@article{shamir1979share,
  author = {Adi Shamir},
  title = {How to share a secret},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  volume = {22},
  number = {11},
  pages = {612--613},
  year = {1979},
  publisher = {ACM},
}
@misc{dai1998bmoney,
  author = {Wei Dai},
  title = {bmoney},
  year = {1998},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-04-31},
  url = {http://www.weidai.com/bmoney.txt},
}
@misc{back2002hashcash,
  author = {Adam Back and others},
  title = {Hashcash-a denial of service counter-measure},
  year = {2002},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-03-09},
  url = {http://www.hashcash.org/papers/hashcash.pdf},
}
@misc{szabo2003advances,
  author = {Nick Szabo},
  title = {Advances in Distributed Security},
  year = {2003},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-04-31},
}
@misc{finney2004rpow,
  author = {Hal Finney},
  title = {Reusable Proofs of Work (RPOW)},
  year = {2004},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-04-31},
  url = {http://web.archive.org/web/20071222072154/http://rpow.net/},
}
@misc{szabo2005bitgold,
  author = {Nick Szabo},
  title = {Bit gold},
  year = {2005},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-04-31},
  url = {http://unenumerated.blogspot.co.at/2005/12/bit-gold.html},
}
@misc{nakamoto2008bitcoin,
  author = {Satoshi Nakamoto},
  title = {Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System},
  year = {2008},
  month = {Dec},
  note = {Accessed: 2015-07-01},
  url = {https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf},
}
@misc{percival2009scrypt,
  author = {Colin Percival},
  title = {Stronger key derivation via sequential memory-hard functions},
  year = {2009},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-03-09},
  url = {http://www.bsdcan.org/2009/schedule/attachments/87_scrypt.pdf},
}
@phdthesis{golze2009fairness,
  author = {Sebastian Golze},
  title = {Fairness in \"{U}berlastsituationen mittels Proof-of-Work-Funktionen.},
  year = {2009},
  school = {Berlin Institute of Technology},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-03-09},
  url = {https://depositonce.tu-berlin.de/bitstream/11303/2499/2/Dokument_41.pdf},
}
@misc{schwarz2011zooko,
  author = {Aaron Schwarz},
  title = {{Squaring the Triangle: Secure, Decentralized, Human-Readable Names}},
  year = {2011},
  month = {Jan},
  note = {Accessed 2014-11-14},
  url = {http://www.aaronsw.com/weblog/squarezooko},
}
@misc{laurie2011decentralised,
  author = {Ben Laurie},
  title = {Decentralised currencies are probably impossible (but let's at least make them efficient)},
  year = {2011},
  note = {Accessed 2016-09-02},
  url = {http://w.fipr.org/files/decentralised-currencies.pdf},
}
@article{rosenfeld2011analysis,
  author = {Meni Rosenfeld},
  title = {Analysis of Bitcoin pooled mining reward systems},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1112.4980},
  year = {2011},
  note = {Accessed 2017-11-24},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1112.4980.pdf},
}
@misc{rosenfeld2012overview,
  author = {Meni Rosenfeld},
  title = {Overview of colored coins},
  journal = {White paper, bitcoil. co. il},
  year = {2012},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-03-09},
  url = {https://bitcoil.co.il/BitcoinX.pdf},
}
@misc{ron2012quantitative,
  author = {D. Ron and A. Shamir},
  title = {Quantitative Analysis of the Full Bitcoin Transaction Graph},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2012/584},
  year = {2012},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-03-09},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2012/584.pdf},
}
@misc{taylor2012bitmessage,
  author = {M. B. Taylor},
  title = {Bitmessage: A Peer-to-Peer Message Authentication and Delivery System},
  year = {2012},
  month = {nov},
  note = {Accessed: 2015-05-06},
  url = {https://bitmessage.org/bitmessage.pdf},
}
@mastersthesis{herrmann2012implementation,
  author = {Matthias Herrmann},
  title = {Implementation, evaluation and detection of a doublespend-attack on Bitcoin},
  year = {2012},
  month = {Apr},
  school = {Master Thesis ETH Z{\"u}rich, 2012},
  url = {http://e-collection.library.ethz.ch/eserv/eth:5606/eth-5606-01.pdf?pid=eth:5606&dsID=eth-5606-01.pdf},
}
@misc{bahack2013theoretical,
  author = {Lear Bahack},
  title = {Theoretical Bitcoin Attacks with less than Half of the Computational Power},
  year = {2013},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-11-23},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1312.7013.pdf},
}
@misc{sompolinsky2013accelerating,
  author = {Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {Accelerating Bitcoin's Transaction Processing. Fast Money Grows on Trees, Not Chains},
  journal = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {881},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2013/881.pdf},
}
@misc{sun2014solving,
  author = {Felix Sun and Peitong Duan},
  title = {Solving Byzantine Problems in Synchronized Systems using Bitcoin},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-09-02},
  url = {http://web.mit.edu/felixsun/www/projects/bitcoin.pdf},
}
@misc{courtois2013unreasonable,
  author = {Nicolas T Courtois and Marek Grajek and Rahul Naik},
  title = {The unreasonable fundamental incertitudes behind bitcoin mining},
  howpublished = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1310.7935},
  year = {2013},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-07-04},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1310.7935.pdf},
}
@phdthesis{naik2013optimising,
  author = {Rahul P Naik and Nicolas T Courtois},
  title = {Optimising the SHA256 Hashing Algorithm for Faster and More Efficient Bitcoin Mining},
  year = {2013},
  month = {Sep},
  school = {University College London},
  url = {http://www.nicolascourtois.com/bitcoin/Optimising%20the%20SHA256%20Hashing%20Algorithm%20for%20Faster%20and%20More%20Efficient%20Bitcoin%20Mining_Rahul_Naik.pdf},
}
@misc{rosenfeld2014doublespending,
  author = {M. Rosenfeld},
  title = {Analysis of Hashrate-Based Double Spending},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1402.2009},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-03-09},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2009.pdf},
}
@article{fromknecht2014decentralized,
  author = {Conner Fromknecht and Dragos Velicanu and Sophia Yakoubov},
  title = {A Decentralized Public Key Infrastructure with Identity Retention.},
  journal = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
  volume = {2014},
  pages = {803},
  year = {2014},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2014/803.pdf},
}
@misc{bentov2014cryptocurrencies,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Ariel Gabizon and Alex Mizrahi},
  title = {Cryptocurrencies without proof of work},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1406.5694},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-03-09},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1406.5694.pdf},
}
@misc{miller2014anonymous,
  author = {A Miller and LaViola JJ},
  title = {Anonymous byzantine consensus from moderately-hard puzzles: A model for bitcoin},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-03-09},
  url = {https://socrates1024.s3.amazonaws.com/consensus.pdf},
}
@misc{bruce2014miniblock,
  author = {J. D. Bruce},
  title = {The Mini-Blockchain Scheme (a.k.a Purely P2P Crypto-Currency With Finite Mini-Blockchain)},
  year = {2014},
  month = {Jul},
  note = {Accessed: 2014-04-05},
  url = {http://cryptonite.info/files/mbc-scheme-rev2.pdf},
}
@misc{jacobs2014namecoin,
  author = {F. Jacobs},
  title = {Providing better confidentiality and authentication on the Internet using Namecoin and MinimaLT},
  year = {2014},
  month = {apr},
  note = {Accessed: 2014-04-02},
  url = {https://raw.githubusercontent.com/FredericJacobs/safeweb/master/paper.pdf},
}
@misc{filecoin2014filecoin,
  author = {Filecoin community},
  title = {Filecoin: A Cryptocurrency Operated File Storage Network},
  organization = {filecoin.io},
  year = {2014},
  month = {Oct},
  note = {Accessed: 2014-10-14},
  url = {http://filecoin.io/filecoin.pdf},
}
@misc{back2014enabling,
  author = {Adam Back and Matt Corallo and Luke Dashjr and Mark Friedenbach and Gregory Maxwell and Andrew Miller and Andrew Poelstra and Jorge Tim{\'o}n and Pieter Wuille},
  title = {Enabling blockchain innovations with pegged sidechains},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-07-05},
  url = {http://newspaper23.com/ripped/2014/11/http-_____-___-_www___-blockstream___-com__-_sidechains.pdf},
}
@misc{beukema2014formalising,
  author = {WJB Beukema},
  title = {Formalising the Bitcoin protocol},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-01},
  url = {http://referaat.cs.utwente.nl/conference/21/paper/7450/formalising-the-bitcoin-protocol.pdf},
}
@misc{schwartz2014ripple,
  author = {David Schwartz and Noah Youngs and Arthur Britto},
  title = {The Ripple protocol consensus algorithm},
  journal = {Ripple Labs Inc White Paper},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-08},
  url = {https://ripple.com/files/ripple_consensus_whitepaper.pdf},
}
@misc{buterin2014ethereum,
  author = {Vitalik Buterin},
  title = {Ethereum: A next-generation smart contract and decentralized application platform},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-22},
  url = {https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper},
}
@misc{wood2014ethereum,
  author = {Gavin Wood},
  title = {Ethereum: A secure decentralised generalised transaction ledger EIP-150 REVISION (759dccd - 2017-08-07)},
  journal = {Ethereum Project Yellow Paper},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2018-01-03},
  url = {https://ethereum.github.io/yellowpaper/paper.pdf},
}
@misc{shomer2014phase,
  author = {Assaf Shomer},
  title = {On the Phase Space of Block-Hiding Strategies in Bitcoin-like networks},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1402.4233},
  year = {2014},
  month = {Feb},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-10-17},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.4233v1.pdf},
}
@misc{katz2014pseudonymous,
  author = {Jonathan Katz and Andrew Miller and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Pseudonymous Broadcast and Secure Computation from Cryptographic Puzzles},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2014/857},
  year = {2014},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2014/857.pdf},
}
@misc{courtois2014subversive,
  author = {Nicolas T Courtois and Lear Bahack},
  title = {On subversive miner strategies and block withholding attack in bitcoin digital currency},
  howpublished = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1402.1718},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-07-04},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.1718.pdf},
}
@misc{courtois2014longest,
  author = {Nicolas T Courtois},
  title = {On the longest chain rule and programmed self-destruction of crypto currencies},
  howpublished = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1405.0534},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-07-04},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1405.0534.pdf},
}
@article{o2014bitcoin,
  author = {Karl J O'Dwyer and David Malone},
  title = {Bitcoin mining and its energy footprint},
  year = {2014},
  publisher = {IET},
  url = {http://karlodwyer.com/publications/pdf/bitcoin_KJOD_2014.pdf},
}
@misc{miller2015topology,
  author = {Andrew Miller and James Litton and Andrew Pachulski and Neal Gupta and Dave Levin and Neil Spring and Bobby Bhattacharjee},
  title = {Discovering bitcoin's public topology and influential nodes},
  year = {2015},
  month = {May},
  note = {Accsessed: 2016-03-09},
  url = {http://cs.umd.edu/projects/coinscope/coinscope.pdf},
}
@misc{bonneau2015random,
  author = {Joseph Bonneau and Jeremy Clark and Steven Goldfeder},
  title = {On Bitcoin as a public randomness source},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Accessed: 2015-10-25},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/1015.pdf},
}
@misc{goldfeder2015threshold,
  author = {Steven Goldfeder and Rosario Gennaro and Harry Kalodner and Joseph Bonneau and Joshua Kroll and Edward W. Felten and Arvind Narayanan},
  title = {{Securing Bitcoin wallets via a new DSA/ECDSA threshold signature scheme}},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Accessed: 2015-07-13},
  url = {http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~stevenag/threshold_sigs.pdf},
}
@misc{gobel2015simulation,
  author = {Johannes G{\"o}bel and Paul Keeler and Anthony E Krzesinski and Peter G Taylor},
  title = {Bitcoin Blockchain Dynamics: the Selfish-Mine Strategy in the Presence of Propagation Delay},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1505.05343},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Accessed: 2015-03-01},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.05343.pdf},
}
@misc{chaudhary2015modeling,
  author = {Kaylash Chaudhary and Ansgar Fehnker and Jaco Pol and Marielle Stoelinga},
  title = {Modeling and verification of the bitcoin protocol},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1511.04173},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-01},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1511.04173.pdf},
}
@misc{mazieres2015modeling,
  author = {David Mazieres},
  title = {The Stellar Consensus Protocol: A Federated Model for Internet-level Consensus},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-01},
  url = {https://www.stellar.org/papers/stellar-consensus-protocol.pdf},
}
@misc{luu2015scp,
  author = {Loi Luu and Viswesh Narayanan and Kunal Baweja and Chaodong Zheng and Seth Gilbert and Prateek Saxena},
  title = {SCP: a computationally-scalable Byzantine consensus protocol for blockchains},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-10},
  url = {https://www.weusecoins.com/assets/pdf/library/SCP - +A Computationally-Scalable Byzantine.pdf},
}
@misc{delmolino2015step,
  author = {Kevin Delmolino and Mitchell Arnett and Ahmed E Kosba and Andrew Miller and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Step by Step Towards Creating a Safe Smart Contract: Lessons and Insights from a Cryptocurrency Lab.},
  journal = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-10},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2015/460.pdf},
}
@misc{sapirshtein2015optimal,
  author = {Ayelet Sapirshtein and Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {Optimal selfish mining strategies in Bitcoin},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1507.06183},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-22},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1507.06183.pdf},
}
@misc{kiayias2015speed,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Giorgos Panagiotakos},
  title = {Speed-Security Tradeoff s in Blockchain Protocols},
  year = {2015},
  month = {Oct},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-10-17},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/1019.pdf},
}
@misc{andrychowicz2015multiparty,
  author = {Marcin Andrychowicz},
  title = {Multiparty Computation Protocols Based on Cryptocurrencies},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-15},
  url = {https://depotuw.ceon.pl/bitstream/handle/item/1327/dis.pdf},
}
@misc{mazieres2015stellar,
  author = {David Mazieres},
  title = {The stellar consensus protocol: A federated model for internet-level consensus},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-20},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.696.93&=&rep=rep1&=&type=pdf},
}
@misc{park2015spacemint,
  author = {Sunoo Park and Krzysztof Pietrzak and Albert Kwon and Jo{\"e}l Alwen and Georg Fuchsbauer and Peter Ga{\v z}i},
  title = {SpaceMint: A Cryptocurrency Based on Proofs of Space},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2015/528},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/528.pdf},
}
@misc{zyskind2015enigma,
  author = {Guy Zyskind and Oz Nathan and Alex Pentland},
  title = {Enigma: Decentralized computation platform with guaranteed privacy},
  howpublished = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1506.03471},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-08-22},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1506.03471.pdf},
}
@misc{swanson2015consensus,
  author = {Tim Swanson},
  title = {Consensus-as-a-service: a brief report on the emergence of permissioned, distributed ledger systems},
  year = {2015},
  month = {Apr},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-10-03},
  url = {http://www.ofnumbers.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Permissioned-distributed-ledgers.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{sapirshtein2016optimal,
  author = {Ayelet Sapirshtein and Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {Optimal selfish mining strategies in bitcoin},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security},
  pages = {515--532},
  year = {2016},
  organization = {Springer},
  url = {https://fc16.ifca.ai/preproceedings/30_Sapirshtein.pdf},
}
@misc{ali2016blockstack,
  author = {Muneeb Ali and Jude Nelson and Ryan Shea and Michael J Freedman},
  title = {Blockstack: Design and Implementation of a Global Naming System with Blockchains},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-03-29},
  url = {http://www.the-blockchain.com/docs/Blockstack Design and Implementation of a Global Naming System.pdf},
}
@misc{narayanan2016bitcoin,
  author = {{Narayanan, Arvind and Bonneau, Joseph and Felten, Edward and Miller, Andrew and Goldfeder, Steven}},
  title = {Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies},
  year = {2016},
  booktitle = {Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-03-29},
  url = {https://d28rh4a8wq0iu5.cloudfront.net/bitcointech/readings/princeton_bitcoin_book.pdf},
}
@misc{judmayer2016c4,
  author = {Aljosha Judmayer and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {Cryptographic Currencies Crash Course (C4)},
  journal = {Tutorial at WWW2016},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Apr},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-06-06},
  url = {http://www2016.net/proceedings/companion/p1021.pdf},
}
@misc{bentov2016bitcoin,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Ariel Gabizon and David Zuckerman},
  title = {Bitcoin Beacon},
  journal = {arXiv prepring arXiv:1605.04559},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-06-06},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.04559v2.pdf},
}
@article{sompolinsky2016bitcoin,
  author = {Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {Bitcoin's Security Model Revisited},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1605.09193},
  year = {2016},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.09193.pdf},
}
@misc{anderson2016new,
  author = {Luke Anderson and Ralph Holz and Alexander Ponomarev and Paul Rimba and Ingo Weber},
  title = {New kids on the block: an analysis of modern blockchains},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.06530},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-07-04},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1606.06530.pdf},
}
@misc{poon2016bitcoin,
  author = {Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja},
  title = {The bitcoin lightning network},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-07-07},
  url = {https://lightning.network/lightning-network-paper.pdf},
}
@misc{pass2016analysis,
  author = {Rafael Pass and Lior Seeman and abhi shelat},
  title = {Analysis of the Blockchain Protocol in Asynchronous Networks},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-01},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/454.pdf},
}
@misc{pass2016hybrid,
  author = {Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Hybrid Consensus: Scalable Permissionless Consensus},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Sep},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-10-17},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/917.pdf},
}
@misc{nelson2016extending,
  author = {Jude Nelson and Muneeb Ali and Ryan Shea and Michael J Freedman},
  title = {Extending Existing Blockchains with Virtualchain},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-01},
  url = {https://www.zurich.ibm.com/dccl/papers/nelson_dccl.pdf},
}
@misc{cachin2016architecture,
  author = {Christian Cachin},
  title = {Architecture of the Hyperledger Blockchain Fabric},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-10},
  url = {https://www.zurich.ibm.com/dccl/papers/cachin_dccl.pdf},
}
@misc{vukolic2016eventually,
  author = {Marko Vukolic},
  title = {Eventually Returning to Strong Consistency},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-10},
  url = {https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a6a1/b70305b27c556aac779fb65429db9c2e1ef2.pdf},
}
@misc{gramoli2016danger,
  author = {Vincent Gramoli},
  title = {On the Danger of Private Blockchains},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-10},
  url = {https://www.zurich.ibm.com/dccl/papers/gramoli_dccl.pdf},
}
@misc{bhargavan2016short,
  author = {Karthikeyan Bhargavan and Antoine Delignat-Lavaud and C{\'e}dric Fournet and Anitha Gollamudi and Georges Gonthier and Nadim Kobeissi and Aseem Rastogi and Thomas Sibut-Pinote and Nikhil Swamy and Santiago Zanella-B{\'e}guelin},
  title = {Short Paper: Formal Verification of Smart Contracts},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Aug},
  note = {Accessed: 2018-09-19},
  url = {https://www.cs.umd.edu/~aseem/solidetherplas.pdf},
}
@misc{pettersson2016safer,
  author = {Jack Pettersson and Robert Edstr{\"o}m},
  title = {Safer smart contracts through type-driven development},
  school = {Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg},
  year = {2016},
  address = {Gothenburg, Sweden},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-08-10},
  url = {https://publications.lib.chalmers.se/records/fulltext/234939/234939.pdf},
}
@misc{blocki2016designing,
  author = {Jeremiah Blocki and Hong-Sheng Zhou},
  title = {Designing Proof of Human-work Puzzles for Cryptocurrency and Beyond},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/145},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Aug},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-10-17},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/145.pdf},
}
@misc{cachin2016non,
  author = {Christian Cachin and Simon Schubert and Marko Vukolic},
  title = {Non-determinism in Byzantine Fault-Tolerant Replication},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Mar},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-11-08},
  url = {http://www.zurich.ibm.com/~cca/papers/sieve.pdf},
}
@misc{abraham2016bvp,
  author = {Ittai Abraham and Dahlia Malkhi},
  title = {BVP: Byzantine Vertical Paxos},
  year = {2016},
  month = {May},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-11-08},
  url = {https://www.zurich.ibm.com/dccl/papers/abraham_dccl.pdf},
}
@misc{wust2016security,
  author = {Karl W{\"u}st},
  title = {Security of Blockchain Technologies},
  publisher = {Master's Thesis - Department of Computer Science, ETH Z{\"u}rich},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Jul},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-11-08},
  url = {http://e-collection.library.ethz.ch/eserv/eth:49632/eth-49632-01.pdf},
}
@phdthesis{miller2016provable,
  author = {Andrew Miller},
  title = {Provable Security for Cryptocurrencies},
  year = {2016},
  school = {University of Maryland, College Park},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-11-08},
  url = {http://www.cs.umd.edu/~jkatz/THESES/amiller-thesis.pdf},
}
@misc{pass2016fruitchains,
  author = {Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Fruitchains: A fair blockchain},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/916},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-11-08},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/916.pdf},
}
@misc{bentov2016sleepy,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi},
  title = {The sleepy model of consensus},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/918},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-11-08},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/918.pdf},
}
@misc{bentov2016snow,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Snow White: Provably Secure Proofs of Stake},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/919},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-11-08},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/919.pdf},
}
@misc{garay2016bootstrapping,
  author = {Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos and Giorgos Panagiotakos},
  title = {Bootstrapping the Blockchain --- Directly},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/991},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Oct},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-11-08},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/991.pdf},
}
@misc{atzei2016survey,
  author = {Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Tiziana Cimoli},
  title = {A survey of attacks on Ethereum smart contracts},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/1007},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Oct},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-11-08},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1007.pdf},
}
@misc{kiayias2016provably,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Ioannis Konstantinou and Alexander Russell and Bernardo David and Roman Oliynykov},
  title = {A Provably Secure Proof-of-Stake Blockchain Protocol},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/889},
  month = {Sep},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2016-11-09},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/889.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{miller2016honey,
  author = {Andrew Miller and Yu Xia and Kyle Croman and Elaine Shi and Dawn Song},
  title = {The honey badger of BFT protocols},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security},
  pages = {31--42},
  year = {2016},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/199.pdf},
  organization = {ACM},
}
@misc{clack2016smart,
  author = {Christopher D. Clack and Vikram A. Bakshi and Lee Braine},
  title = {Smart Contract Templates: foundations, design landscape and research directions},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1608.00771},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-01-10},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1608.00771v2.pdf},
}
@misc{lajoie2016increasing,
  author = {Thibaut Lajoie-Mazenc},
  title = {Increasing the robustness of the Bitcoincrypto-system in presence of undesirable behaviours},
  publisher = {Master's Thesis sumbmitted at KTH CSC},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-01-19},
  url = {http://www.nada.kth.se/~ann/exjobb/thibaut_lajoie-mazenc.pdf},
}
@misc{baars2016towards,
  author = {Djuri Baars},
  title = {Towards Self-Sovereign Identity using Blockchain Technology},
  year = {2016},
  publisher = {Master's Thesis at University of Twente},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-01-19},
  url = {http://essay.utwente.nl/71274/1/Baars_MA_BMS.pdf},
}
@misc{abraham2016solidus,
  author = {Ittai Abraham and Dahlia Malkhi and Kartik Nayak and Ling Ren and Alexander Spiegelman},
  title = {Solidus: An Incentive-compatible Cryptocurrency Based on Permissionless Byzantine Consensus},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1612.02916},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Dec},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-06},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.02916.pdf},
}
@misc{buchman2016tendermint,
  author = {Ethan Buchman},
  title = {Tendermint: Byzantine Fault Tolerance in the Age of Blockchains},
  publisher = {Master's Thesis at University of Guelph, Ontario},
  year = {2016},
  month = {Jun},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-06},
  url = {http://atrium.lib.uoguelph.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10214/9769/Buchman_Ethan_201606_MAsc.pdf},
}
@misc{duong2016hop,
  author = {Tuyet Duong and Lei Fan and Hong-Sheng Zhou},
  title = {2-hop Blockchain: Combining Proof-of-Work and Proof-of-Stake Securely},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/716},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-06},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/716.pdf},
