scalable Randomness Attested by Public Entities},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/216},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/216},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-24},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/216.pdf},
}
@misc{miller2017empirical,
  author = {Andrew Miller and Malte Moeser and Kevin Lee and Arvind Narayanan},
  title = {An Empirical Analysis of Linkability in the Monero Blockchain},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.04299},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/abs/1704.04299}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-04-24},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1704.04299.pdf},
}
@misc{dorri2017blockchaindistributed,
  author = {Ali Dorri and Marco Steger and Salil S Kanhere and Raja Jurdak},
  title = {BlockChain: A distributed solution to automotive security and privacy},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.00073},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/abs/1704.00073}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-04-24},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1704.00073.pdf},
}
@misc{pappalardo2017blockchain,
  author = {Giuseppe Pappalardo and T Di Matteo and Guido Caldarelli and Tomaso Aste},
  title = {Blockchain Inefficiency in the Bitcoin Peers Network},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.01414},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/abs/1704.01414}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-04-24},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1704.01414.pdf},
}
@misc{rowan2017securing,
  author = {Sean Rowan and Michael Clear and Mario Gerla and Meriel Huggard and Ciar{\'a}n Mc Goldrick},
  title = {Securing Vehicle to Vehicle Communications using Blockchain through Visible Light and Acoustic Side-Channels},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.02553},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/abs/1704.02553}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-04-24},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1704.02553.pdf},
}
@misc{danzi2017distributed,
  author = {Pietro Danzi and Marko Angjelichinoski and {\v{C}}edomir Stefanovi{\'c} and Petar Popovski},
  title = {Distributed Proportional-Fairness Control in MicroGrids via Blockchain Smart Contracts},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1705.01453},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/abs/1705.01453}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-04-24},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1705.01453.pdf},
}
@misc{english2017conditions,
  author = {S Matthew English and Ehsan Nezhadian},
  title = {Conditions of Full Disclosure: The Blockchain Remuneration Model},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.04196},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/abs/1703.04196}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-04-24},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.04196.pdf},
}
@misc{porru2017blockchain,
  author = {Simone Porru and Andrea Pinna and Michele Marchesi and Roberto Tonelli},
  title = {Blockchain-oriented Software Engineering: Challenges and New Directions},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.05146},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{https://arxiv.org/abs/1702.05146}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-04-24},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.05146.pdf},
}
@misc{malavolta2017concurrency,
  author = {Giulio Malavolta and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Aniket Kate and Matteo Maffei and Srivatsan Ravi},
  title = {Concurrency and Privacy with Payment-Channel Networks},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{https://www.cs.purdue.edu/homes/pmorenos/public/paychannels.pdf}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://www.cs.purdue.edu/homes/pmorenos/public/paychannels.pdf},
}
@misc{tarasov2017internet,
  author = {Pavel Tarasov and Hitesh Tewari},
  title = {Internet Voting Using Zcash},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/585}},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/585.pdf},
}
@misc{david2017ouroboros,
  author = {Bernardo David and Peter Ga{\v{z}}i and Aggelos Kiayias and Alexander Russell},
  title = {Ouroboros Praos: An adaptively-secure, semi-synchronous proof-of-stake protocol},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/573}},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/573.pdf},
}
@misc{campanelli2017zero,
  author = {Matteo Campanelli and Rosario Gennaro and Steven Goldfeder and Luca Nizzardo},
  title = {Zero-Knowledge Contingent Payments Revisited: Attacks and Payments for Services},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/566}},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/566.pdf},
}
@misc{altawy2017lelantos,
  author = {Riham AlTawy and Muhammad ElSheikh and Amr M. Youssef and Guang Gong},
  title = {Lelantos: A Blockchain-based Anonymous Physical Delivery System},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/465}},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/465.pdf},
}
@misc{gilad2017algorand,
  author = {Yossi Gilad and Rotem Hemo and Silvio Micali and Georgios Vlachos and Nickolai Zeldovich},
  title = {Algorand: Scaling Byzantine Agreements for Cryptocurrencies},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/454}},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/454.pdf},
}
@misc{li2017block,
  author = {Huige Li and Haibo Tian and Fangguo Zhang},
  title = {Block Chain based Searchable Symmetric Encryption},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/447}},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/447.pdf},
}
@misc{li2017crowdbc,
  author = {Ming Li and Jian Weng and Anjia Yang and Wei Lu},
  title = {CrowdBC: A Blockchain-based Decentralized Framework for Crowdsourcing},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/444}},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/444.pdf},
}
@misc{kokoris2017omniledger,
  author = {Eleftherios Kokoris-Kogias and Philipp Jovanovic and Linus Gasser and Nicolas Gailly and Bryan Ford},
  title = {OmniLedger: A Secure, Scale-Out, Decentralized Ledger},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/406}},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/406.pdf},
}
@misc{perez2017double,
  author = {Cristina P{\' e}rez-Sol{\` a} and Sergi Delgado-Segura and Guillermo Navarro-Arribas and Jordi Herrera-Joancomart{\' i}},
  title = {Double-spending Prevention for Bitcoin zero-confirmation transactions},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/394}},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/394.pdf},