}
@misc{garay2016bitcoin,
  author = {Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos},
  title = {The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol with Chains of Variable Difficulty},
  journal = {{IACR} Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/1048},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-06},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1048.pdf},
}
@misc{kiayias2016trees,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Giorgos Panagiotakos},
  title = {On Trees, Chains and Fast Transactions in the Blockchain.},
  journal = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/545},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-06},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/545.pdf},
}
@misc{jarecki2016highly,
  author = {Stanislaw Jarecki and Aggelos Kiayias and Hugo Krawczyk and Jiayu Xu},
  title = {Highly-Efficient and Composable Password-Protected Secret Sharing (Or: How to Protect Your Bitcoin Wallet Online)},
  journal = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/144},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-06},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/144.pdf},
}
@misc{gencer2016service,
  author = {Adem Efe Gencer and Robbert Renesse and Emin G{\"u}n Sirer},
  title = {Service-Oriented Sharding with Aspen},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1611.06816},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-06},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1611.06816.pdf},
}
@misc{kiayias2016blockchain,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Elias Koutsoupias and Maria Kyropoulou and Yiannis Tselekounis},
  title = {Blockchain Mining Games},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1607.02420},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-07},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1607.02420.pdf},
}
@misc{micali2016algorand,
  author = {Silvio Micali},
  title = {ALGORAND: The Efficient and Democratic Ledger},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1607.01341},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-09},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1607.01341.pdf},
}
@misc{miller2016zero,
  author = {Andrew Miller and Iddo Bentov},
  title = {Zero-Collateral Lotteries in Bitcoin and Ethereum},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1612.05390},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-13},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.05390.pdf},
}
@misc{natoli2016balance,
  author = {Christopher Natoli and Vincent Gramoli},
  title = {The Balance Attack Against Proof-Of-Work Blockchains: The {R3} Testbed as an Example},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1612.09426},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-15},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.09426.pdf},
}
@misc{jain2016verify,
  author = {Sanjay Jain and Prateek Saxena and Frank Stephan and Jason Teutsch},
  title = {How to verify computation with a rational network},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.05917},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-15},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1606.05917.pdf},
}
@misc{duong2016securing,
  author = {Tuyet Duong and Lei Fan and Thomas Veale and Hong-Sheng Zhou},
  title = {Securing Bitcoin-like Backbone Protocols against a Malicious Majority of Computing Power},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-15},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/eprint-bin/getfile.pl?entry=2016/716&version=20160721:174624&file=716.pdf},
}
@misc{kiayias2016ouroboros,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Alexander Russell and Bernardo David and Roman Oliynykov},
  title = {Ouroboros: A Provably Secure Proof-of-Stake Blockchain Protocol},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2018-08-19},
  url = {https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a583/3270b14e251f0b16d86438d04652b1b8d7f3.pdf},
}
@misc{sompolinsky2016spectre,
  author = {Yonatan Sompolinsky and Yoad Lewenberg and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {SPECTRE: A Fast and Scalable Cryptocurrency Protocol},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/1159},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-20},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1159.pdf},
}
@misc{camacho2016decor,
  author = {Philippe Camacho and Sergio Demian Lerner},
  title = {DECOR+ LAMI: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-20},
  url = {https://scalingbitcoin.org/papers/DECOR-LAMI.pdf},
}
@misc{boyen2016blockchain,
  author = {Xavier Boyen and Christopher Carr and Thomas Haines},
  title = {Blockchain-Free Cryptocurrencies. A Rational Framework for Truly Decentralised Fast Transactions},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/871},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-20},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/871.pdf},
}
@misc{mccorry2016removing,
  author = {Patrick McCorry and Ehsan Toreini and Maryam Mehrnezhad},
  title = {Removing Trusted Tallying Authorities},
  year = {2016},
  publisher = {Newcastle University},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-20},
  url = {https://www.economist.com/sites/default/files/newcastle.pdf},
}
@misc{reyzin2016improving,
  author = {Leonid Reyzin and Dmitry Meshkov and Alexander Chepurnoy and Sasha Ivanov},
  title = {Improving Authenticated Dynamic Dictionaries, with Applications to Cryptocurrencies},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/994},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-27},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/994.pdf},
}
@misc{seijas2016scripting,
  author = {Pablo Lamela Seijas and Simon Thompson and Darryl McAdams},
  title = {Scripting smart contracts for distributed ledger technology},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/1156},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-03},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1156.pdf},
}
@misc{bartoletti2016constant,
  author = {Massimo Bartoletti and Roberto Zunino},
  title = {Constant-deposit multiparty lotteries on Bitcoin},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/955},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-09},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/955.pdf},
}
@misc{lind2016teechan,
  author = {Joshua Lind and Ittay Eyal and Peter R. Pietzuch and Emin G{\"{u}}n Sirer},
  title = {Teechan: Payment Channels Using Trusted Execution Environments},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1612.07766},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-09},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.07766.pdf},
}
@misc{norta2016designing,
  author = {Alex Norta},
  title = {Designing a Smart-Contract Application Layer for Transacting Decentralized Autonomous Organizations},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-16},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Alex_Norta/publication/308986556_Designing_a_Smart-Contract_Application_Layer_for_Transacting_Decentralized_Autonomous_Organizations/links/57fcddf608aeb857afa0943d/Designing-a-Smart-Contract-Application-Layer-for-Transacting-Decentralized-Autonomous-Organizations.pdf},
}
@misc{ateniese2016redactable,
  author = {Giuseppe Ateniese and Bernardo Magri and Daniele Venturi and Ewerton Andrade},
  title = {Redactable Blockchain--or--Rewriting History in Bitcoin and Friends},
  year = {2016},
  institution = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-23},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/757.pdf},
}
@misc{apostolaki2016,
  author = {Maria Apostolaki and Aviv Zohar and Laurent Vanbever},
  title = {Hijacking Bitcoin: Large-scale Network Attacks on Cryptocurrencies},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1605.07524},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-28},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.07524.pdf},
}
@misc{ozisik2016secure,
  author = {A Pinar Ozisik and Gavin Andresen and George Bissias and Amir Houmansadr and Brian N Levine},
  title = {A Secure, Efficient, and Transparent Network Architecture for Bitcoin},
  year = {2016},
  institution = {UMass Amherst, Tech. Rep. UM-CS-2016-006, 2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-04-24},
  url = {https://people.cs.umass.edu/~gbiss/bitcoin_architecture.pdf},
}
@misc{reijers2016governance,
  author = {Wessel Reijers and Fiachra O'Brolch{\'a}in and Paul Haynes},
  title = {Governance in Blockchain Technologies \& Social Contract Theories},
  journal = {Ledger},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {134--151},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-05-09},
  url = {http://ledger.pitt.edu/ojs/index.php/ledger/article/download/62/51},
}
@misc{noyes2016bitav,
  author = {Charles Noyes},
  title = {BitAV: Fast Anti-Malware by Distributed Blockchain Consensus and Feedforward Scanning},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1601.01405},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-05-09},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1601.01405.pdf},
}
@misc{vitalik2016chain,
  author = {Vitalik Buterin},
  title = {Chain Interoperability},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-25},
  url = {https://static1.squarespace.com/static/55f73743e4b051cfcc0b02cf/t/5886800ecd0f68de303349b1/1485209617040/Chain+Interoperability.pdf},
}
@misc{malavolta2016silentwhispers,
  author = {Giulio Malavolta and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Aniket Kate and Matteo Maffei},
  title = {SilentWhispers: Enforcing Security and Privacy in Decentralized Credit Networks},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/1054},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1054.pdf},
}
@misc{green2016bolt,
  author = {Matthew Green and Ian Miers},
  title = {Bolt: Anonymous Payment Channels for Decentralized Currencies},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/701},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-08-07},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/701.pdf},
}
@misc{siamak2016,
  author = {Siamak Solat and Maria Potop-Butucaru},
  Title = {ZeroBlock: Timestamp-Free Prevention of Block-Withholding Attack in Bitcoin},
  Year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-08-03},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.02435.pdf},
}
@misc{heilman2016tumblebit,
  author = {Ethan Heilman and Leen Alshenibr and Foteini Baldimtsi and Alessandra Scafuro and Sharon Goldberg},
  title = {TumbleBit: An untrusted Bitcoin-compatible anonymous payment hub},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/575, Tech. Rep.},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-09-29},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/575.pdf},
}
@misc{heilman2016blindly,
  author = {Ethan Heilman and Foteini Baldimtsi and Sharon Goldberg},
  title = {Blindly Signed Contracts: Anonymous On-Blockchain and Off-Blockchain Bitcoin Transactions},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/056},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-10-03},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/056.pdf},
}
@article{egbertsen2016replacing,
  author = {Wesley Egbertsen and Gerdinand Hardeman and Maarten Hoven and Gert Kolk and Arthur Rijsewijk},
  title = {Replacing Paper Contracts With Ethereum Smart Contracts},
  year = {2016},
  url = {https://wesleyegbertsen.nl/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/replacing-paper-contracts.pdf},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-10-24},
}
@article{rizun2016subchains,
  author = {Peter R Rizun},
  title = {Subchains: A Technique to Scale Bitcoin and Improve the User Experience},
  journal = {Ledger},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {38--52},
  year = {2016},
  url = {https://www.bitcoinunlimited.info/resources/subchains.pdf},
}
@article{gobel2016bitcoin,
  author = {Johannes G{\"o}bel and Holger Paul Keeler and Anthony E Krzesinski and Peter G Taylor},
  title = {Bitcoin blockchain dynamics: The selfish-mine strategy in the presence of propagation delay},
  journal = {Performance Evaluation},
  volume = {104},
  pages = {23--41},
  year = {2016},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.05343.pdf},
}
@misc{bentov2017instantaneous,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Ranjit Kumaresan and Andrew Miller},
  title = {Instantaneous Decentralized Poker},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1701.06726},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-02-16},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1701.06726.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{kiayias2017trees,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Georgios Panagiotakos},
  title = {On Trees, Chains and Fast Transactions in the Blockchain},
  year = {2017},
  month = {8},
  day = {10},
  booktitle = {Latincrypt 2017, the Fifth International Conference on Cryptology and Information Security in Latin America},
  url = {https://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/files/44941465/gBackbone_1.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{bartoletti2017analysis,
  author = {Massimo Bartoletti and Livio Pompianu},
  title = {An analysis of Bitcoin OP\_RETURN metadata},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security},
  pages = {218--230},
  year = {2017},
  organization = {Springer},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.01024.pdf},
}
@misc{dickerson2017adding,
  author = {Thomas Dickerson and Paul Gazzillo and Maurice Herlihy and Eric Koskinen},
  title = {Adding Concurrency to Smart Contracts},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.04467},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-16},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.04467.pdf},
}
@misc{sergey2017concurrent,
  author = {Ilya Sergey and Aquinas Hobor},
  title = {A Concurrent Perspective on Smart Contracts},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.05511},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-16},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.05511.pdf},
}
@misc{luu2017smart,
  author = {Loi Luu and Yaron Velner and Jason Teutsch and Prateek Saxena},
  title = {SMART POOL : Practical Decentralized Pooled Mining},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/019},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/019.pdf},
}
@misc{dinh2017blockbench,
  author = {Tien Tuan Anh Dinh and Ji Wang and Gang Chen and Rui Liu and Beng Chin Ooi and Kian-Lee Tan},
  title = {BLOCKBENCH: A Framework for Analyzing Private Blockchains},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.04057},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.04057.pdf},
}
@misc{crain2017leader,
  author = {Tyler Crain and Vincent Gramoli and Mikel Larrea and Michel Raynal},
  title = {(Leader/Randomization/Signature)-free Byzantine Consensus for Consortium Blockchains},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.03068},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.03068.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{pass2017analysis,
  author = {Rafael Pass and Lior Seeman and Abhi Shelat},
  title = {Analysis of the blockchain protocol in asynchronous networks},
  booktitle = {Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques},
  pages = {643--673},
  year = {2017},
  organization = {Springer},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/454.pdf},
}
@misc{di2017smart,
  author = {Emanuele Di Pascale and Jasmina McMenamy and Irene Macaluso and Linda Doyle},
  title = {Smart Contract SLAs for Dense Small-Cell-as-a-Service},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.04502},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.04502.pdf},
}
@misc{chen2017under,
  author = {Ting Chen and Xiaoqi Li and Xiapu Luo and Xiaosong Zhang},
  title = {Under-Optimized Smart Contracts Devour Your Money},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.03994},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.03994.pdf},
}
@misc{bartoletti2017dissecting,
  author = {Massimo Bartoletti and Salvatore Carta and Tiziana Cimoli and Roberto Saia},
  title = {Dissecting Ponzi schemes on Ethereum: identification, analysis, and impact},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.03779},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/17@misc{1605.02435, Author = {Siamak Solat and Maria Potop-Butucaru}, Title = {ZeroBlock: Timestamp-Free Prevention of Block-Withholding Attack in Bitcoin}, Year = {2016}, Eprint = {arXiv:1605.02435}, }03.03779.pdf},
}
@misc{miller2017sprites,
  author = {Andrew Miller and Iddo Bentov and Ranjit Kumaresan and Patrick McCorry},
  title = {Sprites: Payment Channels that Go Faster than Lightning},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.05812},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.05812.pdf},
}
@misc{boyd2017key,
  author = {Colin Boyd and Xavier Boyen and Christopher Carr and Thomas Haines},
  title = {Key Recovery: Inert and Public},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/243},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/243.pdf},
}
@misc{kaptchuk2017managing,
  author = {Gabriel Kaptchuk and Ian Miers and Matthew Green},
  title = {Managing Secrets with Consensus Networks: Fairness, Ransomware and Access Control},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/201},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/201.pdf},
}
@misc{puddu2017muchain,
  author = {Srdjan Capkun Ivan Puddu},
  title = {$\mu$chain: How to Forget without Hard Forks},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/106},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/106.pdf},
}
@misc{ruffing2017mixing,
  author = {Tim Ruffing and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez},
  title = {Mixing Confidential Transactions: Comprehensive Transaction Privacy for Bitcoin},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/238},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/238.pdf},
}
@misc{ruffing2017switch,
  author = {Tim Ruffing and Giulio Malavolta},
  title = {Switch Commitments: A Safety Switch for Confidential Transactions},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/237},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/237.pdf},
}
@misc{chepurnoy2017twinscoin,
  author = {Alexander Chepurnoy and Tuyet Duong and Lei Fan and Hong-Sheng Zhou},
  title = {TwinsCoin: A Cryptocurrency via Proof-of-Work and Proof-of-Stake},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/232},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-22},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/232.pdf},
}
@misc{zhang2017rem,
  author = {Fan Zhang and Ittay Eyal and Robert Escriva and Ari Juels and Robbert Renesse},
  title = {REM: Resource-Efficient Mining for Blockchains},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/179},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-24},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/179.pdf},
}
@misc{cascudo2017scrape,
  author = {Ignacio Cascudo and Bernardo David},
  title = {SCRAPE: Scalable Randomness Attested by Public Entities},
  journal = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/216},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-03-24},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/216.pdf},
}
@misc{miller2017empirical,
  author = {Andrew Miller and Malte Moeser and Kevin Lee and Arvind Narayanan},
  title = {An Empirical Analysis of Linkability in the Monero Blockchain},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.04299},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-04-24},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1704.04299.pdf},
}
@misc{dorri2017blockchaindistributed,
  author = {Ali Dorri and Marco Steger and Salil S Kanhere and Raja Jurdak},
  title = {BlockChain: A distributed solution to automotive security and privacy},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.00073},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-04-24},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1704.00073.pdf},
}
@misc{pappalardo2017blockchain,
  author = {Giuseppe Pappalardo and T Di Matteo and Guido Caldarelli and Tomaso Aste},
  title = {Blockchain Inefficiency in the Bitcoin Peers Network},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.01414},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-04-24},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1704.01414.pdf},
}
@misc{rowan2017securing,
  author = {Sean Rowan and Michael Clear and Mario Gerla and Meriel Huggard and Ciar{\'a}n Mc Goldrick},
  title = {Securing Vehicle to Vehicle Communications using Blockchain through Visible Light and Acoustic Side-Channels},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.02553},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-04-24},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1704.02553.pdf},
}
@misc{danzi2017distributed,
  author = {Pietro Danzi and Marko Angjelichinoski and {\v{C}}edomir Stefanovi{\'c} and Petar Popovski},
  title = {Distributed Proportional-Fairness Control in MicroGrids via Blockchain Smart Contracts},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1705.01453},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-04-24},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1705.01453.pdf},
}
@misc{english2017conditions,
  author = {S Matthew English and Ehsan Nezhadian},
  title = {Conditions of Full Disclosure: The Blockchain Remuneration Model},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.04196},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-04-24},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.04196.pdf},
}
@misc{porru2017blockchain,
  author = {Simone Porru and Andrea Pinna and Michele Marchesi and Roberto Tonelli},
  title = {Blockchain-oriented Software Engineering: Challenges and New Directions},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.05146},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-04-24},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.05146.pdf},
}
@misc{malavolta2017concurrency,
  author = {Giulio Malavolta and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Aniket Kate and Matteo Maffei and Srivatsan Ravi},
  title = {Concurrency and Privacy with Payment-Channel Networks},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://www.cs.purdue.edu/homes/pmorenos/public/paychannels.pdf},
}
@misc{tarasov2017internet,
  author = {Pavel Tarasov and Hitesh Tewari},
  title = {Internet Voting Using Zcash},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/585},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/585.pdf},
}
@misc{david2017ouroboros,
  author = {Bernardo David and Peter Ga{\v{z}}i and Aggelos Kiayias and Alexander Russell},
  title = {Ouroboros Praos: An adaptively-secure, semi-synchronous proof-of-stake protocol},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/573},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/573.pdf},
}
@misc{campanelli2017zero,
  author = {Matteo Campanelli and Rosario Gennaro and Steven Goldfeder and Luca Nizzardo},
  title = {Zero-Knowledge Contingent Payments Revisited: Attacks and Payments for Services},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/566},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/566.pdf},
}
@misc{altawy2017lelantos,
  author = {Riham AlTawy and Muhammad ElSheikh and Amr M. Youssef and Guang Gong},
  title = {Lelantos: A Blockchain-based Anonymous Physical Delivery System},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/465},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/465.pdf},
}
@misc{gilad2017algorand,
  author = {Yossi Gilad and Rotem Hemo and Silvio Micali and Georgios Vlachos and Nickolai Zeldovich},
  title = {Algorand: Scaling Byzantine Agreements for Cryptocurrencies},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/454},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/454.pdf},
}
@misc{li2017block,
  author = {Huige Li and Haibo Tian and Fangguo Zhang},
  title = {Block Chain based Searchable Symmetric Encryption},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/447},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/447.pdf},
}
@misc{li2017crowdbc,
  author = {Ming Li and Jian Weng and Anjia Yang and Wei Lu},
  title = {CrowdBC: A Blockchain-based Decentralized Framework for Crowdsourcing},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/444},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/444.pdf},
}
@misc{kokoris2017omniledger,
  author = {Eleftherios Kokoris-Kogias and Philipp Jovanovic and Linus Gasser and Nicolas Gailly and Bryan Ford},
  title = {OmniLedger: A Secure, Scale-Out, Decentralized Ledger},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/406},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/406.pdf},
}
@misc{perez2017double,
  author = {Cristina P{\' e}rez-Sol{\` a} and Sergi Delgado-Segura and Guillermo Navarro-Arribas and Jordi Herrera-Joancomart{\' i}},
  title = {Double-spending Prevention for Bitcoin zero-confirmation transactions},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/394},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/394.pdf},
}
@misc{wust2017do,
  author = {Karl W{\" u}st and Arthur Gervais},
  title = {Do you need a Blockchain?},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/375},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/375.pdf},
}
@misc{kumar2017traceability,
  author = {Amrit Kumar and Cl\'{e}ment Fischer and Shruti Tople and Prateek Saxena},
  title = {A Traceability Analysis of Monero's Blockchain},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/338},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/338.pdf},
}
@misc{cecchetti2017solidus,
  author = {Ethan Cecchetti and Fan Zhang and Yan Ji and Ahmed Kosba and Ari Juels and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Solidus: Confidential Distributed Ledger Transactions via PVORM},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/317},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/317.pdf},
}
@misc{bentov2017tortoise,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Pavel Hub\'{a}\v{c}ek and Tal Moran and Asaf Nadler},
  title = {Tortoise and Hares Consensus: the Meshcash Framework for Incentive-Compatible, Scalable Cryptocurrencies},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/300},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/300.pdf},
}
@misc{narayanan2017obfuscation,
  author = {Arvind Narayanan and Malte M{\" o}ser},
  Title = {Obfuscation in Bitcoin: Techniques and Politics},
  Year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.05432.pdf},
}
@misc{recabarren2017hardening,
  author = {Ruben Recabarren and Bogdan Carbunar},
  Title = {Hardening Stratum, the Bitcoin Pool Mining Protocol},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1703.06545},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.06545.pdf},
}
@misc{fanti2017anonymity,
  author = {Giulia Fanti and Pramod Viswanath},
  Title = {Anonymity Properties of the Bitcoin P2P Network},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1703.08761},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.08761.pdf},
}
@misc{ren2017practical,
  author = {Ling Ren and Kartik Nayak and Ittai Abraham and Srinivas Devadas},
  Title = {Practical Synchronous Byzantine Consensus},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1704.02397},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1704.02397.pdf},
}
@misc{riemann2017distributed,
  author = {Robert Riemann and St{\' e}phane Grumbach},
  Title = {Distributed Protocols at the Rescue for Trustworthy Online Voting},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1705.04480},
  Doi = {10.5220/0006228504990505},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1705.04480.pdf},
}
@misc{kiktenko2017quantum,
  author = {E. O. Kiktenko and N. O. Pozhar and M. N. Anufriev and A. S. Trushechkin and R. R. Yunusov and Y. V. Kurochkin and A. I. Lvovsky and A. K. Fedorov},
  Title = {Quantum-secured blockchain},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1705.09258},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1705.09258.pdf},
}
@misc{jaiyeola2017good,
  author = {Mercy O. Jaiyeola and Kyle Patron and Jared Saia and Maxwell Young and Qian M. Zhou},
  Title = {Good Things Come in LogLog(n)-Sized Packages: Robustness with Small Quorums},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1705.10387},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1705.10387.pdf},
}
@misc{ren2017implicit,
  author = {Zhijie Ren and Kelong Cong and Johan Pouwelse and Zekeriya Erkin},
  Title = {Implicit Consensus: Blockchain with Unbounded Throughput},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1705.11046},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1705.11046.pdf},
}
@misc{conti2017survey,
  author = {Mauro Conti and Sandeep Kumar E and Chhagan Lal and Sushmita Ruj},
  Title = {A Survey on Security and Privacy Issues of Bitcoin},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1706.00916},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.00916.pdf},
}
@misc{moinet2017blockchain,
  author = {Axel Moinet and Beno{\^ i}t Darties and Jean-Luc Baril},
  Title = {Blockchain based trust {\&} authentication for decentralized sensor networks},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1706.01730},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.01730.pdf},
}
@misc{moreno2017mind,
  author = {Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Navin Modi and Raghuvir Songhela and Aniket Kate and Sonia Fahmy},
  Title = {Mind Your Credit: Assessing the Health of the Ripple Credit Network},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1706.02358},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.02358.pdf},
}
@misc{neisse2017blockchain,
  author = {Ricardo Neisse and Gary Steri and Igor Nai-Fovino},
  Title = {A Blockchain-based Approach for Data Accountability and Provenance Tracking},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublised = {arXiv:1706.04507},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.04507.pdf},
}
@misc{ball2017proofs,
  author = {Marshall Ball and Alon Rosen and Manuel Sabin and Prashant Nalini Vasudevan},
  title = {Proofs of Useful Work},
  journal = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
  volume = {2017},
  pages = {203},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-06-29},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/203.pdf},
}
@misc{zhang2017necessity,
  author = {Ren Zhang and Bart Preneel},
  title = {On the Necessity of a Prescribed Block Validity Consensus: Analyzing Bitcoin Unlimited Mining Protocol},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-07-20},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/686.pdf},
}
@misc{meshkov2017revisiting,
  author = {Dmitry Meshkov and Alexander Chepurnoy and Marc Jansen},
  title = {Revisiting Difficulty Control for Blockchain Systems},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/731},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-08-03},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/731.pdf},
}
@misc{poon2017plasma,
  author = {Joseph Poon and Vitalik Buterin},
  title = {Plasma: Scalable Autonomous Smart Contracts},
  year = {2017},
  month = {Aug},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-08-10},
  url = {https://plasma.io/plasma.pdf},
}
@misc{tang2017improved,
  author = {Shuyang Tang and Zhiqiang Liu and Zhen Liu and Yu Long and Shengli Liu},
  title = {Improved Hybrid Consensus Scheme with Privacy-preserving Property.},
  howpublished = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
  pages = {192},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-08-11},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/eprint-bin/getfile.pl?entry=2017/192&version=20170228:193152&file=192.pdf},
}
@misc{beccuti2017bitcoin,
  author = {Juan Beccuti and Christian Jaag and others},
  title = {The Bitcoin Mining Game: On the Optimality of Honesty in Proof-of-work Consensus Mechanism},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-08-11},
  url = {http://www.swiss-economics.ch/RePEc/files/0060JaagBeccuti.pdf},
}
@misc{setty2017enabling,
  author = {Srinath Setty and Soumya Basu and Lidong Zhou and Michael Lowell Roberts and Ramarathnam Venkatesan},
  title = {Enabling secure and resource-efficient blockchain networks with VOLT},
  year = {2017},
  month = {August},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-08-21},
  url = {https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/volt.pdf},
}
@misc{garay2017proofs,
  author = {Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Giorgos Panagiotakos},
  title = {Proofs of Work for Blockchain Protocols},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/775},
  year = {2017},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/775.pdf},
}
@misc{dinh2017untangling,
  author = {Tien Tuan Anh Dinh and Rui Liu and Meihui Zhang and Gang Chen and Beng Chin Ooi and Ji Wang},
  title = {Untangling Blockchain: A Data Processing View of Blockchain Systems},
  howpublished = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1708.05665},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed: 2017-08-26},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.05665.pdf},
}
@misc{ozisik2017estimation,
  author = {A. Pinar Ozisik and George Bissias and Brian Levine},
  Title = {Estimation of Miner Hash Rates and Consensus on Blockchains},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1707.00082},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1707.00082.pdf},
}
@misc{bartoletti2017general,
  author = {Massimo Bartoletti and Andrea Bracciali and Stefano Lande and Livio Pompianu},
  Title = {A general framework for Bitcoin analytics},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1707.01021},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1707.01021.pdf},
}
@misc{bruennler2017logic,
  author = {Kai Br{\" u}nnler and Dandolo Flumini and Thomas Studer},
  Title = {A Logic of Blockchain Updates},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1707.01766},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1707.01766.pdf},
}
@misc{dong2017betrayal,
  author = {Changyu Dong and Yilei Wang and Amjad Aldweesh and Patrick McCorry and Aad Moorsel},
  Title = {Betrayal, Distrust, and Rationality: Smart Counter-Collusion Contracts for Verifiable Cloud Computing},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1708.01171},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.01171.pdf},
}
@misc{1708.03468,
  author = {Thanh Bui and Tuomas Aura},
  Title = {Key exchange with the help of a public ledger},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1708.03468},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.03468.pdf},
}
@misc{albassam2017chainspace,
  author = {Mustafa Al-Bassam and Alberto Sonnino and Shehar Bano and Dave Hrycyszyn and George Danezis},
  Title = {Chainspace: A Sharded Smart Contracts Platform},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1708.03778},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.03778.pdf},
}
@misc{goldfeder2017when,
  author = {Steven Goldfeder and Harry Kalodner and Dillon Reisman and Arvind Narayanan},
  Title = {When the cookie meets the blockchain: Privacy risks of web payments via cryptocurrencies},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1708.04748},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.04748.pdf},
}
@misc{tasca2017ontology,
  author = {Paolo Tasca and Thayabaran Thanabalasingham and Claudio J. Tessone},
  Title = {Ontology of Blockchain Technologies. Principles of Identification and Classification},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1708.04872},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.04872.pdf},
}
@misc{rosenfeld2017predicting,
  author = {Meni Rosenfeld},
  Title = {Predicting Block Halving Party Times},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1708.05185},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.05185.pdf},
}
@misc{chatzopoulos2017localcoin,
  author = {Dimitris Chatzopoulos and Sujit Gujar and Boi Faltings and Pan Hui},
  Title = {LocalCoin: An Ad-hoc Payment Scheme for Areas with High Connectivity},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1708.08086},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.08086.pdf},
}
@misc{oliver2017proposal,
  author = {Carlos G. Oliver and Alessandro Ricottone and Pericles Philippopoulos},
  Title = {Proposal for a fully decentralized blockchain and proof-of-work algorithm for solving NP-complete problems},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1708.09419},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.09419.pdf},
}
@misc{kwon2017selfish,
  author = {Yujin Kwon and Dohyun Kim and Yunmok Son and Eugene Vasserman and Yongdae Kim},
  Title = {Be Selfish and Avoid Dilemmas: Fork After Withholding (FAW) Attacks on Bitcoin},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1708.09790},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.09790.pdf},
}
@misc{kalodner2017blocksci,
  author = {Harry Kalodner and Steven Goldfeder and Alishah Chator and Malte M{\" o}ser and Arvind Narayanan},
  Title = {BlockSci: Design and applications of a blockchain analysis platform},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1709.02489},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.02489.pdf},
}
@misc{roos2017settling,
  author = {Stefanie Roos and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Aniket Kate and Ian Goldberg},
  Title = {Settling Payments Fast and Private: Efficient Decentralized Routing for Path-Based Transactions},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1709.05748},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.05748.pdf},
}
@misc{dubovitskaya2017secure,
  author = {Alevtina Dubovitskaya and Zhigang Xu and Samuel Ryu and Michael Schumacher and Fusheng Wang},
  Title = {Secure and Trustable Electronic Medical Records Sharing using Blockchain},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1709.06528},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.06528.pdf},
}
@misc{wang2017towards,
  author = {Liang Wang and Ivan Pustogarov},
  Title = {Towards Better Understanding of Bitcoin Unreachable Peers},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1709.06837},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.06837.pdf},
}
@misc{sousa2017byzantine,
  author = {Jo{\~ a}o Sousa and Alysson Bessani and Marko Vukoli{\' c}},
  Title = {A Byzantine Fault-Tolerant Ordering Service for the Hyperledger Fabric Blockchain Platform},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1709.06921},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.06921.pdf},
}
@misc{pinna2017petri,
  author = {Andrea Pinna and Roberto Tonelli and Matteo Orr{\' u} and Michele Marchesi},
  Title = {A Petri Nets Model for Blockchain Analysis},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1709.07790},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-25},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.07790.pdf},
}
@misc{badertscher2017bitcoin,
  author = {Christian Badertscher and Ueli Maurer and Daniel Tschudi and Vassilis Zikas},
  title = {Bitcoin as a Transaction Ledger: A Composable Treatment},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/149},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/149.pdf},
}
@misc{liu2017fork,
  author = {Zhiqiang Liu and Shuyang Tang and Sherman S.M. Chow and Zhen Liu and Yu Long},
  title = {Fork-Free Hybrid Consensus with Flexible Proof-of-Activity},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/367},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/367.pdf},
}
@misc{zhang2017zchannel,
  author = {Yuncong Zhang and Yu Long and Zhen Liu and Zhiqiang Liu and Dawu Gu},
  title = {Z-Channel: Scalable and Efficient Scheme in Zerocash},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/684},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/684.pdf},
}
@misc{khalil2017revive,
  author = {Rami Khalil and Arthur Gervais},
  title = {Revive: Rebalancing Off-Blockchain Payment Networks},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/823},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/823.pdf},
}
@misc{sanchez2017raziel,
  author = {David Cerezo S{\' a}nchez},
  title = {Raziel: Private and Verifiable Smart Contracts on Blockchains},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/878},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/878.pdf},
}
@misc{meiklejohn2017moebius,
  author = {Sarah Meiklejohn and Rebekah Mercer},
  title = {M{\"o}bius: Trustless Tumbling for Transaction Privacy},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/881},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/881.pdf},
}
@misc{david2017kaleidoscope,
  author = {Bernardo David and Rafael Dowsley and Mario Larangeira},
  title = {Kaleidoscope: An Efficient Poker Protocol with Payment Distribution and Penalty Enforcement},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/899},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/899.pdf},
}
@misc{pass2017thunderella,
  author = {Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Thunderella: Blockchains with Optimistic Instant Confirmation},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/913},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/913.pdf},
}
@misc{eckey2017efficient,
  author = {Lisa Eckey and Sebastian Faust and Julian Loss},
  title = {Efficient Algorithms for Broadcast and Consensus Based on Proofs of Work},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/915},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/915.pdf},
}
@misc{sun2017ringct,
  author = {Shi-Feng Sun and Man Ho Au and Joseph K. Liu and Tsz Hon Yuen and Dawu Gu},
  title = {RingCT 2.0: A Compact Accumulator-Based (Linkable Ring Signature) Protocol for Blockchain Cryptocurrency Monero},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/921},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/921.pdf},
}
@misc{goyal2017overcoming,
  author = {Rishab Goyal and Vipul Goyal},
  title = {Overcoming Cryptographic Impossibility Results using Blockchains},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/935},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/935.pdf},
}
@misc{cachin2017blockchain,
  author = {Christian Cachin and Marko Vukoli{\'c}},
  Title = {Blockchain Consensus Protocols in the Wild},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1707.01873},
  note = {Accessed:2017-09-26},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1707.01873.pdf},
}
@misc{kiayias2017noninteractive,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Andrew Miller and Dionysis Zindros},
  title = {Non-interactive proofs of proof-of-work},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/963},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-10-03},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/963.pdf},
}
@misc{fisch2017socially,
  author = {Ben A Fisch and Rafael Pass and Abhi Shelat},
  title = {Socially Optimal Mining Pools},
  howpublished = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.03846},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-10-05},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.03846.pdf},
}
@misc{teutsch2017scalable,
  author = {Jason Teutsch and Christian Reitwie{\ss}ner},
  title = {A scalable verification solution for blockchains},
  year = {2017},
  month = {March},
  note = {Accessed:2017-10-06},
  url = {https://people.cs.uchicago.edu/~teutsch/papers/truebit.pdf},
}
@misc{tran2017obscuro,
  author = {Muoi Tran and Loi Luu and Min Suk Kang and Iddo Bentov and Prateek Saxena},
  title = {Obscuro: A Bitcoin Mixer using Trusted Execution Environments},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/974},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-10-06},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/974.pdf},
}
@misc{alwen2017moderately,
  author = {Jo{\" e}l Alwen and Bj{\" o}rn Tackmann},
  title = {Moderately Hard Functions: Definition, Instantiations, and Applications},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/945},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-10-06},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/945.pdf},
}
@misc{alharby2017blockchain,
  author = {Maher Alharby and Aad Moorsel},
  Title = {Blockchain-based Smart Contracts: A Systematic Mapping Study},
  Year = {2017},
  Howpublished = {Fourth International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology (CSIT-2017)},
  note = {Accessed:2017-10-20},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.06372.pdf},
}
@misc{ali2017nuts,
  author = {Syed Taha Ali and Dylan Clarke and Patrick McCorry},
  Title = {The Nuts and Bolts of Micropayments: A Survey},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1710.02964},
  note = {Accessed:2017-10-20},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.02964.pdf},
}
@misc{augot2017transforming,
  author = {Daniel Augot and Herv{\' e} Chabanne and Olivier Cl{\' e}mot and William George},
  Title = {Transforming face-to-face identity proofing into anonymous digital identity using the Bitcoin blockchain},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1710.02951},
  note = {Accessed:2017-10-20},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.02951.pdf},
}
@misc{aggarwal2017quantum,
  author = {Divesh Aggarwal and Gavin K. Brennen and Troy Lee and Miklos Santha and Marco Tomamichel},
  Title = {Quantum attacks on Bitcoin, and how to protect against them},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1710.10377},
  note = {Accessed:2017-11-06},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.10377.pdf},
}
@misc{buterin2017casper,
  author = {Vitalik Buterin and Virgil Griffith},
  Title = {Casper the Friendly Finality Gadget},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1710.09437},
  note = {Accessed:2017-11-06},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.09437.pdf},
}
@misc{blass2017strain,
  author = {Erik-Oliver Blass and Florian Kerschbaum},
  title = {Strain: A Secure Auction for Blockchains},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1044},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-11-06},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1044.pdf},
}
@misc{eze2017triplicate,
  author = {Peter Eze and Tochukwu Eziokwu and Chinedu Okpara},
  title = {A Triplicate Smart Contract Model using Blockchain Technology},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-11-06},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Peter_Eze7/publication/317349621_A_Triplicate_Smart_Contract_Model_using_Blockchain_Technology/links/5937782c4585158f6464595f/A-Triplicate-Smart-Contract-Model-using-Blockchain-Technology.pdf},
}
@misc{chepurnoy2017space,
  author = {Alexander Chepurnoy and Dmitry Meshkov},
  title = {On Space-Scarce Economy In Blockchain Systems},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/644},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-11-06},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/644.pdf},
}
@misc{bissias2017bobtail,
  author = {George Bissias and Brian Neil Levine},
  Title = {Bobtail: A Proof-of-Work Target that Minimizes Blockchain Mining Variance},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1709.08750},
  note = {Accessed:2017-11-10},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.08750.pdf},
}
@misc{buenz2017efficient,
  author = {Benedikt B{\" u}nz and Jonathan Bootle and Dan Boneh and Andrew Poelstra and Pieter Wuille and Greg Maxwell},
  Title = {Bulletproofs: Efficient Range Proofs for Confidential Transactions},
  Year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-11-10},
  url = {http://web.stanford.edu/~buenz/pubs/bulletproofs.pdf},
}
@misc{espel2017proposal,
  author = {Thomas Espel and Laurent Katz and Guillaume Robin},
  title = {Proposal for Protocol on a Quorum Blockchain with Zero Knowledge},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1093},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-11-14},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1093.pdf},
}
@misc{dziembowski2017perun,
  author = {Stefan Dziembowski and Lisa Eckey and Sebastian Faust and Daniel Malinowski},
  title = {PERUN: Virtual Payment Channels over Cryptographic Currencies},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/635},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-11-20},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/635.pdf},
}
@misc{atzei2017formal,
  author = {Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Stefano Lande and Roberto Zunino},
  title = {A formal model of Bitcoin transactions},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1124},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-12-04},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1124.pdf},
}
@misc{bentov2017tesseract,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Yan Ji and Fan Zhang and Yunqi Li and Xueyuan Zhao and Lorenz Breidenbach and Philip Daian and Ari Juels},
  title = {Tesseract: Real-Time Cryptocurrency Exchange using Trusted Hardware},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1153},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-12-04},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1153.pdf},
}
@misc{mavridou2017designing,
  author = {Anastasia Mavridou and Aron Laszka},
  Title = {Designing Secure Ethereum Smart Contracts: A Finite State Machine Based Approach},
  Year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-12-04},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1711.09327},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1711.09327.pdf},
}
@misc{kiran2017dynamic,
  author = {Ravi Kiran Raman and Lav R. Varshney},
  Title = {Dynamic Distributed Storage for Scaling Blockchains},
  Year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-12-04},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1711.07617},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1711.07617.pdf},
}
@misc{quesnelle2017linkability,
  author = {Jeffrey Quesnelle},
  Title = {On the linkability of Zcash transactions},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1712.01210},
  note = {Accessed:2017-12-11},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1712.01210.pdf},
}
@misc{bano2017consensus,
  author = {Shehar Bano and Alberto Sonnino and Mustafa Al-Bassam and Sarah Azouvi and Patrick McCorry and Sarah Meiklejohn and George Danezis},
  Title = {Consensus in the Age of Blockchains},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1711.03936},
  note = {Accessed:2017-12-11},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1711.03936.pdf},
}
@misc{engelmann2017towards,
  author = {Felix Engelmann and Florian Glaser and Henning Kopp and Frank Kargl and Christof Weinhardt},
  Title = {Towards an Economic Analysis of Routing in Payment Channel Networks},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1711.02597},
  Doi = {10.1145/3152824.3152826},
  note = {Accessed:2017-12-11},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1711.02597.pdf},
}
@misc{norvill2017automated,
  author = {R Norvill and Irfan U Awan and BBF Pontiveros and Andrea J Cullen and others},
  title = {Automated labeling of unknown contracts in Ethereum},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2017-12-11},
  url = {https://bradscholars.brad.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/10454/12220/automated-labeling-unknown(5).pdf},
}
@misc{liu2017strategy,
  author = {Hanqing Liu and Na Ruan and Rongtian Du and Weijia Jia},
  title = {On the Strategy and Behavior of Bitcoin Mining with N-attackers},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1255},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-03},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1255.pdf},
}
@misc{branzei2017how,
  author = {Simina Br{\^ a}nzei and Erel Segal-Halevi and Aviv Zohar},
  Title = {How to Charge Lightning},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1712.10222},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-03},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1712.10222.pdf},
}
@misc{ersoy2017information,
  author = {Oguzhan Ersoy and Zhijie Ren and Zekeriya Erkin and Reginald L. Lagendijk},
  Title = {Information Propagation on Permissionless Blockchains},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1712.07564},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-03},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1712.07564.pdf},
}
@misc{albassam2017contour,
  author = {Mustafa Al-Bassam and Sarah Meiklejohn},
  Title = {Contour: A Practical System for Binary Transparency},
  Year = {2017},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1712.08427},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-03},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1712.08427.pdf},
}
@misc{tikhomirov2017ethereum,
  author = {Sergei Tikhomirov},
  title = {Ethereum: state of knowledge and research perspectives},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-05},
  url = {http://orbilu.uni.lu/bitstream/10993/32468/1/ethereum-sok.pdf},
}
@misc{abraham2017efficient,
  author = {Ittai Abraham and Srinivas Devadas and Danny Dolev and Kartik Nayak and Ling Ren},
  title = {Efficient Synchronous Byzantine Consensus},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/307},
  year = {2017},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/307.pdf},
  note = {Accessed:2018-02-07},
}
@misc{micali2017byzantine,
  author = {Silvio Micali},
  title = {Byzantine Agreement, Made Trivial},
  year = {2017},
  month = {Apr},
  note = {Accessed:2018-02-21},
}
@misc{garay2017blockchain,
  author = {Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Giorgos Panagiotakos},
  title = {Blockchain and Consensus from Proofs of Work without Random Oracles},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/775},
  year = {2017},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/775.pdf},
}
@misc{crain2017dbft,
  author = {Tyler Crain and Vincent Gramoli and Mikel Larrea and Michel Raynal},
  Title = {DBFT: Efficient Byzantine Consensus with a Weak Coordinator and its Application to Consortium Blockchains},
  Year = {2017},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.03068.pdf},
}
@misc{bentov2018tesseract,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Yan Ji and Fan Zhang and Yunqi Li and Xueyuan Zhao and Lorenz Breidenbach and Philip Daian and Ari Juels},
  title = {Tesseract: Real-Time Cryptocurrency Exchange using Trusted Hardware},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1153},
  year = {2017},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1153.pdf},
}
@misc{li2018designing,
  author = {Taotao Li and Parhat Abla and Mingsheng Wang and Qianwen Wei},
  title = {Designing Proof of Transaction Puzzles for Cryptocurrency},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1242},
  year = {2017},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1242.pdf},
}
@misc{sergey2018scilla,
  author = {Ilya Sergey and Amrit Kumar and Aquinas Hobor},
  Title = {Scilla: a Smart Contract Intermediate-Level LAnguage},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1801.00687},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-08},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.00687.pdf},
}
@misc{grossman2018online,
  author = {Shelly Grossman and Ittai Abraham and Guy Golan-Gueta and Yan Michalevsky and Noam Rinetzky and Mooly Sagiv and Yoni Zohar},
  Title = {Online Detection of Effectively Callback Free Objects with Applications to Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1801.04032},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-17},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.04032.pdf},
}
@misc{chatterjee2018quantitative,
  author = {Krishnendu Chatterjee and Amir Kafshdar Goharshady and Yaron Velner},
  Title = {Quantitative Analysis of Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1801.03367},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-17},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.03367.pdf},
}
@misc{dunphy2018first,
  author = {Paul Dunphy and Fabien A. P. Petitcolas},
  Title = {A First Look at Identity Management Schemes on the Blockchain},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1801.03294},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-17},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.03294.pdf},
}
@misc{singh2018violable,
  author = {Munindar P. Singh and Amit K. Chopra},