}
@misc{wust2017do,
  author = {Karl W{\" u}st and Arthur Gervais},
  title = {Do you need a Blockchain?},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/375}},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/375.pdf},
}
@misc{kumar2017traceability,
  author = {Amrit Kumar and Cl\'{e}ment Fischer and Shruti Tople and Prateek Saxena},
  title = {A Traceability Analysis of Monero's Blockchain},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/338}},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/338.pdf},
}
@misc{cecchetti2017solidus,
  author = {Ethan Cecchetti and Fan Zhang and Yan Ji and Ahmed Kosba and Ari Juels and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Solidus: Confidential Distributed Ledger Transactions via PVORM},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/317}},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/317.pdf},
}
@misc{bentov2017tortoise,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Pavel Hub\'{a}\v{c}ek and Tal Moran and Asaf Nadler},
  title = {Tortoise and Hares Consensus: the Meshcash Framework for Incentive-Compatible, Scalable Cryptocurrencies},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/300}},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/300.pdf},
}
@misc{narayanan2017obfuscation,
  author = {Arvind Narayanan and Malte M{\" o}ser},
  Title = {Obfuscation in Bitcoin: Techniques and Politics},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {https://arxiv.org/abs/1706.05432},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.05432.pdf},
}
@misc{recabarren2017hardening,
  author = {Ruben Recabarren and Bogdan Carbunar},
  Title = {Hardening Stratum, the Bitcoin Pool Mining Protocol},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1703.06545},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.06545.pdf},
}
@misc{fanti2017anonymity,
  author = {Giulia Fanti and Pramod Viswanath},
  Title = {Anonymity Properties of the Bitcoin P2P Network},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1703.08761},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.08761.pdf},
}
@misc{ren2017practical,
  author = {Ling Ren and Kartik Nayak and Ittai Abraham and Srinivas Devadas},
  Title = {Practical Synchronous Byzantine Consensus},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1704.02397},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1704.02397.pdf},
}
@misc{riemann2017distributed,
  author = {Robert Riemann and St{\' e}phane Grumbach},
  Title = {Distributed Protocols at the Rescue for Trustworthy Online Voting},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1705.04480},
  Doi = {10.5220/0006228504990505},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1705.04480.pdf},
}
@misc{kiktenko2017quantum,
  author = {E. O. Kiktenko and N. O. Pozhar and M. N. Anufriev and A. S. Trushechkin and R. R. Yunusov and Y. V. Kurochkin and A. I. Lvovsky and A. K. Fedorov},
  Title = {Quantum-secured blockchain},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1705.09258},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1705.09258.pdf},
}
@misc{jaiyeola2017good,
  author = {Mercy O. Jaiyeola and Kyle Patron and Jared Saia and Maxwell Young and Qian M. Zhou},
  Title = {Good Things Come in LogLog(n)-Sized Packages: Robustness with Small Quorums},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1705.10387},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1705.10387.pdf},
}
@misc{ren2017implicit,
  author = {Zhijie Ren and Kelong Cong and Johan Pouwelse and Zekeriya Erkin},
  Title = {Implicit Consensus: Blockchain with Unbounded Throughput},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1705.11046},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1705.11046.pdf},
}
@misc{conti2017survey,
  author = {Mauro Conti and Sandeep Kumar E and Chhagan Lal and Sushmita Ruj},
  Title = {A Survey on Security and Privacy Issues of Bitcoin},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1706.00916},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.00916.pdf},
}
@misc{moinet2017blockchain,
  author = {Axel Moinet and Beno{\^ i}t Darties and Jean-Luc Baril},
  Title = {Blockchain based trust {\&} authentication for decentralized sensor networks},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1706.01730},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.01730.pdf},
}
@misc{moreno2017mind,
  author = {Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Navin Modi and Raghuvir Songhela and Aniket Kate and Sonia Fahmy},
  Title = {Mind Your Credit: Assessing the Health of the Ripple Credit Network},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1706.02358},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.02358.pdf},
}
@misc{neisse2017blockchain,
  author = {Ricardo Neisse and Gary Steri and Igor Nai-Fovino},
  Title = {A Blockchain-based Approach for Data Accountability and Provenance Tracking},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublised = {arXiv:1706.04507},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.04507.pdf},
}
@misc{ball2017proofs,
  author = {Marshall Ball and Alon Rosen and Manuel Sabin and Prashant Nalini Vasudevan},
  title = {Proofs of Useful Work},
  journal = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
  volume = {2017},
  pages = {203},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/203.pdf},
}
@misc{zhang2017necessity,
  author = {Ren Zhang and Bart Preneel},
  title = {On the Necessity of a Prescribed Block Validity Consensus: Analyzing Bitcoin Unlimited Mining Protocol},
  year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/686}},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-07-20},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/686.pdf},
}
@misc{meshkov2017revisiting,
  author = {Dmitry Meshkov and Alexander Chepurnoy and Marc Jansen},
  title = {Revisiting Difficulty Control for Blockchain Systems},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/731},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-08-03},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/731.pdf},
}
@misc{zhang2017anonymous,
  author = {Huang Zhang and Fangguo Zhang and Haibo Tian and Man Ho Au},
  title = {Anonymous Post-Quantum Cryptocash},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/716},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-08-03},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/716.pdf},
}
@misc{poon2017plasma,
  author = {Joseph Poon and Vitalik Buterin},
  title = {Plasma: Scalable Autonomous Smart Contracts},
  howpublished = {\url{https://www.plasma.io/}},
  year = {2017},
  month = {Aug},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-08-10},
  url = {https://plasma.io/plasma.pdf},
}
@misc{tang2017improved,
  author = {Shuyang Tang and Zhiqiang Liu and Zhen Liu and Yu Long and Shengli Liu},
  title = {Improved Hybrid Consensus Scheme with Privacy-preserving Property.},
  howpublished = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
  pages = {192},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-08-11},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/eprint-bin/getfile.pl?entry=2017/192&version=20170228:193152&file=192.pdf},
}
@misc{beccuti2017bitcoin,
  author = {Juan Beccuti and Christian Jaag and others},
  title = {The Bitcoin Mining Game: On the Optimality of Honesty in Proof-of-work Consensus Mechanism},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-08-11},
  url = {http://www.swiss-economics.ch/RePEc/files/0060JaagBeccuti.pdf},
}
@misc{setty2017enabling,
  author = {Srinath Setty and Soumya Basu and Lidong Zhou and Michael Lowell Roberts and Ramarathnam Venkatesan},
  title = {Enabling secure and resource-efficient blockchain networks with VOLT},
  howpublished = {\url{https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/publication/enabling-secure-resource-efficient-blockchain-networks-volt/}},
  year = {2017},
  month = {August},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-08-21},
  url = {https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/volt.pdf},
}
@misc{garay2017proofs,
  author = {Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Giorgos Panagiotakos},
  title = {Proofs of Work for Blockchain Protocols},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/775},
  year = {2017},
  note = {\url{http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/775}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/775.pdf},
}
@misc{dinh2017untangling,
  author = {Tien Tuan Anh Dinh and Rui Liu and Meihui Zhang and Gang Chen and Beng Chin Ooi and Ji Wang},
  title = {Untangling Blockchain: A Data Processing View of Blockchain Systems},
  howpublished = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1708.05665},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-08-26},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.05665.pdf},
}
@misc{ozisik2017estimation,
  author = {A. Pinar Ozisik and George Bissias and Brian Levine},
  Title = {Estimation of Miner Hash Rates and Consensus on Blockchains},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1707.00082},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1707.00082.pdf},
}
@misc{bartoletti2017general,
  author = {Massimo Bartoletti and Andrea Bracciali and Stefano Lande and Livio Pompianu},
  Title = {A general framework for Bitcoin analytics},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1707.01021},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1707.01021.pdf},
}
@misc{bruennler2017logic,
  author = {Kai Br{\" u}nnler and Dandolo Flumini and Thomas Studer},
  Title = {A Logic of Blockchain Updates},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1707.01766},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1707.01766.pdf},
}
@misc{dong2017betrayal,
  author = {Changyu Dong and Yilei Wang and Amjad Aldweesh and Patrick McCorry and Aad Moorsel},
  Title = {Betrayal, Distrust, and Rationality: Smart Counter-Collusion Contracts for Verifiable Cloud Computing},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1708.01171},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.01171.pdf},
}
@misc{1708.03468,
  author = {Thanh Bui and Tuomas Aura},
  Title = {Key exchange with the help of a public ledger},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1708.03468},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.03468.pdf},
}
@misc{albassam2017chainspace,
  author = {Mustafa Al-Bassam and Alberto Sonnino and Shehar Bano and Dave Hrycyszyn and George Danezis},
  Title = {Chainspace: A Sharded Smart Contracts Platform},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1708.03778},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.03778.pdf},
}
@misc{goldfeder2017when,
  author = {Steven Goldfeder and Harry Kalodner and Dillon Reisman and Arvind Narayanan},
  Title = {When the cookie meets the blockchain: Privacy risks of web payments via cryptocurrencies},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1708.04748},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.04748.pdf},
}
@misc{tasca2017ontology,
  author = {Paolo Tasca and Thayabaran Thanabalasingham and Claudio J. Tessone},
  Title = {Ontology of Blockchain Technologies. Principles of Identification and Classification},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1708.04872},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.04872.pdf},
}
@misc{rosenfeld2017predicting,
  author = {Meni Rosenfeld},
  Title = {Predicting Block Halving Party Times},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1708.05185},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.05185.pdf},
}
@misc{chatzopoulos2017localcoin,
  author = {Dimitris Chatzopoulos and Sujit Gujar and Boi Faltings and Pan Hui},
  Title = {LocalCoin: An Ad-hoc Payment Scheme for Areas with High Connectivity},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1708.08086},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.08086.pdf},
}
@misc{oliver2017proposal,
  author = {Carlos G. Oliver and Alessandro Ricottone and Pericles Philippopoulos},
  Title = {Proposal for a fully decentralized blockchain and proof-of-work algorithm for solving NP-complete problems},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1708.09419},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.09419.pdf},
}
@misc{kwon2017selfish,
  author = {Yujin Kwon and Dohyun Kim and Yunmok Son and Eugene Vasserman and Yongdae Kim},
  Title = {Be Selfish and Avoid Dilemmas: Fork After Withholding (FAW) Attacks on Bitcoin},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1708.09790},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.09790.pdf},
}
@misc{kalodner2017blocksci,
  author = {Harry Kalodner and Steven Goldfeder and Alishah Chator and Malte M{\" o}ser and Arvind Narayanan},
  Title = {BlockSci: Design and applications of a blockchain analysis platform},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1709.02489},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.02489.pdf},
}
@misc{roos2017settling,
  author = {Stefanie Roos and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Aniket Kate and Ian Goldberg},
  Title = {Settling Payments Fast and Private: Efficient Decentralized Routing for Path-Based Transactions},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1709.05748},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.05748.pdf},
}
@misc{dubovitskaya2017secure,