  Title = {Violable Contracts and Governance for Blockchain Applications},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1801.02672},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-17},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.02672.pdf},
}
@misc{chen2018towards,
  author = {Yize Chen and Quanlai Li and Hao Wang},
  Title = {Towards Trusted Social Networks with Blockchain Technology},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1801.02796},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-17},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.02796.pdf},
}
@misc{shudo2018towards,
  author = {Kazuyuki Shudo and Kenji Saito},
  Title = {Towards Application Portability on Blockchains},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1801.01421},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-17},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.01421.pdf},
}
@misc{ren2018scaleout,
  author = {Zhijie Ren and Zekeriya Erkin},
  Title = {A Scale-out Blockchain for Value Transfer with Spontaneous Sharding},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1801.02531},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-17},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.02531.pdf},
}
@misc{aggarwal2018simple,
  author = {Abhinav Aggarwal and Yue Guo},
  title = {A Simple Reduction from State Machine Replication to Binary Agreement in Partially Synchronous or Asynchronous Networks},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/060},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-17},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/060.pdf},
}
@misc{maxwell2018simple,
  author = {Gregory Maxwell and Andrew Poelstra and Yannick Seurin and Pieter Wuille},
  title = {Simple Schnorr Multi-Signatures with Applications to Bitcoin},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/068},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-22},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/068.pdf},
}
@misc{krafft2018experimental,
  author = {Peter M Krafft and Nicol{\' a}s Della Penna and Alex Pentland},
  title = {{A}n {E}xperimental {S}tudy of {C}ryptocurrency {M}arket {D}ynamics},
  year = {2018},
  eprint = {1801.05831},
  howpublished = {Peter Krafft, Nicol\'as Della Penna, Alex Pentland. (2018). An Experimental Study of Cryptocurrency Market Dynamics. ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI)},
  doi = {10.1145/3173574.3174179},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-22},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.05831.pdf},
}
@misc{sompolinsky2018phantom,
  author = {Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {PHANTOM: A Scalable BlockDAG Protocol},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/104},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-31},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/104.pdf},
}
@misc{herlihy2018atomic,
  author = {Maurice Herlihy},
  Title = {Atomic Cross-Chain Swaps},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1801.09515},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-31},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.09515.pdf},
}
@misc{harz2018scalability,
  author = {Dominik Harz and Magnus Boman},
  Title = {The Scalability of Trustless Trust},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1801.09535},
  note = {Accessed:2018-01-31},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.09535.pdf},
}
@misc{zhang2018smart,
  author = {Yuanyu Zhang and Shoji Kasahara and Yulong Shen and Xiaohong Jiang and Jianxiong Wan},
  Title = {Smart Contract-Based Access Control for the Internet of Things},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1802.04410},
  note = {Accessed:2018-02-16},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1802.04410.pdf},
}
@misc{cohen2018simple,
  author = {Bram Cohen and Krzysztof Pietrzak},
  title = {Simple Proofs of Sequential Work},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/183},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Accessed:2018-02-16},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/183.pdf},
}
@misc{badertscher2018but,
  author = {Christian Badertscher and Juan Garay and Ueli Maurer and Daniel Tschudi and Vassilis Zikas},
  title = {But Why does it Work? A Rational Protocol Design Treatment of Bitcoin},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/138},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Accessed:2018-02-16},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/138.pdf},
}
@misc{matzutt2018thwarting,
  author = {Roman Matzutt and Martin Henze and Jan Henrik Ziegeldorf and Jens Hiller and Klaus Wehrle},
  title = {Thwarting Unwanted Blockchain Content Insertion},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Accessed:2018-02-28},
  url = {https://www.comsys.rwth-aachen.de/fileadmin/papers/2018/2018-matzutt-blockchain-contents-countermeasures.pdf},
}
@misc{atzei2018sok,
  author = {Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Tiziana Cimoli and Stefano Lande and Roberto Zunino},
  title = {SoK: unraveling Bitcoin smart contracts},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Accessed:2018-03-01},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/192.pdf},
}
@misc{gazi2018stake,
  author = {Peter Ga\v{z}i and Aggelos Kiayias and Alexander Russell},
  title = {Stake-Bleeding Attacks on Proof-of-Stake Blockchains},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/248},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Accessed:2018-03-12},
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@misc{wang2018limit,
  author = {Yongge Wang and Qutaibah Malluhi},
  title = {The Limit of Blockchains: Infeasibility of a Smart Obama-Trump Contract},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/252},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Accessed:2018-03-12},
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@misc{eskandari2018first,
  author = {Shayan Eskandari and Andreas Leoutsarakos and Troy Mursch and Jeremy Clark},
  Title = {A first look at browser-based Cryptojacking},
  Year = {2018},
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  note = {Accessed:2018-03-12},
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@misc{fernandez2018formalizing,
  author = {Antonio Fern\'{a}ndez Anta and Chryssis Georgiou and Kishori Konwar and Nicolas Nicolaou},
  Title = {Formalizing and Implementing Distributed Ledger Objects},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1802.07817},
  note = {Accessed:2018-03-12},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1802.07817.pdf},
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@misc{grishchenko2018semantic,
  author = {Ilya Grishchenko and Matteo Maffei and Clara Schneidewind},
  Title = {A Semantic Framework for the Security Analysis of Ethereum smart contracts},
  Year = {2018},
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  note = {Accessed:2018-03-12},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1802.08660.pdf},
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@misc{bartoletti2018data,
  author = {Massimo Bartoletti and Barbara Pes and Sergio Serusi},
  Title = {Data mining for detecting Bitcoin Ponzi schemes},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1803.006},
  note = {Accessed:2018-03-12},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.00646.pdf},
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@misc{martens2018reviewchain,
  author = {Daniel Martens and Walid Maalej},
  Title = {ReviewChain: Untampered Product Reviews on the Blockchain},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1803.01661},
  note = {Accessed:2018-03-12},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.01661.pdf},
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@misc{li2018survey,
  author = {Xiaoqi Li and Peng Jiang and Ting Chen and Xiapu Luo and Qiaoyan Wen},
  Title = {A Survey on the Security of Blockchain Systems},
  Year = {2018},
  Howpublished = {Li X, Jiang P, Chen T, Luo X, Wen Q. A survey on the security of blockchain systems, Future Generation Computer Systems (2017)},
  note = {Accessed:2018-03-12},
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@misc{macbrough2018cobalt,
  author = {Ethan MacBrough},
  Title = {Cobalt: BFT Governance in Open Networks},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1802.07240},
  note = {Accessed:2018-03-12},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1802.07240.pdf},
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@misc{chase2018analysis,
  author = {Brad Chase and Ethan MacBrough},
  Title = {Analysis of the XRP Ledger Consensus Protocol},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1802.07242},
  note = {Accessed:2018-03-12},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1802.07242.pdf},
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@misc{covaci2018nectar,
  author = {Alexandra Covaci and Simone Madeo and Patrick Motylinski and St{\'e}phane Vincent},
  Title = {NECTAR: Non-Interactive Smart Contract Protocol using Blockchain Technology},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1803.04860},
  Doi = {10.1145/3194113.3194116},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.04860.pdf},
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@misc{abraham2018hotstuff,
  author = {Ittai Abraham and Guy Gueta and Dahlia Malkhi},
  Title = {Hot-Stuff the Linear, Optimal-Resilience, One-Message BFT Devil},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1803.05069},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.05069.pdf},
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@misc{cohen2018database,
  author = {Sara Cohen and Aviv Zohar},
  Title = {Database Perspectives on Blockchains},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1803.06015},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.06015.pdf},
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@misc{hanke2018dfinity,
  author = {Time Hanke and Mahnush Movahedi and Dominic Williams},
  Title = {DFINITY Technology Overview Series Consensus System},
  Year = {2018},
  note = {Rev. 1},
  url = {https://dfinity.org/pdf-viewer/library/dfinity-consensus.pdf},
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@misc{stewart2018committing,
  author = {I Stewart and D Ilie and A Zamyatin and S Werner and MF Torshizi and WJ Knottenbelt},
  title = {Committing to Quantum Resistance: A Slow Defence for Bitcoin against a Fast Quantum Computing Attack},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/213},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/213.pdf},
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@article{bartoletti2018bitcoinponzi,
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  title = {Data mining for detecting Bitcoin Ponzi schemes},
  journal = {CoRR},
  volume = {abs/1803.00646},
  year = {2018},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1803.00646},
  archivePrefix = {arXiv},
  eprint = {1803.00646},
  timestamp = {Tue, 10 Apr 2018 20:50:05 +0200},
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@article{schindler2018hydrand,
  author = {Philipp Schindler and Aljosha Judmayer and Nicholas Stifter and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {HydRand: Practical Continuous Distributed Randomness},
  journal = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
  volume = {2018},
  pages = {319},
  year = {2018},
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@misc{stifter2018agreement,
  author = {Nicholas Stifter and Aljosha Judmayer and Philipp Schindler and Alexei Zamyatin and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {Agreement with Satoshi - On the Formalization of Nakamoto Consensus},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/400},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/400.pdf},
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@misc{wan2018goshawk,
  author = {Cencen Wan and Shuyang Tang and Yuncong Zhang and Chen Pan and Zhiqiang Liu and Yu Long and Zhen Liu and Yu Yu},
  title = {Goshawk: A Novel Efficient, Robust and Flexible Blockchain Protocol},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/407},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/407.pdf},
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@misc{yu2018repucoin,
  author = {Jiangshan Yu and David Kozhaya and Jeremie Decouchant and Paulo Esteves-Verissimo},
  title = {RepuCoin: Your Reputation is Your Power},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/239},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/239.pdf},
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@misc{zamani2018rapidchain,
  author = {Mahdi Zamani and Mahnush Movahedi and Mariana Raykova},
  title = {RapidChain: A Fast Blockchain Protocol via Full Sharding},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/460},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/460.pdf},
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  booktitle = {International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security},
  pages = {435--464},
  year = {2018},
  organization = {Springer},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/483.pdf},
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@misc{zhang2018treasury,
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  title = {A Treasury System for Cryptocurrencies: Enabling Better Collaborative Intelligence},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/435},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/435.pdf},
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@misc{yu2018platform,
  author = {Bin Yu and Joseph Liu and Amin Sakzad and Surya Nepal and Paul Rimba and Ron Steinfeld and Man Ho Au},
  title = {Platform-independent Secure Blockchain-Based Voting System},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/657},
  year = {2018},
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@misc{zhou2018loamit,
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  title = {Loamit: A Blockchain-based Residual Loanable-limit Query System},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/655},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/655.pdf},
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@misc{chalkias2018blockchained,
  author = {Konstantinos Chalkias and James Brown and Mike Hearn and Tommy Lillehagen and Igor Nitto and Thomas Schroeter},
  title = {Blockchained Post-Quantum Signatures},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/658},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/658.pdf},
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@misc{yi2018new,
  author = {Xun Yi and Kwok-Yan Lam and Dieter Gollmann},
  title = {A New Blind ECDSA Scheme for Bitcoin Transaction Anonymity},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/660},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/660.pdf},
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@misc{boneh2018verifiable,
  author = {Dan Boneh and Joseph Bonneau and Benedikt B\"unz and Ben Fisch},
  title = {Verifiable Delay Functions},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/601},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/601.pdf},
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@misc{ruffing2018burning,
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  title = {Burning Zerocoins for Fun and for Profit: A Cryptographic Denial-of-Spending Attack on the Zerocoin Protocol},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/612},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/612.pdf},
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@misc{pietrzak2018simple,
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  year = {2018},
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  title = {Have a snack, pay with bitcoins},
  booktitle = {Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P), 2013 IEEE Thirteenth International Conference on},
  pages = {1--5},
  year = {2013},
  organization = {IEEE},
  url = {http://www.bheesty.com/cracker/1450709524_17035424cb/p2p2013_093.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{decker2013information,
  author = {Christian Decker and Roger Wattenhofer},
  title = {Information propagation in the bitcoin network},
  booktitle = {Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P), 2013 IEEE Thirteenth International Conference on},
  pages = {1--10},
  year = {2013},
  organization = {IEEE},
  url = {http://diyhpl.us/~bryan/papers2/bitcoin/Information%20propagation%20in%20the%20Bitcoin%20network.pdf},
}
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  author = {Sarah Meiklejohn and Marjori Pomarole and Grant Jordan and Kirill Levchenko and Damon McCoy and Geoffrey M Voelker and Stefan Savage},
  title = {A fistful of bitcoins: characterizing payments among men with no names},
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  pages = {127--140},
  year = {2013},
  organization = {ACM},
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}
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  author = {Elli Androulaki and Ghassan O Karame and Marc Roeschlin and Tobias Scherer and Srdjan Capkun},
  title = {Evaluating user privacy in bitcoin},
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  year = {2013},
  publisher = {Springer},
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  pages = {459--474},
  year = {2014},
  organization = {IEEE},
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  year = {2014},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {http://fc14.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin14_submission_3.pdf},
}
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  author = {Jeremy Clark and Joseph Bonneau and Edward W Felten and Joshua A Kroll and Andrew Miller and Arvind Narayanan},
  title = {On Decentralizing Prediction Markets and Order Books},
  booktitle = {WEIS},
  year = {2014},
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}
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  title = {Deanonymisation of clients in Bitcoin P2P network},
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  pages = {15--29},
  year = {2014},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1405.7418.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{eyal2014majority,
  author = {Ittay Eyal and Emin G{\"u}n Sirer},
  title = {Majority is not enough: Bitcoin mining is vulnerable},
  booktitle = {Financial Cryptography and Data Security},
  pages = {436--454},
  year = {2014},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1311.0243},
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  author = {Tim Ruffing and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Aniket Kate},
  title = {CoinShuffle: Practical decentralized coin mixing for Bitcoin},
  booktitle = {Computer Security-ESORICS 2014},
  pages = {345--364},
  year = {2014},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {http://crypsys.mmci.uni-saarland.de/projects/CoinShuffle/coinshuffle.pdf},
}
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  author = {Danny Yuxing Huang and Hitesh Dharmdasani and Sarah Meiklejohn and Vacha Dave and Chris Grier and Damon McCoy and Stefan Savage and Nicholas Weaver and Alex C Snoeren and Kirill Levchenko},
  title = {Botcoin: Monetizing Stolen Cycles.},
  booktitle = {NDSS},
  year = {2014},
  url = {https://www.cs.gmu.edu/~mccoy/papers/botcoin-ndss14.pdf},
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  author = {Achour Mostefaoui and Hamouma Moumen and Michel Raynal},
  title = {Signature-free asynchronous Byzantine consensus with t< n/3 and O (n 2) messages},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2014 ACM symposium on Principles of distributed computing},
  pages = {2--9},
  year = {2014},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {https://hal.inria.fr/file/index/docid/944816/filename/RR-2016-Consensus-optimal-V5.pdf},
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  title = {Decentralized Anonymous Credentials.},
  booktitle = {NDSS},
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  url = {http://www.internetsociety.org/sites/default/files/07_3_1.pdf},
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@inproceedings{biryukov2015bitcoin,
  author = {Alex Biryukov and Ivan Pustogarov},
  title = {Bitcoin over Tor isn't a good idea},
  booktitle = {Security and Privacy (SP), 2015 IEEE Symposium on},
  pages = {122--134},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {IEEE},
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@inproceedings{saxena2014increasing,
  author = {Amitabh Saxena and Janardan Misra and Aritra Dhar},
  title = {Increasing Anonymity in Bitcoin},
  Booktitle = {Financial Cryptography and Data Security},
  Pages = {122--139},
  Publisher = {Springer},
  Year = {2014},
  url = {http://fc14.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin14_submission_19.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{miller2014permacoin,
  author = {Andrew Miller and Ari Juels and Elaine Shi and Bryan Parno and Jonathan Katz},
  title = {Permacoin: Repurposing bitcoin work for data preservation},
  booktitle = {Security and Privacy (SP), 2014 IEEE Symposium on},
  pages = {475--490},
  year = {2014},
  organization = {IEEE},
  url = {http://cs.umd.edu/~amiller/permacoin.pdf},
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  title = {Fawkescoin: Bitcoin without public-key crypto},
  booktitle = {Security Protocols XXII},
  pages = {350--358},
  year = {2014},
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  year = {2014},
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  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2014/077.pdf},
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  title = {From onions to shallots: Rewarding Tor relays with TEARS},
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  year = {2014},
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  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 30th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference},
  pages = {326--335},
  year = {2014},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2014/763.pdf},
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@inproceedings{gervais2014bitcoin,
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  year = {2014},
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  author = {Ranjit Kumaresan and Iddo Bentov},
  title = {How to use bitcoin to incentivize correct computations},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security},
  pages = {30--41},
  year = {2014},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {http://www.cs.technion.ac.il/~idddo/incentivesBitcoin.pdf},
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  title = {Versum: Verifiable computations over large public logs},
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  pages = {1304--1316},
  year = {2014},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {http://people.csail.mit.edu/nickolai/papers/vandenhooff-versum.pdf},
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  author = {Marcin Andrychowicz and Stefan Dziembowski and Daniel Malinowski and {\L}ukasz Mazurek},
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  pages = {7--22},
  year = {2014},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1405.1861},
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@inproceedings{decker2014bitcoin,
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  title = {Bitcoin transaction malleability and MtGox},
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  year = {2014},
  publisher = {Springer},
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}
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  author = {Iddo Bentov and Ranjit Kumaresan},
  title = {How to use bitcoin to design fair protocols},
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  pages = {421--439},
  year = {2014},
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  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2014/129.pdf},
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  title = {A TorPath to TorCoin: Proofof-bandwidth altcoins for compensating relays},
  year = {2014},
  booktitle = {HotPETs},
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}
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  author = {Marcin Andrychowicz and Stefan Dziembowski and Daniel Malinowski and Lukasz Mazurek},
  title = {Secure multiparty computations on bitcoin},
  booktitle = {Security and Privacy (SP), 2014 IEEE Symposium on},
  pages = {443--458},
  year = {2014},
  organization = {IEEE},
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  booktitle = {2014 USENIX Annual Technical Conference (USENIX ATC 14)},
  pages = {305--319},
  year = {2014},
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  year = {2014},
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  year = {2014},
  organization = {Springer},
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@inproceedings{vasek2014empirical,
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  pages = {57--71},
  year = {2014},
  organization = {Springer},
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}
@article{groza2014cryptographic,
  author = {Bogdan Groza and Bogdan Warinschi},
  title = {Cryptographic puzzles and dos resilience, revisited},
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  pages = {177--207},
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@inproceedings{courtois2014could,
  author = {Nicolas T Courtois and Pinar Emirdag and Daniel A Nagy},
  title = {Could bitcoin transactions be 100x faster?},
  booktitle = {Security and Cryptography (SECRYPT), 2014 11th International Conference on},
  pages = {1--6},
  year = {2014},
  organization = {IEEE},
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}
@article{yelowitz2015characteristics,
  author = {Aaron Yelowitz and Matthew Wilson},
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  title = {Shadow-Bitcoin: scalable simulation via direct execution of multi-threaded applications},
  booktitle = {8th Workshop on Cyber Security Experimentation and Test (CSET 15)},
  year = {2015},
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}
@inproceedings{garay2015bitcoin,
  author = {Juan Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos},
  title = {The bitcoin backbone protocol: Analysis and applications},
  booktitle = {Advances in Cryptology-EUROCRYPT 2015},
  pages = {281--310},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {http://courses.cs.washington.edu/courses/cse454/15wi/papers/bitcoin-765.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{lewenberg2015inclusive,
  author = {Yoad Lewenberg and Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {Inclusive block chain protocols},
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  pages = {528--547},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
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}
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  author = {Joseph Bonneau and Andrew Miller and Jeremy Clark and Arvind Narayanan and Joshua A Kroll and Edward W Felten},
  title = {SoK: Research Perspectives and Challenges for Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies},
  booktitle = {IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy},
  year = {2015},
  url = {http://www.ieee-security.org/TC/SP2015/papers-archived/6949a104.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{tschorsch2015bitcoin,
  author = {Florian Tschorsch and Bj{\"o}rn Scheuermann},
  title = {Bitcoin and Beyond: A Technical Survey on Decentralized Digital Currencies},
  booktitle = {IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials},
  year = {2016},
  volume = {PP},
  number = {99},
  pages = {1-1},
  keywords = {Contracts;Cryptography;Internet;Online banking;Protocols;Space exploration;Tutorials},
  doi = {10.1109/COMST.2016.2535718},
  ISSN = {1553-877X},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/464.pdf},
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@inproceedings{mann2015two,
  author = {Christopher Mann and Daniel Loebenberger},
  title = {Two-factor authentication for the Bitcoin protocol},
  booktitle = {Security and Trust Management},
  pages = {155--171},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2014/629.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{melara2015keytransparency,
  author = {Marcela S. Melara and Aaron Blankstein and Joseph Bonneau and Edward W. Felten and Michael J. Freedman},