  author = {Alevtina Dubovitskaya and Zhigang Xu and Samuel Ryu and Michael Schumacher and Fusheng Wang},
  Title = {Secure and Trustable Electronic Medical Records Sharing using Blockchain},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1709.06528},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.06528.pdf},
}
@misc{wang2017towards,
  author = {Liang Wang and Ivan Pustogarov},
  Title = {Towards Better Understanding of Bitcoin Unreachable Peers},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1709.06837},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.06837.pdf},
}
@misc{sousa2017byzantine,
  author = {Jo{\~ a}o Sousa and Alysson Bessani and Marko Vukoli{\' c}},
  Title = {A Byzantine Fault-Tolerant Ordering Service for the Hyperledger Fabric Blockchain Platform},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1709.06921},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.06921.pdf},
}
@misc{pinna2017petri,
  author = {Andrea Pinna and Roberto Tonelli and Matteo Orr{\' u} and Michele Marchesi},
  Title = {A Petri Nets Model for Blockchain Analysis},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1709.07790},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.07790.pdf},
}
@misc{badertscher2017bitcoin,
  author = {Christian Badertscher and Ueli Maurer and Daniel Tschudi and Vassilis Zikas},
  title = {Bitcoin as a Transaction Ledger: A Composable Treatment},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/149},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/149.pdf},
}
@misc{liu2017fork,
  author = {Zhiqiang Liu and Shuyang Tang and Sherman S.M. Chow and Zhen Liu and Yu Long},
  title = {Fork-Free Hybrid Consensus with Flexible Proof-of-Activity},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/367},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/367.pdf},
}
@misc{zhang2017zchannel,
  author = {Yuncong Zhang and Yu Long and Zhen Liu and Zhiqiang Liu and Dawu Gu},
  title = {Z-Channel: Scalable and Efficient Scheme in Zerocash},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/684},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/684.pdf},
}
@misc{khalil2017revive,
  author = {Rami Khalil and Arthur Gervais},
  title = {Revive: Rebalancing Off-Blockchain Payment Networks},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/823},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/823.pdf},
}
@misc{sanchez2017raziel,
  author = {David Cerezo S{\' a}nchez},
  title = {Raziel: Private and Verifiable Smart Contracts on Blockchains},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/878},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/878.pdf},
}
@misc{meiklejohn2017moebius,
  author = {Sarah Meiklejohn and Rebekah Mercer},
  title = {M{\"o}bius: Trustless Tumbling for Transaction Privacy},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/881},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/881.pdf},
}
@misc{david2017kaleidoscope,
  author = {Bernardo David and Rafael Dowsley and Mario Larangeira},
  title = {Kaleidoscope: An Efficient Poker Protocol with Payment Distribution and Penalty Enforcement},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/899},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/899.pdf},
}
@misc{pass2017thunderella,
  author = {Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Thunderella: Blockchains with Optimistic Instant Confirmation},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/913},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/913.pdf},
}
@misc{eckey2017efficient,
  author = {Lisa Eckey and Sebastian Faust and Julian Loss},
  title = {Efficient Algorithms for Broadcast and Consensus Based on Proofs of Work},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/915},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/915.pdf},
}
@misc{sun2017ringct,
  author = {Shi-Feng Sun and Man Ho Au and Joseph K. Liu and Tsz Hon Yuen and Dawu Gu},
  title = {RingCT 2.0: A Compact Accumulator-Based (Linkable Ring Signature) Protocol for Blockchain Cryptocurrency Monero},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/921},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/921.pdf},
}
@misc{goyal2017overcoming,
  author = {Rishab Goyal and Vipul Goyal},
  title = {Overcoming Cryptographic Impossibility Results using Blockchains},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/935},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/935.pdf},
}
@misc{cachin2017blockchain,
  author = {Christian Cachin and Marko Vukoli{\'c}},
  Title = {Blockchain Consensus Protocols in the Wild},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1707.01873},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1707.01873.pdf},
}
@misc{kiayias2017noninteractive,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Andrew Miller and Dionysis Zindros},
  title = {Non-interactive proofs of proof-of-work},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/963},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-10-03},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/963.pdf},
}
@misc{fisch2017socially,
  author = {Ben A Fisch and Rafael Pass and Abhi Shelat},
  title = {Socially Optimal Mining Pools},
  howpublished = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.03846},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-10-05},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.03846.pdf},
}
@misc{teutsch2017scalable,
  author = {Jason Teutsch and Christian Reitwie{\ss}ner},
  title = {A scalable verification solution for blockchains},
  howpublished = {\url{https://truebit.io/}},
  year = {2017},
  month = {March},
  note = {Accessed:2017-10-06},
  url = {https://people.cs.uchicago.edu/~teutsch/papers/truebit.pdf},
}
@misc{tran2017obscuro,
  author = {Muoi Tran and Loi Luu and Min Suk Kang and Iddo Bentov and Prateek Saxena},
  title = {Obscuro: A Bitcoin Mixer using Trusted Execution Environments},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/974},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-10-06},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/974.pdf},
}
@misc{alwen2017moderately,
  author = {Jo{\" e}l Alwen and Bj{\" o}rn Tackmann},
  title = {Moderately Hard Functions: Definition, Instantiations, and Applications},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/945},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-10-06},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/945.pdf},
}
@misc{alharby2017blockchain,
  author = {Maher Alharby and Aad Moorsel},
  Title = {Blockchain-based Smart Contracts: A Systematic Mapping Study},
  Year = {2017},
  Howpublished = {Fourth International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology (CSIT-2017)},
  note = {Accessed:2017-10-20},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.06372.pdf},
}
@misc{ali2017nuts,
  author = {Syed Taha Ali and Dylan Clarke and Patrick McCorry},
  Title = {The Nuts and Bolts of Micropayments: A Survey},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1710.02964},
  note = {Accessed:2017-10-20},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.02964.pdf},
}
@misc{augot2017transforming,
  author = {Daniel Augot and Herv{\' e} Chabanne and Olivier Cl{\' e}mot and William George},
  Title = {Transforming face-to-face identity proofing into anonymous digital identity using the Bitcoin blockchain},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1710.02951},
  note = {Accessed:2017-10-20},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.02951.pdf},
}
@misc{aggarwal2017quantum,
  author = {Divesh Aggarwal and Gavin K. Brennen and Troy Lee and Miklos Santha and Marco Tomamichel},
  Title = {Quantum attacks on Bitcoin, and how to protect against them},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1710.10377},
  note = {Accessed:2017-11-06},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.10377.pdf},
}
@misc{buterin2017casper,
  author = {Vitalik Buterin and Virgil Griffith},
  Title = {Casper the Friendly Finality Gadget},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1710.09437},
  note = {Accessed:2017-11-06},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.09437.pdf},
}
@misc{blass2017strain,
  author = {Erik-Oliver Blass and Florian Kerschbaum},
  title = {Strain: A Secure Auction for Blockchains},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1044},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-11-06},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1044.pdf},
}
@misc{eze2017triplicate,
  author = {Peter Eze and Tochukwu Eziokwu and Chinedu Okpara},
  title = {A Triplicate Smart Contract Model using Blockchain Technology},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-11-06},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Peter_Eze7/publication/317349621_A_Triplicate_Smart_Contract_Model_using_Blockchain_Technology/links/5937782c4585158f6464595f/A-Triplicate-Smart-Contract-Model-using-Blockchain-Technology.pdf},
}
@misc{chepurnoy2017space,
  author = {Alexander Chepurnoy and Dmitry Meshkov},
  title = {On Space-Scarce Economy In Blockchain Systems},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/644},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-11-06},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/644.pdf},
}
@misc{bissias2017bobtail,
  author = {George Bissias and Brian Neil Levine},
  Title = {Bobtail: A Proof-of-Work Target that Minimizes Blockchain Mining Variance},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1709.08750},
  note = {Accessed:2017-11-10},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.08750.pdf},
}
@misc{buenz2017efficient,
  author = {Benedikt B{\" u}nz and Jonathan Bootle and Dan Boneh and Andrew Poelstra and Pieter Wuille and Greg Maxwell},
  Title = {Bulletproofs: Efficient Range Proofs for Confidential Transactions},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {\url{http://web.stanford.edu/~buenz/pubs/}},
  note = {Accessed:2017-11-10},
  url = {http://web.stanford.edu/~buenz/pubs/bulletproofs.pdf},
}
@misc{espel2017proposal,
  author = {Thomas Espel and Laurent Katz and Guillaume Robin},
  title = {Proposal for Protocol on a Quorum Blockchain with Zero Knowledge},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1093},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-11-14},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1093.pdf},
}
@misc{dziembowski2017perun,
  author = {Stefan Dziembowski and Lisa Eckey and Sebastian Faust and Daniel Malinowski},
  title = {PERUN: Virtual Payment Channels over Cryptographic Currencies},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/635},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-11-20},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/635.pdf},
}
@misc{atzei2017formal,
  author = {Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Stefano Lande and Roberto Zunino},
  title = {A formal model of Bitcoin transactions},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1124},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-12-04},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1124.pdf},
}
@misc{bentov2017tesseract,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Yan Ji and Fan Zhang and Yunqi Li and Xueyuan Zhao and Lorenz Breidenbach and Philip Daian and Ari Juels},
  title = {Tesseract: Real-Time Cryptocurrency Exchange using Trusted Hardware},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1153},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-12-04},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1153.pdf},
}
@misc{mavridou2017designing,
  author = {Anastasia Mavridou and Aron Laszka},
  Title = {Designing Secure Ethereum Smart Contracts: A Finite State Machine Based Approach},
  Year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-12-04},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1711.09327},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1711.09327.pdf},
}
@misc{kiran2017dynamic,
  author = {Ravi Kiran Raman and Lav R. Varshney},
  Title = {Dynamic Distributed Storage for Scaling Blockchains},
  Year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-12-04},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1711.07617},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1711.07617.pdf},
}
@misc{quesnelle2017linkability,
  author = {Jeffrey Quesnelle},
  Title = {On the linkability of Zcash transactions},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1712.01210},
  note = {Accessed:2017-12-11},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1712.01210.pdf},
}
@misc{bano2017consensus,
  author = {Shehar Bano and Alberto Sonnino and Mustafa Al-Bassam and Sarah Azouvi and Patrick McCorry and Sarah Meiklejohn and George Danezis},
  Title = {Consensus in the Age of Blockchains},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1711.03936},
  note = {Accessed:2017-12-11},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1711.03936.pdf},
}
@misc{engelmann2017towards,
  author = {Felix Engelmann and Florian Glaser and Henning Kopp and Frank Kargl and Christof Weinhardt},
  Title = {Towards an Economic Analysis of Routing in Payment Channel Networks},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1711.02597},
  Doi = {10.1145/3152824.3152826},
  note = {Accessed:2017-12-11},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1711.02597.pdf},
}
@misc{norvill2017automated,
  author = {R Norvill and Irfan U Awan and BBF Pontiveros and Andrea J Cullen and others},