  title = {Bringing Deployable Key Transparency to End Users},
  booktitle = {24th USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 15)},
  year = {2015},
  month = {Aug},
  address = {Washington, D.C.},
  publisher = {USENIX Association},
  url = {https://www.usenix.org/system/files/conference/usenixsecurity15/sec15-paper-melara.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{kalodner2015namecoinempirical,
  author = {Harry Kalodner and Miles Carlsten and Paul Ellenbogen and Joseph Bonneau and Arvind Narayanan},
  title = {An empirical study of Namecoin and lessons for decentralized namespace design},
  year = {2015},
  booktitle = {WEIS},
  url = {http://randomwalker.info/publications/namespaces.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{eskandari2015usability,
  author = {Shayan Eskandari and David Barrera and Elizabeth Stobert and Jeremy Clark},
  title = {A first look at the usability of bitcoin key management},
  booktitle = {Workshop on Usable Security (USEC)},
  year = {2015},
  url = {http://users.encs.concordia.ca/~clark/papers/2015_usec_full.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{zyskind2015decentralizing,
  author = {Guy Zyskind and Oz Nathan and Alex'Sandy' Pentland},
  title = {Decentralizing Privacy: Using Blockchain to Protect Personal Data},
  booktitle = {Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW), 2015 IEEE},
  pages = {180--184},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {IEEE},
  url = {http://web.media.mit.edu/~guyzys/data/ZNP15.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{mcreynolds2015cryptographic,
  author = {Emily McReynolds and Adam Lerner and Will Scott and Franziska Roesner and Tadayoshi Kohno},
  title = {Cryptographic Currencies from a Tech-Policy Perspective: Policy Issues and Technical Directions},
  booktitle = {Financial Cryptography and Data Security},
  pages = {94--111},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {http://fc15.ifca.ai/preproceedings/bitcoin/paper_16.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{ali2015zombiecoin,
  author = {Syed Taha Ali and Patrick McCorry and Peter Hyun-Jeen Lee and Feng Hao},
  title = {ZombieCoin: powering next-generation botnets with bitcoin},
  booktitle = {Financial Cryptography and Data Security},
  pages = {34--48},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {http://homepages.cs.ncl.ac.uk/feng.hao/files/zcoin-camera-ready.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{karame2015misbehavior,
  author = {Ghassan O Karame and Elli Androulaki and Marc Roeschlin and Arthur Gervais and Srdjan {\v{C}}apkun},
  title = {Misbehavior in Bitcoin: A Study of Double-Spending and Accountability},
  journal = {ACM Transactions on Information and System Security (TISSEC)},
  volume = {18},
  number = {1},
  pages = {2},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {ACM},
  url = {http://www.syssec.ethz.ch/content/dam/ethz/special-interest/infk/inst-infsec/system-security-group-dam/research/publications/pub2015/tissec15_karame.pdf},
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  author = {Gaby G Dagher and Benedikt B{\"u}nz and Joseph Bonneau and Jeremy Clark and Dan Boneh},
  title = {Provisions: Privacy-preserving proofs of solvency for Bitcoin exchanges},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security},
  pages = {720--731},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {http://users.encs.concordia.ca/~clark/papers/2015_ccs.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{ruffing2015liar,
  author = {Tim Ruffing and Aniket Kate and Dominique Schr{\"o}der},
  title = {Liar, Liar, Coins on Fire!: Penalizing Equivocation By Loss of Bitcoins},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security},
  pages = {219--230},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {https://crypsys.mmci.uni-saarland.de/projects/PenalizingEquivocation/penalizing.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{kumaresan2015poker,
  author = {Ranjit Kumaresan and Tal Moran and Iddo Bentov},
  title = {How to Use Bitcoin to Play Decentralized Poker},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security},
  pages = {195--206},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {http://people.csail.mit.edu/ranjit/papers/poker.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{pass2015micropayments,
  author = {Rafael Pass and others},
  title = {Micropayments for Decentralized Currencies},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security},
  pages = {207--218},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {http://www.initc3.org/files/micropay2.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{miller2015nonoutsourceable,
  author = {Andrew Miller and Ahmed Kosba and Jonathan Katz and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Nonoutsourceable Scratch-Off Puzzles to Discourage Bitcoin Mining Coalitions},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security},
  pages = {680--691},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {https://cs.umd.edu/~amiller/nonoutsourceable_full.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{gervais2015tampering,
  author = {Arthur Gervais and Hubert Ritzdorf and Ghassan O Karame and Srdjan Capkun},
  title = {Tampering with the Delivery of Blocks and Transactions in Bitcoin},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security},
  pages = {692--705},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/578.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{decker2015making,
  author = {Christian Decker and James Guthrie and Jochen Seidel and Roger Wattenhofer},
  title = {Making Bitcoin Exchanges Transparent},
  booktitle = {Computer Security--ESORICS 2015},
  pages = {561--576},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {http://www.tik.ee.ethz.ch/file/b89cb24ad2fa4e7ef01426d318c9b98b/decker2015making.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{andrychowicz2015pow,
  author = {Marcin Andrychowicz and Stefan Dziembowski},
  title = {PoW-Based Distributed Cryptography with No Trusted Setup},
  booktitle = {Advances in Cryptology--CRYPTO 2015},
  pages = {379--399},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2014/796.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{zohar2015bitcoin,
  author = {Aviv Zohar},
  title = {Bitcoin: under the hood},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  volume = {58},
  number = {9},
  pages = {104--113},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {ACM},
  url = {http://users.encs.concordia.ca/~clark/biblio/bitcoin/Zohar%202015.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{gutoski2015hierarchical,
  author = {Gus Gutoski and Douglas Stebila},
  title = {Hierarchical deterministic Bitcoin wallets that tolerate key leakage (short paper)},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security (FC 2015)},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {Springer},
  url = {http://fc15.ifca.ai/preproceedings/paper_15.pdf},
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@inproceedings{wilson2015pretty,
  author = {Duane Wilson and Giuseppe Ateniese},
  title = {From Pretty Good to Great: Enhancing PGP Using Bitcoin and the Blockchain},
  booktitle = {Network and System Security},
  pages = {368--375},
  year = {2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1508.04868},
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@inproceedings{soska2015measuring,
  author = {Kyle Soska and Nicolas Christin},
  title = {Measuring the longitudinal evolution of the online anonymous marketplace ecosystem},
  booktitle = {24th USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security 15)},
  pages = {33--48},
  year = {2015},
  url = {https://www.usenix.org/system/files/conference/usenixsecurity15/sec15-paper-soska.pdf},
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  year = {2017},
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  Year = {2017},
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  year = {2017},
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  year = {2017},
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  year = {2017},
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  title = {Mechanising Blockchain Consensus},
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  author = {Tomer Golomb and Yisroel Mirsky and Yuval Elovici},
  Title = {CIoTA: Collaborative IoT Anomaly Detection via Blockchain},
  Year = {2018},
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  title = {{(Short Paper) A Wild Velvet Fork Appears! Inclusive Blockchain Protocol Changes in Practice}},
  booktitle = {5th Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research, Financial Cryptography and Data Security 18 (FC). Springer},
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  author = {Adem Efe Gencer and Soumya Basu and Ittay Eyal and Robbert Renesse and Emin G{\"u}n Sirer},
  title = {Decentralization in Bitcoin and Ethereum Networks},
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  year = {2018},
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  author = {Danny Yuxing Huang and Kirill Levchenko and Alex C Snoeren},
  title = {Short Paper: Estimating Profitability of Alternative Cryptocurrencies},
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  author = {Roman Matzutt and Jens Hiller and Martin Henze and Jan Henrik Ziegeldorf and Dirk M{\"u}llmann and Oliver Hohlfeld and Klaus Wehrle},
  title = {A Quantitative Analysis of the Impact of Arbitrary Blockchain Content on Bitcoin},
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  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/preproceedings/6.pdf},
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@inproceedings{zhang2018anonymous,
  author = {Huang Zhang and Fangguo Zhang and Haibo Tian and Man Ho Au},
  title = {Anonymous Post-Quantum Cryptocash},
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  year = {2018},
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@inproceedings{park2018spacemint,
  author = {Sunoo Park and Alber Kwon and Georg Fuchbauer and Peter Gazi and J{\"o}el Alwen and Krzysztof Pietrzak},
  title = {SpaceMint: A Cryptocurrency Based on Proofs of Space},
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  title = {Kaleidoscope: An Efficient Poker Protocol with Payment Distribution and Penalty Enforcement},
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  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/preproceedings/101.pdf},
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  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/preproceedings/92.pdf},
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  title = {Smart Contracts for Bribing Miners},
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  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final14.pdf},
}
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  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-full1.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{zhang2018paralysis,
  author = {Fan Zhang and Philip Daian and Iddo Bentov and Ari Juels},
  title = {Paralysis Proofs: Safe Access-Structure Updates for Cryptocurrencies and More},
  booktitle = {5th Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research, Financial Cryptography and Data Security 18 (FC). Springer},
  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final20.pdf},
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@inproceedings{vasek2018analyzing,
  author = {Marie Vasek and Tyler Moore},
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  booktitle = {5th Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research, Financial Cryptography and Data Security 18 (FC). Springer},
  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final11.pdf},
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  author = {Alexander Chepurnoy and Vasily Kharin and Dmitry Meshkov},
  title = {A Systematic Approach To Cryptocurrency Fees},
  booktitle = {5th Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research, Financial Cryptography and Data Security 18 (FC). Springer},
  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final18.pdf},
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@inproceedings{azouvi2018egalitarian,
  author = {Sarah Azouvi and Mary Maller and Sarah Meiklejohn},
  title = {Egalitarian Society or Benevolent Dictatorship: The State of Cryptocurrency Governance},
  booktitle = {5th Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research, Financial Cryptography and Data Security 18 (FC). Springer},
  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final13.pdf},
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  author = {Joseph Bonneau},
  title = {Hostile blockchain takeovers (short paper)},
  booktitle = {5th Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research, Financial Cryptography and Data Security 18 (FC). Springer},
  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final17.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{delgado2018analysis,
  author = {Sergi Delgado-Segura and Cristina P{\'e}rez-Sola and Guillermo Navarro-Arribas and Jordi Herrera-Joancomart{\i}},
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  booktitle = {5th Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research, Financial Cryptography and Data Security 18 (FC). Springer},
  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final6.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{grundmann2018exploiting,
  author = {Matthias Grundmann and Till Neudecker and Hannes Hartenstein},
  title = {Exploiting Transaction Accumulation and Double Spends for Topology Inference in Bitcoin},
  booktitle = {5th Workshop on Bitcoin and Blockchain Research, Financial Cryptography and Data Security 18 (FC). Springer},
  year = {2018},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final10.pdf},
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@inproceedings{anderson2018redux,
  author = {Ross Anderson and Ilia Shumailov and Mansoor Ahmed and Alessandro Rietmann},
  title = {Bitcoin Redux},
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  year = {2018},
  location = {Innsbruck, Austria},
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@inproceedings{judmayer2018pitchfork,
  author = {Aljosha Judmayer and Nicholas Stifter and Philipp Schindler and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {Pitchforks in Cryptocurrencies: Enforcing rule changes through offensive forking- and consensus techniques (Short Paper)},
  booktitle = {CBT'18: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain Technology},
  year = {2018},
  month = {Sep},
  url = {https://www.sba-research.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/judmayer2018pitchfork_2018-09-05.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{ullrich2018proof,
  author = {Johanna Ullrich and Nicholas Stifter and Aljosha Judmayer and Adrian Dabrowski and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {Proof-of-Blackouts? How Proof-of-Work Cryptocurrencies Could Affect Power Grids},
  booktitle = {International Symposium on Research in Attacks, Intrusions, and Defenses},
  pages = {184--203},
  year = {2018},
  organization = {Springer},
  url = {https://sqi.at/resources/RAID2018.pdf},
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@inproceedings{moser2018empirical,
  author = {Malte M{\"o}ser and Kyle Soska and Ethan Heilman and Kevin Lee and Henry Heffan and Shashvat Srivastava and Kyle Hogan and Jason Hennessey and Andrew Miller and Arvind Narayanan and others},
  title = {An empirical analysis of traceability in the monero blockchain},
  journal = {Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies},
  volume = {2018},
  number = {3},
  pages = {143--163},
  year = {2018},
  publisher = {De Gruyter Open},
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}
@article{hinteregger2018empirical,
  author = {Abraham Hinteregger and Bernhard Haslhofer},
  title = {An Empirical Analysis of Monero Cross-Chain Traceability},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1812.02808},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1812.02808.pdf},
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@misc{garay2018consensus,
  author = {Juan Garay and Aggelos Kiayias},
  title = {SoK: A Consensus Taxonomy in the Blockchain Era},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/754},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/754.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{nikolic2018finding,
  author = {Ivica Nikoli{\'c} and Aashish Kolluri and Ilya Sergey and Prateek Saxena and Aquinas Hobor},
  title = {Finding the greedy, prodigal, and suicidal contracts at scale},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 34th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference},
  pages = {653--663},
  year = {2018},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {https://ilyasergey.net/papers/maian-acsac18.pdf},
}
@misc{rodler2018sereum,
  author = {Michael Rodler and Wenting Li and Ghassan O. Karame and Lucas Davi},
  Title = {Sereum: Protecting Existing Smart Contracts Against Re-Entrancy Attacks},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1812.05934},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1812.05934.pdf},
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@misc{li2018detecting,
  author = {Ao Li and Fan Long},
  Title = {Detecting Standard Violation Errors in Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1812.07702},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1812.07702.pdf},
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@misc{fullmer2018analysis,
  author = {Daniel Fullmer and A. S. Morse},
  Title = {Analysis of Difficulty Control in Bitcoin and Proof-of-Work Blockchains},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1812.10792},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1812.10792.pdf},
}
@misc{crain2018evaluating,
  author = {Tyler Crain and Christopher Natoli and Vincent Gramoli},
  Title = {Evaluating the Red Belly Blockchain},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1812.11747},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1812.11747.pdf},
}
@misc{zamyatin2018xclaim,
  author = {Alexei Zamyatin and Dominik Harz and Joshua Lind and Panayiotis Panayiotou and Arthur Gervais and William J. Knottenbelt},
  title = {XCLAIM: Trustless, Interoperable Cryptocurrency-Backed Assets},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/643},
  year = {2018},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/643}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/643.pdf},
}
@misc{kolluri2018exploiting,
  author = {Aashish Kolluri and Ivica Nikolic and Ilya Sergey and Aquinas Hobor and Prateek Saxena},
  Title = {Exploiting The Laws of Order in Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2018},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1810.11605},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1810.11605.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{tsabary2018gap,
  author = {Itay Tsabary and Ittay Eyal},
  title = {The gap game},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2018 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security},
  pages = {713--728},
  year = {2018},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1805.05288.pdf},
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@inproceedings{manshaei2018game,
  author = {Mohammad Hossein Manshaei and Murtuza Jadliwala and Anindya Maiti and Mahdi Fooladgar},
  title = {A game-theoretic analysis of shard-based permissionless blockchains},
  journal = {IEEE Access},
  volume = {6},
  pages = {78100--78112},
  year = {2018},
  publisher = {IEEE},
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@inproceedings{stifter2019echoes,
  author = {Nicholas Stifter and Philipp Schindler and Aljosha Judmayer and Alexei Zamyatin and Andreas Kern and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {Echoes of the Past: Recovering Blockchain Metrics From Merged Mining},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 23nd International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security (FC)},
  year = {2019},
  organization = {Springer},
  url = {https://fc19.ifca.ai/preproceedings/41-preproceedings.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{schindler2019distributed,
  author = {Philipp Schindler and Aljosha Judmayer and Nicholas Stifter and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {Distributed Key Generation with Ethereum Smart Contracts},
  booktitle = {First Cryptocurrency Implementers' Workshop (CIW'19), Financial Cryptography and Data Security 2019 (FC). Springer},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PhilippSchindler/ethdkg/master/paper/Distributed%20Key%20Generation%20with%20Ethereum%20Smart%20Contracts.pdf},
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@inproceedings{eskandari2019sok,
  author = {Shayan Eskandari and Seyedehmahsa Moosavi and Jeremy Clark},
  title = {SoK: Transparent Dishonesty: front-running attacks on Blockchain},
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  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.05164.pdf},
  year = {2019},
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@inproceedings{sergey2018temporal,
  author = {Ilya Sergey and Amrit Kumar and Aquinas Hobor},
  title = {Temporal Properties of Smart Contracts},
  booktitle = {Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification and Validation. Industrial Practice - 8th International Symposium, ISoLA 2018, Limassol, Cyprus, November 5-9, 2018, Proceedings, Part {IV}},
  pages = {323--338},
  year = {2018},
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  author = {Marc Jourdan and Sebastien Blandin and Laura Wynter and Pralhad Deshpande},
  title = {Characterizing entities in the bitcoin blockchain},
  booktitle = {2018 IEEE International Conference on Data Mining Workshops (ICDMW)},
  pages = {55--62},
  year = {2018},
  organization = {IEEE},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1810.11956.pdf},
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@inproceedings{ponti2019sluggish,
  author = {Beltr{\'a}n Borja Fiz Pontiveros and Christof Ferreira Torres and Radu State},
  title = {Sluggish Mining: Profiting from the Verifier's Dilemma},
  year = {2019},
  howpublished = {WTSC'19: 3rd Workshop on Trusted Smart Contracts},
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}
@misc{mavridou2019verisolid,
  author = {Anastasia Mavridou and Aron Laszka and Emmanouela Stachtiari and Abhishek Dubey},
  Title = {VeriSolid: Correct-by-Design Smart Contracts for Ethereum},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1901.01292},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1901.01292.pdf},
}
@misc{saraph2019empirical,
  author = {Vikram Saraph and Maurice Herlihy},
  Title = {An Empirical Study of Speculative Concurrency in Ethereum Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1901.01376},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1901.01376.pdf},
}
@article{deuber2019redactable,
  author = {Dominic Deuber and Bernardo Magri and Sri Aravinda Krishnan Thyagarajan},
  Title = {Redactable Blockchain in the Permissionless Setting},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1901.03206},
  Doi = {10.1109/SP.2019.00039},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1901.03206.pdf},
}
@misc{paillisse2019distributed,
  author = {Jordi Paillisse and Jordi Subira and Albert Lopez and Alberto Rodriguez-Natal and Vina Ermagan and Fabio Maino and Albert Cabellos},
  Title = {Distributed Access Control with Blockchain},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1901.03568},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1901.03568.pdf},
}
@misc{seres2019topological,
  author = {Istv{\'a}n Andr{\'a}s Seres and L{\'a}szl{\'o} Guly{\'a}s and D{\'a}niel A. Nagy and P{\'e}ter Burcsi},
  Title = {Topological Analysis of Bitcoin's Lightning Network},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1901.04972},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1901.04972.pdf},
}
@misc{aoki2019simblock,
  author = {Yusuke Aoki and Kai Otsuki and Takeshi Kaneko and Ryohei Banno and Kazuyuki Shudo},
  Title = {SimBlock: A Blockchain Network Simulator},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1901.09777},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1901.09777.pdf},
}
@article{rouhani2019physical,
  author = {Sara Rouhani and Vahid Pourheidari and Ralph Deters},
  Title = {Physical Access Control Management System Based on Permissioned Blockchain},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1901.09873},
  Doi = {10.1109/Cybermatics_2018.2018.00198},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1901.09873.pdf},
}
@misc{patsonakis2019practicality,
  author = {Christos Patsonakis and Katerina Samari and Aggelos Kiayias and Mema Roussopoulos},
  Title = {On the Practicality of Smart Contract PKI},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1902.00878},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.00878.pdf},
}
@misc{meneghetti2019twotier,
  author = {Alessio Meneghetti and Armanda Ottaviano Quintavalle and Massimiliano Sala and Alessandro Tomasi},
  Title = {Two-tier blockchain timestamped notarization with incremental security},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1902.03136},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.03136.pdf},
}
@misc{westerkamp2019verifiable,
  author = {Martin Westerkamp},
  Title = {Verifiable Smart Contract Portability},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1902.03868},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.03868.pdf},
}
@misc{wu2019empirical,
  author = {Kaidong Wu},
  Title = {An Empirical Study of Blockchain-based Decentralized Applications},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1902.04969},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.04969.pdf},
}
@misc{li2019decentralized,
  author = {Chao Li and Balaji Palanisamy},
  Title = {Decentralized Release of Self-emerging Data using Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1902.05623},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.05623.pdf},
}
@misc{li2019decentralized2,
  author = {Chao Li and Balaji Palanisamy},
  Title = {Decentralized Privacy-preserving Timed Execution in Blockchain-based Smart Contract Platforms},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1902.05613},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.05613.pdf},
}
@misc{feng2019precise,
  author = {Yu Feng and Emina Torlak and Rastislav Bodik},
  Title = {Precise Attack Synthesis for Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1902.06067},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.06067.pdf},
}
@misc{li2019scalable,
  author = {Chao Li and Balaji Palanisamy and Runhua Xu},
  Title = {Scalable and Privacy-preserving Design of On/Off-chain Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1902.06359},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.06359.pdf},
}
@misc{perez2019smart,
  author = {Daniel Perez and Benjamin Livshits},
  Title = {Smart Contract Vulnerabilities: Does Anyone Care?},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1902.06710},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.06710.pdf},
}
@misc{ferreira2019art,
  author = {Christof Ferreira Torres and Mathis Steichen},
  Title = {The Art of The Scam: Demystifying Honeypots in Ethereum Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1902.06976},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.06976.pdf},
}
@misc{wang2019measurement,
  author = {Canhui Wang and Xiaowen Chu and Qin Yang},
  Title = {Measurement and Analysis of the Bitcoin Networks: A View from Mining Pools},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1902.07549},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.07549.pdf},
}
@misc{amoussouguenou2019rationals,
  author = {Yackolley Amoussou-Guenou and Bruno Biais and Maria Potop-Butucaru and Sara Tucci-Piergiovanni},
  Title = {Rationals vs Byzantines in Consensus-based Blockchains},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1902.07895},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.07895.pdf},
}
@misc{chatterjee2019probabilistic,
  author = {Krishnendu Chatterjee and Amir Kafshdar Goharshady and Arash Pourdamghani},