  title = {Automated labeling of unknown contracts in Ethereum},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-12-11},
  howpublished = {\url{https://bradscholars.brad.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/10454/12220/automated-labeling-unknown(5).pdf}},
  url = {https://bradscholars.brad.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/10454/12220/automated-labeling-unknown(5).pdf},
}
@misc{liu2017strategy,
  author = {Hanqing Liu and Na Ruan and Rongtian Du and Weijia Jia},
  title = {On the Strategy and Behavior of Bitcoin Mining with N-attackers},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1255},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-03},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1255.pdf},
}
@misc{branzei2017how,
  author = {Simina Br{\^ a}nzei and Erel Segal-Halevi and Aviv Zohar},
  Title = {How to Charge Lightning},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1712.10222},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-03},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1712.10222.pdf},
}
@misc{ersoy2017information,
  author = {Oguzhan Ersoy and Zhijie Ren and Zekeriya Erkin and Reginald L. Lagendijk},
  Title = {Information Propagation on Permissionless Blockchains},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1712.07564},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-03},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1712.07564.pdf},
}
@misc{albassam2017contour,
  author = {Mustafa Al-Bassam and Sarah Meiklejohn},
  Title = {Contour: A Practical System for Binary Transparency},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1712.08427},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-03},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1712.08427.pdf},
}
@misc{tikhomirov2017ethereum,
  author = {Sergei Tikhomirov},
  title = {Ethereum: state of knowledge and research perspectives},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-05},
  url = {http://orbilu.uni.lu/bitstream/10993/32468/1/ethereum-sok.pdf},
}
@misc{abraham2017efficient,
  author = {Ittai Abraham and Srinivas Devadas and Danny Dolev and Kartik Nayak and Ling Ren},
  title = {Efficient Synchronous Byzantine Consensus},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/307},
  year = {2017},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/307.pdf},
  note = {Accessed:2018-02-07},
}
@misc{micali2017byzantine,
  author = {Silvio Micali},
  title = {Byzantine Agreement, Made Trivial},
  howpublished = {https://people.csail.mit.edu/silvio/Selected%20Scientific%20Papers/Distributed%20Computation/},
  year = {2017},
  month = {Apr},
  note = {Accessed:2018-02-21},
}
@misc{garay2017blockchain,
  author = {Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Giorgos Panagiotakos},
  title = {Blockchain and Consensus from Proofs of Work without Random Oracles},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/775},
  year = {2017},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/775.pdf},
}
@misc{crain2017dbft,
  author = {Tyler Crain and Vincent Gramoli and Mikel Larrea and Michel Raynal},
  Title = {DBFT: Efficient Byzantine Consensus with a Weak Coordinator and its Application to Consortium Blockchains},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {https://arxiv.org/abs/1702.03068},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.03068.pdf},
}
@misc{bentov2018tesseract,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Yan Ji and Fan Zhang and Yunqi Li and Xueyuan Zhao and Lorenz Breidenbach and Philip Daian and Ari Juels},
  title = {Tesseract: Real-Time Cryptocurrency Exchange using Trusted Hardware},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1153},
  year = {2017},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1153.pdf},
}
@misc{li2018designing,
  author = {Taotao Li and Parhat Abla and Mingsheng Wang and Qianwen Wei},
  title = {Designing Proof of Transaction Puzzles for Cryptocurrency},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1242},
  year = {2017},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1242.pdf},
}
@misc{sergey2018scilla,
  author = {Ilya Sergey and Amrit Kumar and Aquinas Hobor},
  Title = {Scilla: a Smart Contract Intermediate-Level LAnguage},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1801.00687},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-08},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.00687.pdf},
}
@misc{grossman2018online,
  author = {Shelly Grossman and Ittai Abraham and Guy Golan-Gueta and Yan Michalevsky and Noam Rinetzky and Mooly Sagiv and Yoni Zohar},
  Title = {Online Detection of Effectively Callback Free Objects with Applications to Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1801.04032},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-17},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.04032.pdf},
}
@misc{chatterjee2018quantitative,
  author = {Krishnendu Chatterjee and Amir Kafshdar Goharshady and Yaron Velner},
  Title = {Quantitative Analysis of Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1801.03367},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-17},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.03367.pdf},
}
@misc{dunphy2018first,
  author = {Paul Dunphy and Fabien A. P. Petitcolas},
  Title = {A First Look at Identity Management Schemes on the Blockchain},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1801.03294},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-17},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.03294.pdf},
}
@misc{singh2018violable,
  author = {Munindar P. Singh and Amit K. Chopra},
  Title = {Violable Contracts and Governance for Blockchain Applications},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1801.02672},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-17},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.02672.pdf},
}
@misc{chen2018towards,
  author = {Yize Chen and Quanlai Li and Hao Wang},
  Title = {Towards Trusted Social Networks with Blockchain Technology},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1801.02796},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-17},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.02796.pdf},
}
@misc{shudo2018towards,
  author = {Kazuyuki Shudo and Kenji Saito},
  Title = {Towards Application Portability on Blockchains},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1801.01421},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-17},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.01421.pdf},
}
@misc{ren2018scaleout,
  author = {Zhijie Ren and Zekeriya Erkin},