  Title = {Probabilistic Smart Contracts: Secure Randomness on the Blockchain},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1902.07986},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.07986.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{fraga2019review,
  author = {Paula Fraga-Lamas and Tiago M Fern{\'a}ndez-Caram{\'e}s},
  title = {A Review on Blockchain Technologies for an Advanced and Cyber-Resilient Automotive Industry},
  journal = {IEEE Access},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {17578--17598},
  year = {2019},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel7/6287639/6514899/08626103.pdf},
}
@misc{kwon2019bitcoin,
  author = {Yujin Kwon and Hyoungshick Kim and Jinwoo Shin and Yongdae Kim},
  Title = {Bitcoin vs. Bitcoin Cash: Coexistence or Downfall of Bitcoin Cash?},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1902.11064},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.11064.pdf},
}
@misc{robinson2019anonymous,
  author = {Peter Robinson and John Brainard},
  Title = {Anonymous State Pinning for Private Blockchains},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1903.02752},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.02752.pdf},
}
@misc{xiong2019anonymous,
  author = {Jie Xiong and Qi Wang},
  Title = {Anonymous Auction Protocol Based on Time-Released Encryption atop Consortium Blockchain},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1903.03285},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.03285.pdf},
}
@misc{jalalzai2019proteus,
  author = {Mohammad M. Jalalzai and Costas Busch and Golden Richard III},
  Title = {Proteus: A Scalable BFT Consesus Protocol for Blockchains},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1903.04134},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.04134.pdf},
}
@misc{leonardos2019weighted,
  author = {Stefanos Leonardos and Daniel Reijsbergen and Georgios Piliouras},
  Title = {Weighted Voting on the Blockchain: Improving Consensus in Proof of Stake Protocols},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1903.04213},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.04213.pdf},
}
@misc{hardjono2019verifiable,
  author = {Thomas Hardjono and Alex Pentland},
  Title = {Verifiable Anonymous Identities and Access Control in Permissioned Blockchains},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1903.04584},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.04584.pdf},
}
@article{kolokotronis2019blockchain,
  author = {Nicholas Kolokotronis and Konstantinos Limniotis and Stavros Shiaeles and Romain Griffiths},
  Title = {Blockchain Technologies for Enhanced Security and Privacy in the Internet of Things},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1903.04794},
  Howpublished = {IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, 2019},
  Doi = {10.1109/MCE.2019.2892221},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.04794.pdf},
}
@article{delgadomohatar2019blockchain,
  author = {Oscar Delgado-Mohatar and Julian Fierrez and Ruben Tolosana and Ruben Vera-Rodriguez},
  Title = {Blockchain and Biometrics: A First Look into Opportunities and Challenges},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1903.05496},
  Howpublished = {Blockchain and Applications, 2019 Intl. Congress on},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.05496.pdf},
}
@misc{guo2019multiauthority,
  author = {Hao Guo and Ehsan Meamari and Chien-Chung Shen},
  Title = {Multi-Authority Attribute-Based Access Control with Smart Contract},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1903.07009},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.07009.pdf},
}
@misc{restuccia2019blockchain,
  author = {Francesco Restuccia and Salvatore D'Oro S. Kanhere and Tommaso Melodia and Sajal K. Das},
  Title = {Blockchain for the Internet of Things: Present and Future},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1903.07448},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.07448.pdf},
}
@misc{zhang2019security,
  author = {Rui Zhang and Rui Xue and Ling Liu},
  Title = {Security and Privacy on Blockchain},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1903.07602},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.07602.pdf},
}
@misc{lin2019evaluation,
  author = {Yu-Jing Lin and Po-Wei Wu and Cheng-Han Hsu and I-Ping Tu and Shih-wei Liao},
  Title = {An Evaluation of Bitcoin Address Classification based on Transaction History Summarization},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1903.07994},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.07994.pdf},
}
@misc{dong2019proofware,
  author = {Zhongli Dong and Young Choon Lee and Albert Y. Zomaya},
  Title = {Proofware: Proof of Useful Work Blockchain Consensus Protocol for Decentralized Applications},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1903.09276},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.09276.pdf},
}
@article{bessa2019blockchain,
  author = {Emanuel E. Bessa and Joberto S. B. Martins},
  Title = {A Blockchain-based Educational Record Repository},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1904.00315},
  Doi = {10.5281/zenodo.2567524},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.00315.pdf},
}
@misc{anjana2019achieving,
  author = {Parwat Singh Anjana and Sweta Kumari and Sathya Peri and Archit Somani},
  Title = {Achieving Greater Concurrency in Execution of Smart Contracts using Object Semantics},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1904.00358},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.00358.pdf},
}
@misc{meneghetti2019survey,
  author = {Alessio Meneghetti and Tommaso Parise and Massimiliano Sala and Daniele Taufer},
  Title = {A survey on efficient parallelization of blockchain-based smart contracts},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1904.00731},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.00731.pdf},
}
@misc{garg2019efficient,
  author = {Sahil Garg and Kuljeet Kaur and Georges Kaddoum and Fran\c{c}ois Gagnon and Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues},
  Title = {An Efficient Blockchain-based Hierarchical Authentication Mechanism for Energy Trading in V2G Environment},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1904.01171},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.01171.pdf},
}
@misc{leonardos2019oceanic,
  author = {Nikos Leonardos and Stefanos Leonardos and Georgios Piliouras},
  Title = {Oceanic Games: Centralization Risks and Incentives in Blockchain Mining},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1904.02368},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.02368.pdf},
}
@misc{truong2019gdprcompliant,
  author = {Nguyen Binh Truong and Kai Sun and Gyu Myoung Lee and Yike Guo},
  Title = {GDPR-Compliant Personal Data Management: A Blockchain-based Solution},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1904.03038},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.03038.pdf},
}
@misc{saad2019exploring,
  author = {Muhammad Saad and Jeffrey Spaulding and Laurent Njilla and Charles Kamhoua and Sachin Shetty and DaeHun Nyang and Aziz Mohaisen},
  Title = {Exploring the Attack Surface of Blockchain: A Systematic Overview},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1904.03487},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.03487.pdf},
}
@misc{xiao2019survey,
  author = {Yang Xiao and Ning Zhang and Wenjing Lou and Y. Thomas Hou},
  Title = {A Survey of Distributed Consensus Protocols for Blockchain Networks},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1904.04098},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.04098.pdf},
}
@article{purheidari2019case,
  author = {Vahid Pourheidari and Sara Rouhani and Ralph deters},
  Title = {A Case Study of Execution of Untrusted Business Process on Permissioned Blockchain},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1904.05710},
  Howpublished = {IEEE Blockchain 2018},
  Doi = {10.1109/Cybermatics_2018.2018.00266},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.05710.pdf},
}
@misc{nazarabadi2019lightchain,
  author = {Yahya Hassanzadeh-Nazarabadi and Alptekin K{\"u}p{\"u} and {\"O}zkasap},
  title = {LightChain: A DHT-based Blockchain for Resource Constrained Environments},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/342},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/342}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/342.pdf},
}
@misc{das2019fastkitten,
  author = {Poulami Das and Lisa Eckey and Tommaso Frassetto and David Gens and Kristina Host{\'a}kov{\'a} and Patrick Jauernig and Sebastian Faust and Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi},
  title = {FastKitten: Practical Smart Contracts on Bitcoin},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/154},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/154}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/154.pdf},
}
@misc{garay2017consensus,
  author = {Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Giorgos Panagiotakos},
  title = {Consensus from Signatures of Work},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/775},
  year = {2017},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/775}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/775.pdf},
}
@misc{weng2018deepchain,
  author = {Jiasi Weng and Jian Weng and Jilian Zhang and Ming Li and Yue Zhang and Weiqi Luo},
  title = {DeepChain: Auditable and Privacy-Preserving Deep Learning with Blockchain-based Incentive},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/679},
  year = {2018},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/679}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/679.pdf},
}
@misc{zhang2018improvements,
  author = {Qingzhao Zhang and Yijun Leng and Lei Fan},
  title = {Improvements of Blockchain's Block Broadcasting:An Incentive Approach},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/1152},
  year = {2018},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/1152}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/1152.pdf},
}
@misc{ganesh2018proof,
  author = {Chaya Ganesh and Claudio Orlandi and Daniel Tschudi},
  title = {Proof-of-Stake Protocols for Privacy-Aware Blockchains},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/1105},
  year = {2018},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/1105}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/1105.pdf},
}
@misc{boneh2018batching,
  author = {Dan Boneh and Benedikt B{\"u}nz and Ben Fisch},
  title = {Batching Techniques for Accumulators with Applications to IOPs and Stateless Blockchains},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/1188},
  year = {2018},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/1188}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/1188.pdf},
}
@misc{dauterman2018true2f,
  author = {Emma Dauterman and Henry Corrigan-Gibbs and David Mazi{\`e}res and Dan Boneh and Dominic Rizzo},
  title = {True2F: Backdoor-resistant authentication tokens},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1810.04660},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1810.04660.pdf},
}
@misc{abraham2019sync,
  author = {Ittai Abraham and Dahlia Malkhi and Kartik Nayak and Ling Ren and Maofan Yin},
  title = {Sync HotStuff: Synchronous SMR with 2{{$\Delta$}} Latency and Optimistic Responsiveness},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/270},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/270}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/270.pdf},
}
@misc{joancomarti2019difficulty,
  author = {Jordi Herrera-Joancomart{\'i} and Guillermo Navarro-Arribas and Alejandro Ranchal-Pedrosa and Cristina P{\'e}rez-Sol{\`a} and Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro},
  title = {On the Difficulty of Hiding the Balance of Lightning Network Channels},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/328},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/328}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/328.pdf},
}
@misc{jivanyan2019lelantus,
  author = {Aram Jivanyan},
  title = {Lelantus: Towards Confidentiality and Anonymity of Blockchain Transactions from Standard Assumptions},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/373},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/373}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/373.pdf},
}
@misc{jourenko2019sok,
  author = {Maxim Jourenko and Kanta Kurazumi and Mario Larangeira and Keisuke Tanaka},
  title = {SoK: A Taxonomy for Layer-2 Scalability Related Protocols for Cryptocurrencies},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/352},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/352}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/352.pdf},
}
@misc{gudgeon2019sok,
  author = {Lewis Gudgeon and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Stefanie Roos and Patrick McCorry and Arthur Gervais},
  title = {SoK: Off The Chain Transactions},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/360},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/360}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/360.pdf},
}
@misc{schrans2019flint,
  author = {Franklin Schrans and Daniel Hails and Alexander Harkness and Sophia Drossopoulou and Susan Eisenbach},
  Title = {Flint for Safer Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2019},
  Howpublished = {arXiv:1904.06534},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.06534.pdf},
}
@misc{li2019incentivized,
  author = {Chao Li and Balaji Palanisamy},
  Title = {Incentivized Blockchain-based Social Media Platforms: A Case Study of Steemit},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1904.07310},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.07310.pdf},
}
@misc{grunspan2019selfish,
  author = {Cyril Grunspan and Ricardo P{\'e}rez-Marco},
  Title = {Selfish Mining and Dyck Words in Bitcoin and Ethereum Networks},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1904.07675},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.07675.pdf},
}
@misc{florian2019erasing,
  author = {Martin Florian and Sophie Beaucamp and Sebastian Henningsen and Bj{\"o}rn Scheuermann},
  Title = {Erasing Data from Blockchain Nodes},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1904.08901},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.08901.pdf},
}
@misc{cao2019exploring,
  author = {Tong Cao and Jiangshan Yu and J{\'e}r{\'e}mie Decouchant and Xiapu Luo and Paulo Verissimo},
  title = {Exploring the Monero Peer-to-Peer Network},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/411},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/411}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/411.pdf},
}
@misc{he2019characterizing,
  author = {Ningyu He and Lei Wu and Haoyu Wang and Yao Guo and Xuxian Jiang},
  Title = {Characterizing Code Clones in the Ethereum Smart Contract Ecosystem},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1905.00272},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.00272.pdf},
}
@article{mohatar2019biometric,
  author = {Oscar Delgado-Mohatar and Julian Fierrez and Ruben Tolosana and Ruben Vera-Rodriguez},
  Title = {Biometric Template Storage with Blockchain: A First Look into Cost and Performance Tradeoffs},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1904.13128},
  Howpublished = {Proc. Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops, CVPRw, 2019},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.13128.pdf},
}
@misc{lopez2019please,
  author = {Pedro Garcia Lopez and Alberto Montresor and Anwitaman Datta},
  Title = {Please, do not decentralize the Internet with (permissionless) blockchains!},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1904.13093},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.13093.pdf},
}
@misc{chitra2019agent,
  author = {Tarun Chitra and Monica Quaintance and Stuart Haber and Will Martino},
  Title = {Agent-Based Simulations of Blockchain protocols illustrated via Kadena's Chainweb},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1904.12924},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.12924.pdf},
}
@misc{bokkem2019,
  author = {Dirk Bokkem and Rico Hageman and Gijs Koning and Luat Nguyen and Naqib Zarin},
  Title = {Self-Sovereign Identity Solutions: The Necessity of Blockchain Technology},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1904.12816},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.12816.pdf},
}
@misc{bui2019archangel,
  author = {Tu Bui and Daniel Cooper and John Collomosse and Mark Bell and Alex Green and John Sheridan and Jez Higgins and Arindra Das and Jared Keller and Olivier Thereaux and Alan Brown},
  Title = {ARCHANGEL: Tamper-proofing Video Archives using Temporal Content Hashes on the Blockchain},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1904.12059},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.12059.pdf},
}
@misc{nehai2019deductive,
  author = {Zeinab Nehai and Fran\c{c}ois Bobot},
  Title = {Deductive Proof of Ethereum Smart Contracts Using Why3},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1904.11281},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.11281.pdf},
}
@article{li2019blockchain,
  author = {Chunmiao Li and Yang Cao and Zhenjiang Hu and Masatoshi Yoshikawa},
  Title = {Blockchain-based Bidirectional Updates on Fine-grained Medical Data},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1904.10606},
  Doi = {10.1109/ICDEW.2019.00010},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.10606.pdf},
}
@misc{khalil2019tex,
  author = {Rami Khalil and Arthur Gervais and Guillaume Felley},
  title = {TEX - A Securely Scalable Trustless Exchange},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/265},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/265}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/265.pdf},
}
@misc{daian2019flash,
  author = {Philip Daian and Steven Goldfeder and Tyler Kell and Yunqi Li and Xueyuan Zhao and Iddo Bentov and Lorenz Breidenbach and Ari Juels},
  title = {Flash Boys 2.0: Frontrunning, Transaction Reordering, and Consensus Instability in Decentralized Exchanges},
  howpublished = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1904.05234},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.05234.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{avarikioti2019bitcoin,
  author = {Georgia Avarikioti and Lukas K{\"a}ppeli and Yuyi Wang and Roger Wattenhofer},
  title = {Bitcoin Security under Temporary Dishonest Majority},
  booktitle = {23rd Financial Cryptography and Data Security (FC)},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://www.tik.ee.ethz.ch/file/ab83461dc5ca3b739c079a27f3757e94/bitcoin%20security%20under%20temporary%20dishonest%20majority.pdf},
}
@misc{lee2019detective,
  author = {Suhyeon Lee and Seungjoo Kim},
  title = {Detective Mining: Selfish Mining Becomes Unrealistic under Mining Pool Environment},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/486},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/486}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/486.pdf},
}
@misc{ni2019uniquechain,
  author = {Peifang Ni and Hongda Li and Xianning Meng and Dongxue Pan},
  title = {UniqueChain: A Fast, Provably Secure Proof-of-Stake Based Blockchain Protocol in the Open Setting},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/456},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/456}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/456.pdf},
}
@misc{otavio2019floodxmr,
  author = {Jo{\~a}o Ot{\'a}vio Massari Chervinski and Diego Kreutz and Jiangshan Yu},
  title = {FloodXMR: Low-cost transaction flooding attack with Monero's bulletproof protocol},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/455},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/455}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/455.pdf},
}
@misc{omolola2019revisiting,
  author = {Olamide Omolola and Paul Plessing},
  title = {Revisiting Privacy-aware Blockchain Public Key Infrastructure},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/527},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/527}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/527.pdf},
}
@misc{drijvers2019pixel,
  author = {Manu Drijvers and Sergey Gorbunov and Gregory Neven and Hoeteck Wee},
  title = {Pixel: Multi-signatures for Consensus},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/514},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/514}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/514.pdf},
}
@misc{gorbunov2019digital,
  author = {Sergey Gorbunov and Hoeteck Wee},
  title = {Digital Signatures for Consensus},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/269},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/269}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/269.pdf},
}
@misc{yuen2019ringct,
  author = {Tsz Hon Yuen and Shi-feng Sun and Joseph K. Liu and Man Ho Au and Muhammed F. Esgin and Qingzhao Zhang and Dawu Gu},
  title = {RingCT 3.0 for Blockchain Confidential Transaction: Shorter Size and Stronger Security},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/508},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/508}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/508.pdf},
}
@misc{magri2019afgjort,
  author = {Bernardo Magri and Christian Matt and Jesper Buus Nielsen and Daniel Tschudi},
  title = {Afgjort -- A Semi-Synchronous Finality Layer for Blockchains},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/504},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/504}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/504.pdf},
}
@misc{borkowski2019dextt,
  author = {Michael Borkowski and Marten Sigwart and Philipp Frauenthaler and Taneli Hukkinen and Stefan Schulte},
  Title = {DeXTT: Deterministic Cross-Blockchain Token Transfers},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.06204},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.06204.pdf},
}
@misc{yang2019tapestry,
  author = {Yifan Yang and Daniel Cooper and John Collomosse and Constantin C. Dr\v{a}gan and Mark Manulis and Jamie Steane and Arthi Manohar and Jo Briggs and Helen Jones and Wendy Moncur},
  Title = {TAPESTRY: A Blockchain based Service for Trusted Interaction Online},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.06186},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.06186.pdf},
}
@misc{cao2019when,
  author = {Bin Cao and Yixin Li and Lei Zhang and Long Zhang and Shahid Mumtaz and Zhenyu Zhou and Mugen Peng},
  Title = {When Internet of Things Meets Blockchain: Challenges in Distributed Consensus},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.06022},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.06022.pdf},
}
@misc{zichichi2019likestarter,
  author = {Mirko Zichichi and Michele Contu and Stefano Ferretti and Gabriele D'Angelo},
  Title = {LikeStarter: a Smart-contract based Social DAO for Crowdfunding},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.05560},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.05560.pdf},
}
@misc{kwon2019impossibility,
  author = {Yujin Kwon and Jian Liu and Minjeong Kim and Dawn Song and Yongdae Kim},
  Title = {Impossibility of Full Decentralization in Permissionless Blockchains},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.05158},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.05158.pdf},
}
@misc{ketsdever2019incentives,
  author = {Shea Ketsdever and Michael J. Fischer},
  Title = {Incentives Don't Solve Blockchain's Problems},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.04792},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.04792.pdf},
}
@misc{hardjono2019decentralized,
  author = {Thomas Hardjono and Ned Smith},
  Title = {Decentralized Trusted Computing Base for Blockchain Infrastructure Security},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.04412},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.04412.pdf},
}
@misc{bartoletti2019true,
  author = {Massimo Bartoletti and Letterio Galletta and Maurizio Murgia},
  Title = {A true concurrent model of smart contracts executions},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.04366},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.04366.pdf},
}
@misc{yazdinejad2019blockchain,
  author = {Abbas Yazdinejad and Reza M. Parizi and Ali Dehghantanha and Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo},
  Title = {Blockchain-enabled Authentication Handover with Efficient Privacy Protection in SDN-based 5G Networks},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.03193},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.03193.pdf},
}
@misc{zakhary2019atomic,
  author = {Victor Zakhary and Divyakant Agrawal and Amr El Abbadi},
  Title = {Atomic Commitment Across Blockchains},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.02847},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.02847.pdf},
}
@misc{wang2019blocklite,
  author = {Xinying Wang and Abdullah Al-Mamun and Feng Yan and Mohammad Sadoghi and Dongfang Zhao},
  Title = {BlockLite: A Lightweight Emulator for Public Blockchains},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.02157},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.02157.pdf},
}
@misc{siris2019interledger,
  author = {Vasilios A. Siris and Dimitrios Dimopoulos and Nikos Fotiou and Spyros Voulgaris and George C. Polyzos},
  Title = {Interledger Smart Contracts for Decentralized Authorization to Constrained Things},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.01671},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.01671.pdf},
}
@misc{siris2019oauth,
  author = {Vasilios A. Siris and Dimitrios Dimopoulos and Nikos Fotiou and Spyros Voulgaris and George C. Polyzos},
  Title = {OAuth 2.0 meets Blockchain for Authorization in Constrained IoT Environments},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.01665},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.01665.pdf},
}
@misc{chen2019domain,
  author = {Jiachi Chen and Xin Xia and David Lo and John Grundy and Daniel Xiapu Luo and Ting Chen},
  Title = {Domain Specific Code Smells in Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.01467},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.01467.pdf},
}
@misc{feng2019bug,
  author = {Xiaotao Feng and Qin Wang and Xiaogang Zhu and Sheng Wen},
  Title = {Bug Searching in Smart Contract},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.00799},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.00799.pdf},
}
@misc{zakhary2019towards,
  author = {Victor Zakhary and Mohammad Javad Amiri and Sujaya Maiyya and Divyakant Agrawal and Amr El Abbadi},
  Title = {Towards Global Asset Management in Blockchain Systems},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.09359},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.09359.pdf},
}
@misc{albassam2019lazyledger,
  author = {Mustafa Al-Bassam},
  Title = {LazyLedger: A Distributed Data Availability Ledger With Client-Side Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.09274},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.09274.pdf},
}
@misc{sanchez2019zero,
  author = {David Cerezo S{\'a}nchez},
  Title = {Zero-Knowledge Proof-of-Identity: Sybil-Resistant, Anonymous Authentication on Permissionless Blockchains and Incentive Compatible, Strictly Dominant Cryptocurrencies},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.09093},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.09093.pdf},
}
@misc{ayman2019smart,
  author = {Afiya Ayman and Amna Aziz and Amin Alipour and Aron Laszka},
  Title = {Smart Contract Development in Practice: Trends, Issues, and Discussions on Stack Overflow},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.08833},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.08833.pdf},
}
@misc{datta2019blockchain,
  author = {Anwitaman Datta},
  Title = {Blockchain in the Government Technology Fabric},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.08517},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.08517.pdf},
}
@misc{brenzikofer2019privacy,
  author = {Alain Brenzikofer and Noa Melchior},
  Title = {Privacy-Preserving P2P Energy Market on the Blockchain},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.07940},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.07940.pdf},
}
@misc{atzei2019developing,
  author = {Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Stefano Lande and Nobuko Yoshida and Roberto Zunino},
  Title = {Developing secure Bitcoin contracts with BitML},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.07639},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.07639.pdf},
}
@article{koutsoupias2019blockchain,
  author = {Elias Koutsoupias and Philip Lazos and Paolo Serafino and Foluso Ogunlana},
  Title = {Blockchain Mining Games with Pay Forward},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.07397},
  Doi = {10.1145/3308558.3313740},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.07397.pdf},
}
@misc{pang2019concurrency,
  author = {Shuaifeng Pang and Xiaodong Qi and Zhao Zhang and Cheqing Jin and Aoying Zhou},
  Title = {Concurrency Protocol Aiming at High Performance of Execution and Replay for Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.07169},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.07169.pdf},
}
@misc{frauenthaler2019framework,
  author = {Philipp Frauenthaler and Michael Borkowski and Stefan Schulte},
  Title = {A Framework for Blockchain Interoperability and Runtime Selection},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.07014},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.07014.pdf},
}
@misc{wuestholz2019harvey,
  author = {Valentin W{\"u}stholz and Maria Christakis},
  Title = {Harvey: A Greybox Fuzzer for Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.06944},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.06944.pdf},
}
@misc{leelavimolsilp2019empirical,
  author = {Tin Leelavimolsilp and Long Tran-Thanh and Sebastian Stein and Viet Hung Nguyen},
  Title = {An Empirical Evaluation of Selfish Mining and Strategic Mining in Proof-of-Work Blockchain with Multiple Miners},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.06853},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.06853.pdf},
}
@misc{sigwart2019blockchain,
  author = {Marten Sigwart and Michael Borkowski and Marco Peise and Stefan Schulte and Stefan Tai},
  Title = {Blockchain-based Data Provenance for the Internet of Things},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.06852},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.06852.pdf},
}
@misc{loghin2019blockchain,
  author = {Dumitrel Loghin and Gang Chen and Tien Tuan Anh Dinh and Beng Chin Ooi and Yong Meng Teo},
  Title = {Blockchain Goes Green? An Analysis of Blockchain on Low-Power Nodes},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1905.06520},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.06520.pdf},
}
@misc{azouvi2019sok,
  author = {Sarah Azouvi and Alexander Hicks},
  title = {SoK: Tools for Game Theoretic Models of Security for Cryptocurrencies},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1905.08595},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.08595.pdf},
}
@misc{naumenko2019bandwidth,
  author = {Gleb Naumenko and Gregory Maxwell and Pieter Wuille and Sasha Fedorova and Ivan Beschastnikh},
  title = {Bandwidth-Efficient Transaction Relay for Bitcoin},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1905.10518},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.10518.pdf},
}
@misc{chatzigiannis2019diversification,
  author = {Panagiotis Chatzigiannis and Foteini Baldimtsi and Igor Griva and Jiasun Li},
  title = {Diversification Across Mining Pools: Optimal Mining Strategies under PoW},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1905.04624},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.04624.pdf},
}
@misc{sheff2019charlotte,
  author = {Isaac Sheff and Xinwen Wang and Haobin Ni and Robbert Renesse and Andrew C Myers},
  title = {Charlotte: Composable Authenticated Distributed Data Structures, Technical Report},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1905.03888},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.03888.pdf},
}
@misc{yang2019empirically,
  author = {Renlord Yang and Toby Murray and Paul Rimba and Udaya Parampalli},
  title = {Empirically Analyzing Ethereum's Gas Mechanism},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1905.00553},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.00553.pdf},
}
@misc{rohrer2019discharged,
  author = {Elias Rohrer and Julian Malliaris and Florian Tschorsch},
  title = {Discharged Payment Channels: Quantifying the Lightning Network's Resilience to Topology-Based Attacks},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1904.10253},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.10253.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{liu2019survey,
  author = {Ziyao Liu and Nguyen Cong Luong and Wenbo Wang and Dusit Niyato and Ping Wang and Ying-Chang Liang and Dong In Kim},
  title = {A Survey on Blockchain: A Game Theoretical Perspective},
  journal = {IEEE Access},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {47615--47643},
  year = {2019},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel7/6287639/8600701/08684838.pdf},
}
@misc{kokoris2018verifiable,
  author = {Eleftherios Kokoris-Kogias and Enis Ceyhun Alp and Sandra Deepthy Siby and Nicolas Gailly and Linus Gasser and Philipp Jovanovic and Ewa Syta and Bryan Ford},
  title = {Verifiable Management of Private Data under Byzantine Failures},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/209},
  year = {2018},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/209}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/209.pdf},
}
@misc{dryja2019utreexo,
  author = {Thaddeus Dryja},
  title = {Utreexo: A dynamic hash-based accumulator optimized for the Bitcoin UTXO set},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/611},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/611}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/611.pdf},
}
@misc{mahmoody2019note,
  author = {Mohammad Mahmoody and Caleb Smith and David J. Wu},
  title = {A Note on the (Im)possibility of Verifiable Delay Functions in the Random Oracle Model},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/663},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/663}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/663.pdf},
}
@misc{leonardos2019presto,
  author = {Stefanos Leonardos and Daniel Reijsbergen and Georgios Piliouras},
  Title = {PREStO: A Systematic Framework for Blockchain Consensus Protocols},
  Year = {2019},
  howpublished = {arXiv:1906.06540},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.06540.pdf},
}
@misc{min2019blockchain,
  author = {Tian Min and Hanyi Wang and Yaoze Guo and Wei Cai},
  Title = {Blockchain Games: A Survey},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1906.05558},
  Howpublished = {IEEE Conference on Games (CoG 2019), London, United Kingdom, Aug 20-23, 2019},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.05558.pdf},
}
@misc{luzio2019arcula,
  author = {Adriano Di Luzio and Danilo Francati and Giuseppe Ateniese},
  Title = {Arcula: A Secure Hierarchical Deterministic Wallet for Multi-asset Blockchains},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1906.05919},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.05919.pdf},
}
@misc{stathakopoulou2019mirbft,
  author = {Chrysoula Stathakopoulou and Tudor David and Marko Vukoli{\'c}},
  Title = {Mir-BFT: High-Throughput BFT for Blockchains},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1906.05552},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.05552.pdf},
}
@misc{min2019security,
  author = {Tian Min and Wei Cai},
  Title = {A Security Case Study for Blockchain Games},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1906.05538},
  Howpublished = {IEEE Games Entertainment \& Media Conference 2019 (GEM 2019), New Haven, Connecticut, United States, June 19-22, 2019},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.05538.pdf},
}
@misc{albert2019safevm,
  author = {Elvira Albert and Jes{\'u}s Correas and Pablo Gordillo and Guillermo Rom{\'a}n-D{\'i}ez and Albert Rubio},
  Title = {SAFEVM: A Safety Verifier for Ethereum Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1906.04984},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.04984.pdf},
}
@misc{parizi2019integrating,
  author = {Reza M. Parizi and Sajad Homayoun and Abbas Yazdinejad and Ali Dehghantanha and Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo},
  Title = {Integrating Privacy Enhancing Techniques into Blockchains Using Sidechains},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1906.04953},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.04953.pdf},
}
@misc{homayoun2019blockchain,
  author = {Sajad Homayoun and Ali Dehghantanha and Reza M. Parizi and Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo},
  Title = {A Blockchain-based Framework for Detecting Malicious Mobile Applications in App Stores},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1906.04951},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.04951.pdf},
}
@misc{cossio2019competing,
  author = {Francisco J. Marmolejo-Coss{\'i}o and Eric Brigham and Benjamin Sela and Jonathan Katz},
  Title = {Competing (Semi)-Selfish Miners in Bitcoin},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1906.04502},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.04502.pdf},
}
@misc{robinson2019merits,
  author = {Peter Robinson},
  Title = {The merits of using Ethereum MainNet as a Coordination Blockchain for Ethereum Private Sidechains},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1906.04421},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.04421.pdf},
}
@article{jalalzai2019window,
  author = {Mohammad M. Jalalzai and Costas Busch},
  Title = {Window Based BFT Blockchain Consensus},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1906.04381},
  Doi = {10.1109/Cybermatics_2018.2018.00184},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.04381.pdf},
}
@misc{sfirakis2019validating,
  author = {Ilias Sfirakis and Vasileios Kotronis},
  Title = {Validating IP Prefixes and AS-Paths with Blockchains},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1906.03172},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.03172.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{vukolic2017rethinking,
  author = {Marko Vukoli{\'c}},
  title = {Rethinking permissioned blockchains},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the ACM Workshop on Blockchain, Cryptocurrencies and Contracts},
  pages = {3--7},
  year = {2017},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {http://www.vukolic.com/rethinking-permissioned-blockchains-BCC2017.pdf},
}
@misc{saad2019partitioning,
  author = {Muhammad Saad and Victor Cook and Lan Nguyen and My T Thai and Aziz Mohaisen},
  title = {Partitioning Attacks on Bitcoin: Colliding Space, Time and Logic},
  year = {2019},
  url = {http://www.cs.ucf.edu/~msaad/icdcs_19.pdf},
}
@misc{nakamura2019refinement,
  author = {Ryuya Nakamura and Takayuki Jimba and Dominik Harz},
  title = {Refinement and Verification of CBC Casper},
  journal = {networks},
  volume = {2},
  pages = {4},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/415.pdf},
}
@misc{garay2019iterated,
  author = {Juan A Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Giorgos Panagiotakos},
  title = {Iterated Search Problems and Blockchain Security under Falsifiable Assumptions.},
  journal = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
  volume = {2019},
  pages = {315},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/315.pdf},
}
@misc{harz2019balance,
  author = {Dominik Harz and Lewis Gudgeon and Arthur Gervais and William J. Knottenbelt},
  title = {Balance: Dynamic Adjustment of Cryptocurrency Deposits},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/675},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/675}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/675.pdf},
}
@misc{kim2019stellar,
  author = {Minjeong Kim and Yujin Kwon and Yongdae Kim},
  title = {Is Stellar As Secure As You Think?},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1904.13302},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.13302.pdf},
}
@misc{judmayer2019pay,
  author = {Aljosha Judmayer and Nicholas Stifter and Alexei Zamyatin and Itay Tsabary and Ittay Eyal and Peter Ga\v{z}i and Sarah Meiklejohn and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {Pay-To-Win: Incentive Attacks on Proof-of-Work Cryptocurrencies},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/775},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/775}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/775.pdf},
}
@misc{winzer2019temporary,
  author = {Fredrik Winzer and Benjamin Herd and Sebastian Faust},
  title = {Temporary Censorship Attacks in the Presence of Rational Miners},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/748},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/748},
}
@misc{han2019sucker,
  author = {Runchao Han and Zhimei Sui and Jiangshan Yu and Joseph Liu and Shiping Chen},
  title = {Sucker punch makes you richer: Rethinking Proof-of-Work security model},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/752},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/752.pdf},
}
@misc{mazumdar2019design,
  author = {Subhra Mazumdar and Sushmita Ruj},
  title = {Design of Anonymous Endorsement System in Hyperledger Fabric},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/753},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/753}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/753.pdf},
}
@misc{hajdu2019solc,
  author = {Hajdu and Dejan Jovanovi\'{c}},
  Title = {solc-verify: A Modular Verifier for Solidity Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.04262},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.04262.pdf},
}
@misc{aydar2019private,
  author = {Mehmet Aydar and Salih Cemil Cetin and Serkan Ayvaz and Betul Aygun},
  Title = {Private key encryption and recovery in blockchain},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.04156},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.04156.pdf},
}
@misc{zhauniarovich2019characterizing,
  author = {Yury Zhauniarovich and Yazan Boshmaf and Husam Al Jawaheri and Mashael Al Sabah},
  Title = {Characterizing Bitcoin donations to open source software on GitHub},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.04002},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.04002.pdf},
}
@misc{fotiou2019secure,
  author = {Nikos Fotiou and Iakovos Pittaras and Vasilios A. Siris and Spyros Voulgaris and George C. Polyzos},
  Title = {Secure IoT access at scale using blockchains and smart contracts},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.03904},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.03904.pdf},
}
@misc{mossberg2019manticore,
  author = {Mark Mossberg and Felipe Manzano and Eric Hennenfent and Alex Groce and Gustavo Grieco and Josselin Feist and Trent Brunson and Artem Dinaburg},
  Title = {Manticore: A User-Friendly Symbolic Execution Framework for Binaries and Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.03890},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.03890.pdf},
}
@misc{weiss2019annotary,
  author = {Konrad Weiss and Julian Sch\"{u}tte},
  Title = {Annotary: A Concolic Execution System for Developing Secure Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.03868},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.03868.pdf},
}
@misc{pedrosa2019platypus,
  author = {Alejandro Ranchal-Pedrosa and Vincent Gramoli},
  Title = {Platypus: a Partially Synchronous Offchain Protocol for Blockchains},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.03730},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.03730.pdf},
}
@misc{bu2019hyperpubsub,
  author = {Gewu Bu and Thanh Son Lam Nguyen and Maria Potop-Butucaru and Kim Thai},
  Title = {HyperPubSub: Blockchain based Publish/Subscribe},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.03627},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.03627.pdf},
}
@misc{chao2019fair,
  author = {Tzu-Wei Chao and Hao Chung and Po-Chun Kuo},
  Title = {Fair Byzantine Agreements for Blockchains},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.03437},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.03437.pdf},
}
@misc{manuskin2019ostraka,
  author = {Alex Manuskin and Michael Mirkin and Ittay Eyal},
  Title = {Ostraka: Secure Blockchain Scaling by Node Sharding},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.03331},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.03331.pdf},
}
@misc{hercog2019taint,
  author = {Uro\v{s} Hercog and Andra\v{z} Pov\v{s}e},
  Title = {Taint analysis of the Bitcoin network},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.01538},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.01538.pdf},
}
@misc{singhal2019metaanalysis,
  author = {Parth Singhal and Siddharth Masih},
  Title = {MetaAnalysis of Methods for Scaling Blockchain Technology for Automotive Uses},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.02602},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.02602.pdf},
}
@article{wang2019rythm,
  author = {Tengfei Wang and Shuyi Zhang and Xiao Wu and Wei Cai},
  Title = {Rhythm Dungeon: A Blockchain-based Music Roguelike Game},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.00042},
  Howpublished = {2019 Foundation of Digital Games Demos (FDG 2019 DEMO), San Luis Obispo, California, USA, August 26-30, 2019},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.00042.pdf},
}
@misc{kadhe2019sef,
  author = {Swanand Kadhe and Jichan Chung and Kannan Ramchandran},
  Title = {SeF: A Secure Fountain Architecture for Slashing Storage Costs in Blockchains},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1906.12140},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.12140.pdf},
}
@article{miraz2019lapps,
  author = {Mahdi H. Miraz and David C. Donald},
  Title = {LApps: Technological, Legal and Market Potentials of Blockchain Lightning Network Applications},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1906.11946},
  Doi = {10.1145/3325917.3325942},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.11946.pdf},
}
@misc{shrey2019depetrans,
  author = {Baheti Shrey and Anjana Parwat Singh and Peri Sathya and Simmhan Yogesh},
  Title = {DiPETrans: A Framework for Distributed Parallel Execution of Transactions of Blocks in Blockchain},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1906.11721},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.11721.pdf},
}
@misc{richter2019crisis,
  author = {Mirco Richter},
  title = {Crisis: Probabilistically Self Organizing Total Order in Unstructured P2P Networks},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/816},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/816}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/816.pdf},
}
@misc{li2019analysis,
  author = {Jing Li and Dongning Guo},
  Title = {On Analysis of the Bitcoin and Prism Backbone Protocols},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.05016},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.05016.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{nowostawski2019evaluating,
  author = {Mariusz Nowostawski and Jardar T{\o}n},
  title = {Evaluating Methods for the Identification of Off-Chain Transactions in the Lightning Network},
  journal = {Applied Sciences},
  volume = {9},
  number = {12},
  pages = {2519},
  year = {2019},
  publisher = {Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute},
  url = {https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/9/12/2519/pdf},
}
@article{dyson2019challenges,
  author = {Simon Dyson and William J Buchanan and Liam Bell},
  Title = {The Challenges of Investigating Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain Related Crime},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.12221},
  Howpublished = {The Journal of The British Blockchain Association, 1(2), 5779, 2018},
  Doi = {10.31585/jbba-1-2-(8)2018},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.12221.pdf},
}
@misc{annenkov2019towards,
  author = {Danil Annenkov and Bas Spitters},
  Title = {Towards a Smart Contract Verification Framework in Coq},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.10674},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.10674.pdf},
}
@misc{agbele2019biometric,
  author = {Tobechukwu Agbele and Bing Xu and Richard Jiang},
  Title = {Biometric Blockchain: A Better Solution for the Security and Trust of Food Logistics},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.10589},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.10589.pdf},
}
@misc{politou2019blockchain,
  author = {Eugenia Politou and Fran Casino and Efthimios Alepis and Constantinos Patsakis},
  Title = {Blockchain Mutability: Challenges and Proposed Solutions},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.07099},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.07099.pdf},
}
@misc{turesson2019privacy,
  author = {Hjalmar Turesson and Alexandra Roatis and Marek Laskowski and Henry Kim},
  Title = {Privacy-Preserving Blockchain Mining: Sybil-resistance by Proof-of-Useful-Work},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.08744},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.08744.pdf},
}
@misc{junis2019revisit,
  author = {Fengkie Junis and Faisal Malik Widya Prasetya and Farouq Ibrahim Lubay and Anny Kartika Sari},
  Title = {A Revisit on Blockchain-based Smart Contract Technology},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.09199},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.09199.pdf},
}
@misc{hartel2019truffle,
  author = {Pieter Hartel and Mark Staalduinen},
  Title = {Truffle tests for free -- Replaying Ethereum smart contracts for transparency},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.09208},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.09208.pdf},
}
@article{ehmke2019properties,
  author = {Christopher Ehmke and Florian Blum and Volker Gruhn},
  Title = {Properties of Decentralized Consensus Technology -- Why not every Blockchain is a Blockchain},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1907.09289},
  Doi = {10.13140/RG.2.2.35506.45765},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.09289.pdf},
}
@misc{wang2019another,
  author = {Yongge Wang},
  title = {Another Look at Byzantine Fault Tolerance},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/864},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/864}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/864.pdf},
}
@misc{wuest2019bitcontracts,
  author = {Karl W\"{u}st and Loris Diana and Kari Kostiainen and Ghassan Karame and Sinisa Matetic and Srdjan Capkun},
  title = {Bitcontracts: Adding Expressive Smart Contracts to Legacy Cryptocurrencies},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/857},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/857}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/857.pdf},
}
@misc{badertscher2019ouroboros,
  author = {Christian Badertscher and Peter Ga\v{z}i and Aggelos Kiayias and Alexander Russell and Vassilis Zikas},
  title = {Ouroboros Chronos: Permissionless Clock Synchronization via Proof-of-Stake},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/838},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/838}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/838.pdf},
}
@misc{zhou2019blockchain,
  author = {Yuyang Zhou and Yuanfeng Guan and Zhiwei Zhang and Fagen Li},
  title = {A Blockchain-Based Access Control Scheme for Smart Grids},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/880},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/880}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/880.pdf},
}
@misc{cohen2019round,
  author = {Ran Cohen and Iftach Haitner and Nikolaos Makriyannis and Matan Orland and Alex Samorodnitsky},
  title = {On the Round Complexity of Randomized Byzantine Agreement},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/868},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/868}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/868.pdf},
}
@misc{lu2019honeybadgermpc,
  author = {Donghang Lu and Thomas Yurek and Samarth Kulshreshtha and Rahul Govind and Rahul Mahadev and Aniket Kate and Andrew Miller},
  title = {HoneyBadgerMPC and AsynchroMix: Practical AsynchronousMPC and its Application to Anonymous Communication},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/883},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/883}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/883.pdf},
}
@misc{botta2019rush,
  author = {Vincenzo Botta and Daniele Friolo and Daniele Venturi and Ivan Visconti},
  title = {The Rush Dilemma: Attacking and Repairing Smart Contracts on Forking Blockchains},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/891},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/891}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/891.pdf},
}
@misc{chan2019round,
  author = {T-H. Hubert Chan and Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Round Complexity of Byzantine Agreement, Revisited},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/886},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/886}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/886.pdf},
}
@misc{lesavre2019taxonomic,
  author = {Loic Lesavre and Priam Varin and Peter Mell and Michael Davidson and James Shook},
  Title = {A Taxonomic Approach to Understanding Emerging Blockchain Identity Management Systems},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1908.00929},
  Doi = {10.6028/NIST.CSWP.07092019-draft},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.00929.pdf},
}
@misc{clouston2019spams,
  author = {Masarah Paquet-Clouston and Matteo Romiti and Bernhard Haslhofer and Thomas Charvat},
  Title = {Spams meet Cryptocurrencies: Sextortion in the Bitcoin Ecosystem},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1908.01051},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.01051.pdf},
}
@misc{breitner2019biased,
  author = {Joachim Breitner and Nadia Heninger},
  title = {Biased Nonce Sense: Lattice Attacks against Weak ECDSA Signatures in Cryptocurrencies.},
  journal = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
  volume = {2019},
  pages = {23},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/023.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{zhang2019lay,
  author = {Ren Zhang and Bart Preneel},
  title = {Lay down the common metrics: Evaluating proof-of-work consensus protocols' security},
  booktitle = {2019 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). IEEE},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://www.esat.kuleuven.be/cosic/publications/article-3005.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{paquet2019ransomware,
  author = {Masarah Paquet-Clouston and Bernhard Haslhofer and Benoit Dupont},
  title = {Ransomware payments in the bitcoin ecosystem},
  journal = {Journal of Cybersecurity},
  volume = {5},
  number = {1},
  pages = {tyz003},
  year = {2019},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  url = {https://academic.oup.com/cybersecurity/article-pdf/doi/10.1093/cybsec/tyz003/28638629/tyz003.pdf},
}
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  author = {Eleftherios Kokoris-Kogias and Enis Ceyhun Alp and Sandra Deepthy Siby and Nicolas Gailly and Linus Gasser and Philipp Jovanovic and Ewa Syta and Bryan Ford},
  title = {CALYPSO: Auditable Sharing of Private Data over Blockchains},
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  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/209},
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@inproceedings{boneh2003aggregate,
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@misc{stifter2019avoiding,
  author = {Nicholas Stifter and Matthias Eckhart and Bernhard Brenner and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {Avoiding Risky Designs When Using Blockchain Technologies in Cyber-Physical Systems},
  year = {2019},
  month = {Sep},
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@inproceedings{romiti2019deep,
  author = {Matteo Romiti and Aljosha Judmayer and Alexei Zamyatin and Bernhard Haslhofer},
  title = {A Deep Dive into Bitcoin Mining Pools: An Empirical Analysis of Mining Shares},
  booktitle = {The 2019 Workshop on the Economics of Information Security},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://weis2019.econinfosec.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/6/2019/05/WEIS_2019_paper_30.pdf},
}
@misc{han2019optionality,
  author = {Runchao Han and Haoyu Lin and Jiangshan Yu},
  title = {On the optionality and fairness of Atomic Swaps},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/896},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/896}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/896.pdf},