  Title = {A Scale-out Blockchain for Value Transfer with Spontaneous Sharding},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1801.02531},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-17},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.02531.pdf},
}
@misc{aggarwal2018simple,
  author = {Abhinav Aggarwal and Yue Guo},
  title = {A Simple Reduction from State Machine Replication to Binary Agreement in Partially Synchronous or Asynchronous Networks},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/060},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-17},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/060.pdf},
}
@misc{maxwell2018simple,
  author = {Gregory Maxwell and Andrew Poelstra and Yannick Seurin and Pieter Wuille},
  title = {Simple Schnorr Multi-Signatures with Applications to Bitcoin},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/068},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-22},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/068.pdf},
}
@misc{krafft2018experimental,
  author = {Peter M Krafft and Nicol{\' a}s Della Penna and Alex Pentland},
  title = {{A}n {E}xperimental {S}tudy of {C}ryptocurrency {M}arket {D}ynamics},
  year = {2018},
  eprint = {1801.05831},
  howpublished = {Peter Krafft, Nicol\'as Della Penna, Alex Pentland. (2018). An Experimental Study of Cryptocurrency Market Dynamics. ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI)},
  doi = {10.1145/3173574.3174179},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-22},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.05831.pdf},
}
@misc{sompolinsky2018phantom,
  author = {Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {PHANTOM: A Scalable BlockDAG Protocol},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/104},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-31},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/104.pdf},
}
@misc{herlihy2018atomic,
  author = {Maurice Herlihy},
  Title = {Atomic Cross-Chain Swaps},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1801.09515},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-31},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.09515.pdf},
}
@misc{harz2018scalability,
  author = {Dominik Harz and Magnus Boman},
  Title = {The Scalability of Trustless Trust},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1801.09535},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-31},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.09535.pdf},
}
@misc{zhang2018smart,
  author = {Yuanyu Zhang and Shoji Kasahara and Yulong Shen and Xiaohong Jiang and Jianxiong Wan},
  Title = {Smart Contract-Based Access Control for the Internet of Things},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1802.04410},
  note = {Accessed:2018-02-16},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1802.04410.pdf},
}
@misc{cohen2018simple,
  author = {Bram Cohen and Krzysztof Pietrzak},
  title = {Simple Proofs of Sequential Work},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/183},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Accessed:2018-02-16},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/183.pdf},
}
@misc{badertscher2018but,
  author = {Christian Badertscher and Juan Garay and Ueli Maurer and Daniel Tschudi and Vassilis Zikas},
  title = {But Why does it Work? A Rational Protocol Design Treatment of Bitcoin},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/138},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Accessed:2018-02-16},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/138.pdf},
}
@misc{matzutt2018thwarting,
  author = {Roman Matzutt and Martin Henze and Jan Henrik Ziegeldorf and Jens Hiller and Klaus Wehrle},
  title = {Thwarting Unwanted Blockchain Content Insertion},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Accessed:2018-02-28},
  url = {https://www.comsys.rwth-aachen.de/fileadmin/papers/2018/2018-matzutt-blockchain-contents-countermeasures.pdf},
}
@misc{atzei2018sok,
  author = {Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Tiziana Cimoli and Stefano Lande and Roberto Zunino},
  title = {SoK: unraveling Bitcoin smart contracts},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Accessed:2018-03-01},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/192.pdf},
}
@misc{gazi2018stake,
  author = {Peter Ga\v{z}i and Aggelos Kiayias and Alexander Russell},
  title = {Stake-Bleeding Attacks on Proof-of-Stake Blockchains},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/248},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Accessed:2018-03-12},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/248.pdf},
}
@misc{wang2018limit,
  author = {Yongge Wang and Qutaibah Malluhi},
  title = {The Limit of Blockchains: Infeasibility of a Smart Obama-Trump Contract},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/252},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Accessed:2018-03-12},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/252.pdf},
}
@misc{eskandari2018first,
  author = {Shayan Eskandari and Andreas Leoutsarakos and Troy Mursch and Jeremy Clark},
  Title = {A first look at browser-based Cryptojacking},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1803.02887},
  note = {Accessed:2018-03-12},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.02887.pdf},
}
@misc{fernandez2018formalizing,
  author = {Antonio Fern\'{a}ndez Anta and Chryssis Georgiou and Kishori Konwar and Nicolas Nicolaou},
  Title = {Formalizing and Implementing Distributed Ledger Objects},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1802.07817},
  note = {Accessed:2018-03-12},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1802.07817.pdf},
}
@misc{grishchenko2018semantic,
  author = {Ilya Grishchenko and Matteo Maffei and Clara Schneidewind},
  Title = {A Semantic Framework for the Security Analysis of Ethereum smart contracts},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1802.08660},
  note = {Accessed:2018-03-12},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1802.08660.pdf},
}
@misc{bartoletti2018data,
  author = {Massimo Bartoletti and Barbara Pes and Sergio Serusi},
  Title = {Data mining for detecting Bitcoin Ponzi schemes},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1803.006},
  note = {Accessed:2018-03-12},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.00646.pdf},
}
@misc{martens2018reviewchain,
  author = {Daniel Martens and Walid Maalej},
  Title = {ReviewChain: Untampered Product Reviews on the Blockchain},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1803.01661},
  note = {Accessed:2018-03-12},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.01661.pdf},
}
@misc{li2018survey,
  author = {Xiaoqi Li and Peng Jiang and Ting Chen and Xiapu Luo and Qiaoyan Wen},
  Title = {A Survey on the Security of Blockchain Systems},
  Year = {2018},
  Howpublished = {Li X, Jiang P, Chen T, Luo X, Wen Q. A survey on the security of blockchain systems, Future Generation Computer Systems (2017)},
  note = {Accessed:2018-03-12},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1802.06993.pdf},
}
@misc{macbrough2018cobalt,
  author = {Ethan MacBrough},
  Title = {Cobalt: BFT Governance in Open Networks},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1802.07240},
  note = {Accessed:2018-03-12},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1802.07240.pdf},
}
@misc{chase2018analysis,
  author = {Brad Chase and Ethan MacBrough},
  Title = {Analysis of the XRP Ledger Consensus Protocol},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1802.07242},
  note = {Accessed:2018-03-12},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1802.07242.pdf},
}
@misc{covaci2018nectar,
  author = {Alexandra Covaci and Simone Madeo and Patrick Motylinski and St{\'e}phane Vincent},
  Title = {NECTAR: Non-Interactive Smart Contract Protocol using Blockchain Technology},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1803.04860},
  Doi = {10.1145/3194113.3194116},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.04860.pdf},
}
@misc{abraham2018hotstuff,
  author = {Ittai Abraham and Guy Gueta and Dahlia Malkhi},
  Title = {Hot-Stuff the Linear, Optimal-Resilience, One-Message BFT Devil},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1803.05069},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.05069.pdf},
}
@misc{cohen2018database,
  author = {Sara Cohen and Aviv Zohar},
  Title = {Database Perspectives on Blockchains},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1803.06015},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.06015.pdf},
}
@misc{hanke2018dfinity,
  author = {Time Hanke and Mahnush Movahedi and Dominic Williams},
  Title = {DFINITY Technology Overview Series Consensus System},
  Year = {2018},
  note = {Rev. 1},
  url = {https://dfinity.org/pdf-viewer/library/dfinity-consensus.pdf},
}
@misc{stewart2018committing,
  author = {I Stewart and D Ilie and A Zamyatin and S Werner and MF Torshizi and WJ Knottenbelt},
  title = {Committing to Quantum Resistance: A Slow Defence for Bitcoin against a Fast Quantum Computing Attack},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/213},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/213.pdf},
}
@misc{schindler2018hydrand,
  author = {Philipp Schindler and Aljosha Judmayer and Nicholas Stifter and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {HydRand: Practical Continuous Distributed Randomness},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/319},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/319.pdf},
}
@misc{stifter2018agreement,
  author = {Nicholas Stifter and Aljosha Judmayer and Philipp Schindler and Alexei Zamyatin and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {Agreement with Satoshi - On the Formalization of Nakamoto Consensus},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/400},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/400.pdf},
}
@misc{wan2018goshawk,
  author = {Cencen Wan and Shuyang Tang and Yuncong Zhang and Chen Pan and Zhiqiang Liu and Yu Long and Zhen Liu and Yu Yu},
  title = {Goshawk: A Novel Efficient, Robust and Flexible Blockchain Protocol},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/407},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/407.pdf},
}
@misc{yu2018repucoin,
  author = {Jiangshan Yu and David Kozhaya and Jeremie Decouchant and Paulo Esteves-Verissimo},
  title = {RepuCoin: Your Reputation is Your Power},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/239},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/239.pdf},
}
@misc{zamani2018rapidchain,
  author = {Mahdi Zamani and Mahnush Movahedi and Mariana Raykova},
  title = {RapidChain: A Fast Blockchain Protocol via Full Sharding},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/460},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/460.pdf},
}
@misc{boneh2018compact,
  author = {Dan Boneh and Manu Drijvers and Gregory Neven},
  title = {Compact Multi-Signatures for Smaller Blockchains},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/483},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/483.pdf},
}
@misc{zhang2018treasury,
  author = {Bingsheng Zhang and Roman Oliynykov and Hamed Balogun},
  title = {A Treasury System for Cryptocurrencies: Enabling Better Collaborative Intelligence},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/435},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/435.pdf},
}
@misc{yu2018platform,
  author = {Bin Yu and Joseph Liu and Amin Sakzad and Surya Nepal and Paul Rimba and Ron Steinfeld and Man Ho Au},
  title = {Platform-independent Secure Blockchain-Based Voting System},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/657},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/657.pdf},
}
@misc{zhou2018loamit,
  author = {Lijing Zhou and Licheng Wang and Yiru Sun and Pin Lv},
  title = {Loamit: A Blockchain-based Residual Loanable-limit Query System},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/655},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/655.pdf},
}
@misc{chalkias2018blockchained,
  author = {Konstantinos Chalkias and James Brown and Mike Hearn and Tommy Lillehagen and Igor Nitto and Thomas Schroeter},
  title = {Blockchained Post-Quantum Signatures},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/658},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/658.pdf},
}
@misc{yi2018new,
  author = {Xun Yi and Kwok-Yan Lam and Dieter Gollmann},
  title = {A New Blind ECDSA Scheme for Bitcoin Transaction Anonymity},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/660},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/660.pdf},
}
@misc{boneh2018verifiable,
  author = {Dan Boneh and Joseph Bonneau and Benedikt B\"unz and Ben Fisch},
  title = {Verifiable Delay Functions},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/601},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/601.pdf},
}
@misc{ruffing2018burning,
  author = {Tim Ruffing and Sri Aravinda Thyagarajan and Viktoria Ronge and Dominique Schr\"oder},
  title = {Burning Zerocoins for Fun and for Profit: A Cryptographic Denial-of-Spending Attack on the Zerocoin Protocol},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/612},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/612.pdf},
}
@misc{pietrzak2018simple,
  author = {Krzysztof Pietrzak},
  title = {Simple Verifiable Delay Functions},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/627},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/627.pdf},
}