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@misc{teutsch2019retrofitting,
  author = {Jason Teutsch and Michael Straka and Dan Boneh},
  Title = {Retrofitting a two-way peg between blockchains},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1908.03999},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.03999.pdf},
}
@misc{wu2019mutation,
  author = {Haoran Wu and Xingya Wang and Jiehui Xu and Weiqin Zou and Lingming Zhang and Zhenyu Chen},
  Title = {Mutation Testing for Ethereum Smart Contract},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1908.03707},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.03707.pdf},
}
@misc{lopez2019privacy,
  author = {David Lopez and Bilal Farooq},
  Title = {Privacy-Aware Distributed Mobility Choice Modelling over Blockchain},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1908.03446},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.03446.pdf},
}
@misc{weber2019anti,
  author = {Mark Weber and Giacomo Domeniconi and Jie Chen and Daniel Karl I. Weidele and Claudio Bellei and Tom Robinson and Charles E. Leiserson},
  Title = {Anti-Money Laundering in Bitcoin: Experimenting with Graph Convolutional Networks for Financial Forensics},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1908.02591},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.02591.pdf},
}
@misc{li2019auditable,
  author = {Rujia Li and David Galindo and Qi Wang},
  Title = {Auditable Credential Anonymity Revocation Based on Privacy-Preserving Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1908.02443},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.02443.pdf},
}
@misc{havelange2019luce,
  author = {Nadine Havelange and Michel Dumontier and Birgit Wouters and Jona Linde and David Townend and Arno Riedl and Visara Urovi},
  Title = {LUCE: A Blockchain Solution for monitoring data License accoUntability and CompliancE},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1908.02287},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.02287.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{choudhuri2017fairness,
  author = {Arka Rai Choudhuri and Matthew Green and Abhishek Jain and Gabriel Kaptchuk and Ian Miers},
  title = {Fairness in an unfair world: Fair multiparty computation from public bulletin boards},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security},
  pages = {719--728},
  year = {2017},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {http://delivery.acm.org/10.1145/3140000/3134092/p719-choudhuri.pdf},
}
@misc{bagaria2018deconstructing,
  author = {Vivek Bagaria and Sreeram Kannan and David Tse and Giulia Fanti and Pramod Viswanath},
  title = {Deconstructing the Blockchain to Approach Physical Limits},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/992},
  year = {2018},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/992}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/992.pdf},
}
@misc{teutsch2019scalable,
  author = {Jason Teutsch and Christian Reitwie{\ss}ner},
  Title = {A scalable verification solution for blockchains},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1908.04756},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.04756.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{tran2020stealthier,
  author = {Muoi Tran and Inho Choi and Gi Jun Moon and Anh V. Vu and Min Suk Kang},
  title = {{A Stealthier Partitioning Attack against Bitcoin Peer-to-Peer Network}},
  booktitle = {To appear in Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (IEEE S\&P)},
  year = {2020},
  url = {https://erebus-attack.comp.nus.edu.sg/erebus-attack.pdf},
}
@misc{handan2019ouroboros,
  author = {Handan Kilin\c{c} Alper},
  title = {Ouroboros Clepsydra: Ouroboros Praos in the Universally Composable Relative Time Model},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/942},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/942}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/942.pdf},
}
@misc{achenbach2019money,
  author = {Dirk Achenbach and Roland Gr\"{o}ll and Timon Hackenjos and Alexander Koch and Bernhard L\"{o}we and Jeremias Mechler and J\"{o}rn M\"{u}ller-Quade and Jochen Rill},
  title = {Your Money or Your Life---Modeling and Analyzing the Security of Electronic Payment in the UC Framework},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/924},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/924}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/924.pdf},
}
@misc{ganji2019blockchain,
  author = {Fatemeh Ganji and Shahin Tajik and Domenic Forte and Jean-Pierre Seifert},
  title = {Blockchain-enabled Cryptographically-secure Hardware Obfuscation},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/928},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/928}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/928.pdf},
}
@misc{faria2019blocksim,
  author = {Carlos Faria and Miguel Correia},
  title = {BlockSim: Blockchain Simulator},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://www.carlosfaria.com/papers/blocksim-blockchain-simulator.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{schindler2020hydrand,
  author = {Philipp Schindler and Aljosha Judmayer and Nicholas Stifter and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {HydRand: Practical Continuous Distributed Randomness},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (IEEE S\&P)},
  year = {2020},
  organization = {IEEE},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/319.pdf},
  note = {to appear},
}
@inproceedings{boneh1997efficient,
  author = {Dan Boneh and Matthew Franklin},
  title = {Efficient generation of shared RSA keys},
  booktitle = {Annual International Cryptology Conference},
  pages = {425--439},
  year = {1997},
  organization = {Springer},
  url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/BFb0052253.pdf},
}
@misc{cecchetti2019pies,
  author = {Ethan Cecchetti and Ben Fisch and Ian Miers and Ari Juels},
  title = {PIEs: Public Incompressible Encodings for Decentralized Storage},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/684},
  year = {2018},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/684}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/684.pdf},
}
@misc{gao2019smartembed,
  author = {Zhipeng Gao and Vinoj Jayasundara and Lingxiao Jiang and Xin Xia and David Lo and John Grundy},
  Title = {SmartEmbed: A Tool for Clone and Bug Detection in Smart Contracts through Structural Code Embedding},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1908.08615},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.08615.pdf},
}
@misc{praitheeshan2019security,
  author = {Purathani Praitheeshan and Lei Pan and Jiangshan Yu and Joseph Liu and Robin Doss},
  Title = {Security Analysis Methods on Ethereum Smart Contract Vulnerabilities: A Survey},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1908.08605},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.08605.pdf},
}
@article{rouhani2019blockchain,
  author = {Sara Rouhani and Ralph Deters},
  Title = {Blockchain based access control systems: State of the art and challenges},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1908.08503},
  Doi = {10.1145/3350546.3352561},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.08503.pdf},
}
@misc{natoli2019deconstructing,
  author = {Christopher Natoli and Jiangshan Yu and Vincent Gramoli and Paulo Esteves-Verissimo},
  Title = {Deconstructing Blockchains: A Comprehensive Survey on Consensus, Membership and Structure},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1908.08316},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.08316.pdf},
}
@misc{baudet2019state,
  author = {Mathieu Baudet and Avery Ching and Andrey Chursin and George Danezis and Fran{\c{c}}ois Garillot and Zekun Li and Dahlia Malkhi and Oded Naor and Dmitri Perelman and Alberto Sonnino},
  title = {State Machine Replication in the Libra Blockchain},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://developers.libra.org/docs/assets/papers/libra-consensus-state-machine-replication-in-the-libra-blockchain.pdf},
}
@misc{cryptoeprint:2017:241,
  author = {Erica Blum and Aggelos Kiayias and Cristopher Moore and Saad Quader and Alexander Russell},
  title = {Linear Consistency for Proof-of-Stake Blockchains},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/241},
  year = {2017},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/241}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/241},
}
@misc{hartel2019empirical,
  author = {Pieter Hartel and Ivan Homoliak and Dani\"{e}l Reijsbergen},
  Title = {An Empirical Study into the Success of Listed Smart Contracts in Ethereum},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1908.11597},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.11597.pdf},
}
@misc{rosa2019agent,
  author = {Edoardo Rosa and Gabriele D'Angelo and Stefano Ferretti},
  Title = {Agent-based Simulation of Blockchains},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1908.11811},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.11811.pdf},
}
@misc{feretti2019ethereum,
  author = {Stefano Ferretti and Gabriele D'Angelo},
  Title = {On the Ethereum Blockchain Structure: a Complex Networks Theory Perspective},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1908.11808},
  Doi = {10.1002/cpe.5493},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.11808.pdf},
}
@misc{fidelman2019generic,
  author = {Zuphit Fidelman},
  Title = {A Generic Sharding Scheme for Blockchain Protocols},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1909.01162},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.01162.pdf},
}
@misc{le2019tale,
  author = {Duc V. Le and Lizzy Tengana Hurtado and Adil Ahmad and Mohsen Minaei and Byoungyoung Lee and Aniket Kate},
  Title = {A Tale of Two Trees: One Writes, and Other Reads. {Optimized Oblivious Accesses to Large-Scale Blockchains}},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1909.01531},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.01531.pdf},
}
@misc{hassan2019blockchain,
  author = {Naveed UL Hassan and Chau Yuen and Dusit Niyato},
  Title = {Blockchain Technologies for Smart Energy Systems: Fundamentals, Challenges and Solutions},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1909.02914},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.02914.pdf},
}
@misc{zhang2019onionchain,
  author = {Yue Zhang and Jian Weng and Jiasi Weng and Ming Li and Weiqi Luo},
  Title = {Onionchain: Towards Balancing Privacy and Traceability of Blockchain-Based Applications},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1909.03367},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.03367.pdf},
}
@misc{coblenz2019obsidian,
  author = {Michael Coblenz and Reed Oei and Tyler Etzel and Paulette Koronkevich and Miles Baker and Yannick Bloem and Brad A. Myers and Joshua Sunshine and Jonathan Aldrich},
  Title = {Obsidian: Typestate and Assets for Safer Blockchain Programming},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1909.03523},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.03367.pdf},
}
@misc{li2019puncturable,
  author = {Xinyu Li and Jing Xu and Xiong Fan and Yuchen Wang and Zhenfeng Zhang},
  Title = {Puncturable Signatures and Applications in Proof-of-Stake Blockchain Protocol},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1909.03955},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.03955.pdf},
}
@misc{kokkoris2019bootstrapping,
  author = {Eleftherios Kokoris-Kogias and Alexander Spiegelman and Dahlia Malkhi and Ittai Abraham},
  title = {Bootstrapping Consensus Without Trusted Setup: Fully Asynchronous Distributed Key Generation},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1015},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1015}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1015.pdf},
}
@misc{fanti2019barracuda,
  author = {Giulia Fanti and Jiantao Jiao and Ashok Makkuva and Sewoong Oh and Ranvir Rana and Pramod Viswanath},
  Title = {Barracuda: The Power of $\ell$-polling in Proof-of-Stake Blockchains},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1909.08719},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.08719.pdf},
}
@misc{pinzon2019random,
  author = {Carlos Pinz\'{o}n and Camilo Rocha and Jorge Finke},
  Title = {A Random Network Model for the Analysis of Blockchain Designs with Communication Delay},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1909.06435},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.06435.pdf},
}
@misc{zakhary2019transactional,
  author = {Victor Zakhary and Divyakant Agrawal and Amr El Abbadi},
  Title = {Transactional Smart Contracts in Blockchain Systems},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1909.06494},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.06494.pdf},
}
@misc{mohanty2019pufchain,
  author = {Saraju P. Mohanty and Venkata P. Yanambaka and Elias Kougianos and Deepak Puthal},
  Title = {PUFchain: Hardware-Assisted Blockchain for Sustainable Simultaneous Device and Data Security in the Internet of Everything (IoE)},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1909.06496},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.06494.pdf},
}
@misc{zhao2019analysis,
  author = {Jun Zhao},
  Title = {An Analysis of Blockchain Consistency in Asynchronous Networks: Deriving a Neat Bound},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1909.06587},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.06587.pdf},
}
@misc{wang2019oracle,
  author = {Haijun Wang and Yi Li and Shang-Wei Lin and Cyrille Artho and Lei Ma and Yang Liu},
  Title = {Oracle-Supported Dynamic Exploit Generation for Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1909.06605},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.06605.pdf},
}
@misc{neisse2019toward,
  author = {Ricardo Neisse and Jos\'{e} L. Hern\'{a}ndez-Ramos and Sara N. Matheu and Gianmarco Baldini and Antonio Skarmeta},
  Title = {Toward a Blockchain-based Platform to Manage Cybersecurity Certification of IoT devices},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1909.07039},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.07039.pdf},
}
@misc{ramanan2019baffle,
  author = {Paritosh Ramanan and Kiyoshi Nakayama and Ratnesh Sharma},
  Title = {BAFFLE : Blockchain based Aggregator Free Federated Learning},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1909.07452},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.07452.pdf},
}
@misc{tholoniat2019certifying,
  author = {Pierre Tholoniat and Vincent Gramoli},
  Title = {Certifying Blockchain Byzantine Fault Tolerance},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1909.07453},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.07453.pdf},
}
@misc{allombert2019introduction,
  author = {Victor Allombert and Mathias Bourgoin and Julien Tesson},
  Title = {Introduction to the Tezos Blockchain},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1909.08458},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.08458.pdf},
}
@misc{bernardo2019michocoq,
  author = {Bruno Bernardo and Rapha\"{e}l Cauderlier and Zhenlei Hu and Basile Pesin and Julien Tesson},
  Title = {Mi-Cho-Coq, a framework for certifying Tezos Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1909.08671},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.08671.pdf},
}
@misc{chee2019ocean,
  author = {Raymond Chee and Kartik Chitturi and Edouard Dufour-Sans and Kyle Soska},
  title = {OCEAN: A Built-In Replacement for Mining Pools},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1081},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1081}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1081.pdf},
}
@misc{lee2019sims,
  author = {Jeonghyuk Lee and Jungyeon Hwang and Jaekyung Choi and Hyunok Oh and Jihye Kim},
  title = {SIMS : Self Sovereign Identity Management System with Preserving Privacy in Blockchain},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1241},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1241}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1241.pdf},
}
@misc{ford2019rationality,
  author = {Bryan Ford and Rainer B\"{o}hme},
  Title = {Rationality is Self-Defeating in Permissionless Systems},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1910.08820},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1910.08820.pdf},
}
@misc{homoliak2019security,
  author = {Ivan Homoliak and Sarad Venugopalan and Qingze Hum and Daniel Reijsbergen and Richard Schumi and Pawel Szalachowski},
  Title = {The Security Reference Architecture for Blockchains: Towards a Standardized Model for Studying Vulnerabilities, Threats, and Defenses},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1910.09775},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1910.09775.pdf},
}
@misc{fan2019large,
  author = {Lei Fan and Jonathan Katz and Hong-Sheng Zhou},
  title = {A Large-Scale Proof-of-Stake Blockchain in the Open Setting},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://www.fractalblock.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/iching_consensus_protocol.pdf},
}
@misc{birmpas2019fairness,
  author = {Georgios Birmpas and Elias Koutsoupias and Philip Lazos and Francisco J. Marmolejo-Coss\'{i}o},
  Title = {Fairness and Efficiency in DAG-based Cryptocurrencies},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1910.02059},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1910.02059.pdf},
}
@misc{thai2019backpackers,
  author = {Phuc D Thai and Hong-sheng Zhou and Jonathan Katz and Lei Fan and Thang N Dinh},
  title = {BackPackers: A New Network Paradigm for Secure and High-performance Blockchains},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://www.fractalblock.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/BackPackers_Layer-0-Scaling.pdf},
}
@misc{gupta2019cdag,
  author = {Himanshu Gupta and Dharanipragada Janakiram},
  title = {CDAG: A Serialized blockDAG for Permissioned Blockchain},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1910.08547},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1910.08547.pdf},
}
@misc{amoussou2019fairness,
  author = {Yackolley Amoussou-Guenou and Antonella Del Pozzo and Maria Potop-Butucaru and Sara Tucci-Piergiovanni},
  title = {On Fairness in Committee-based Blockchains},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1910.09786},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1910.09786.pdf},
}
@misc{gundlach2019hydra,
  author = {Rowel G{\"u}ndlach and Jaap-Henk Hoepman and Remco Hofstad and Tommy Koens and Stijn Meijer},
  title = {Hydra: A Multiple Blockchain Protocol for Improving Transaction Throughput},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1910.06682},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1910.06682.pdf},
}
@misc{cojocaru2019bitcoin,
  author = {Alexandru Cojocaru and Juan Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Fang Song and Petros Wallden},
  title = {The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol Against Quantum Adversaries},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1150},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1150.pdf},
}
@misc{wang2019proof,
  author = {Xuechao Wang and Govinda Kamath and Vivek Bagaria and Sreeram Kannan and Sewoong Oh and David Tse and Pramod Viswanath},
  title = {Proof-of-Stake Longest Chain Protocols Revisited},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1910.02218},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1910.02218.pdf},
}
@misc{cryptoeprint:2019:1110,
  author = {Jing Xu and Xinyu Li and Lingyuan Yin and Bingyong Guo and Han Feng and Zhenfeng Zhang},
  title = {Redactable Proof-of-Stake Blockchain with Fast Confirmation},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1110},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1110.pdf},
}
@misc{zamyatin2019sok,
  author = {Alexei Zamyatin and Mustafa Al-Bassam and Dionysis Zindros and Eleftherios Kokoris-Kogias and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Aggelos Kiayias and William J Knottenbelt},
  title = {SoK: Communication Across Distributed Ledgers},
  year = {2019},
  institution = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2019: 1128},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1128.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{conoscenti2019hubs,
  author = {Marco Conoscenti and Antonio Vetr{\`o} and Juan Carlos De Martin},
  title = {Hubs, Rebalancing and Service Providers in the Lightning Network},
  journal = {IEEE Access},
  volume = {7},
  pages = {132828--132840},
  year = {2019},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/ielx7/6287639/8600701/08839024.pdf},
}
@misc{chen2019axiomatic,
  author = {Xi Chen and Christos Papadimitriou and Tim Roughgarden},
  title = {An Axiomatic Approach to Block Rewards},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1909.10645},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.10645.pdf},
}
@misc{niu2019analysis,
  author = {Jianyu Niu and Chen Feng and Hoang Dau and Yu-Chih Huang and Jingge Zhu},
  title = {Analysis of Nakamoto Consensus, Revisited},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1225},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1225.pdf},
}
@misc{bogatov2019anonymous,
  author = {Dmytro Bogatov and Angelo De Caro and Kaoutar Elkhiyaoui and Bj\"{o}rn Tackmann},
  title = {Anonymous Transactions with Revocation and Auditing in Hyperledger Fabric},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1097},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1097.pdf},
}
@misc{khalil2019commit,
  author = {Rami Khalil and Alexei Zamyatin and Guillaume Felley and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Arthur Gervais},
  title = {Commit-Chains: Secure, Scalable Off-Chain Payments},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/642},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/642.pdf},
}
@misc{wang2019sok,
  author = {Gang Wang and Zhijie Jerry Shi and Mark Nixon and Song Han},
  title = {SoK: Sharding on Blockchain},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1178},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1178.pdf},
}
@misc{perez2019lockdown,
  author = {Cristina P\'{e}rez-Sol\`{a} and Alejandro Ranchal-Pedrosa and Jordi Herrera-Joancomart\`{i} and Guillermo Navarro-Arribas and Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro},
  title = {LockDown: Balance Availability Attack against Lightning Network Channels},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1149},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1149.pdf},
}
@misc{yu2019coded,
  author = {Mingchao Yu and Saeid Sahraei and Songze Li and Salman Avestimehr and Sreeram Kannan and Pramod Viswanath},
  title = {Coded Merkle Tree: Solving Data Availability Attacks in Blockchains},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1139},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1139.pdf},
}
@misc{wang2019chainsplitter,
  author = {Gang Wang and Zhijie Jerry Shi and Mark Nixon and Song Han},
  title = {ChainSplitter: Towards Blockchain-based Industrial IoT Architecture for Supporting Hierarchical Storage},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1138},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1138.pdf},
}
@misc{quintyne2019towards,
  author = {Mikerah Quintyne-Collins},
  title = {Short Paper: Towards Characterizing Sybil Attacks in Cryptocurrency Mixers},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1111},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1111.pdf},
}
@misc{moeser2019effective,
  author = {Malte M{\"o}ser and Arvind Narayanan},
  title = {Effective Cryptocurrency Regulation Through Blacklisting},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://maltemoeser.de/paper/blacklisting-regulation.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{brown2019formal,
  author = {Jonah Brown-Cohen and Arvind Narayanan and Alexandros Psomas and S Matthew Weinberg},
  title = {Formal barriers to longest-chain proof-of-stake protocols},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2019 ACM Conference on Economics and Computation},
  pages = {459--473},
  year = {2019},
  organization = {ACM},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1809.06528.pdf},
}
@article{bojja2017dandelion,
  author = {Shaileshh Bojja Venkatakrishnan and Giulia Fanti and Pramod Viswanath},
  title = {Dandelion: Redesigning the bitcoin network for anonymity},
  journal = {Proceedings of the ACM on Measurement and Analysis of Computing Systems},
  volume = {1},
  number = {1},
  pages = {22},
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@misc{zhang2019mpro,
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  Title = {MPro: Combining Static and Symbolic Analysis for Scalable Testing of Smart Contract},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1911.00570},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1911.00570.pdf},
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@inproceedings{meiklejohn2015privacy,
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  pages = {127--141},
  year = {2015},
  organization = {Springer},
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@article{zheng2018blockchain,
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}
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}
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}
@misc{wang2019byzantine,
  author = {Yongge Wang},
  title = {Byzantine Fault Tolerance in Partially Connected Asynchronous Networks},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1460},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1460}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1460.pdf},
}
@misc{karantias2019compact,
  author = {Kostis Karantias and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos and Dionysis Zindros},
  title = {Compact Storage of Superblocks for NIPoPoW Applications},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1444},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1444}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1444.pdf},
}
@misc{zheng2019confidential,
  author = {Yi Zheng and Howard Ye and Patrick Dai and Tongcheng Sun and Vladislav Gelfer},
  title = {Confidential Assets on MimbleWimble},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1435},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1435}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1435.pdf},
}
@misc{wan2019hibechain,
  author = {Zhiguo Wan and Wei Liu and Hui Cui},
  title = {HIBEChain: A Hierarchical Identity-based Blockchain System for Large-Scale IoT},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1425},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1425}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1425.pdf},
}
@misc{arun2019cross,
  author = {Arasu Arun and C. Pandu Rangan},
  title = {Cross-Chain Communication Using Receipts},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1431},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1431}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1431.pdf},
}
@misc{li2020bpcex,
  author = {Wulu Li and Lei Chen and Xin Lai and Xiao Zhang and Jiajun Xin},
  title = {BPCEX: Towards Blockchain-based Privacy-preserving Currency Exchange},
  howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2020/004},
  year = {2020},
  note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/004}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/004.pdf},
}
@misc{wei2020creating,
  author = {Hongxin Wei and Wei Feng and Chi Zhang and Yunfei Chen and Yuguang Fang and Ning Ge},
  Title = {Creating Efficient Blockchains for the Internet of Things by Coordinated Satellite-Terrestrial Networks},
  Year = {2020},
  Eprint = {arXiv:2001.01358},
  Howpublished = {IEEE Wireless Communications, 2020},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.01358.pdf},
}
@misc{mavroudis2020snappy,
  author = {Vasilios Mavroudis and Karl W\"{u}st and Aritra Dhar and Kari Kostiainen and Srdjan Capkun},
  Title = {Snappy: Fast On-chain Payments with Practical Collaterals},
  Year = {2020},
  Eprint = {arXiv:2001.01278},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.01278.pdf},
}
@misc{li2019dissecting,
  author = {Yitao Li and Umar Islambekov and Cuneyt Akcora and Ekaterina Smirnova and Yulia R. Gel and Murat Kantarcioglu},
  Title = {Dissecting Ethereum Blockchain Analytics: What We Learn from Topology and Geometry of Ethereum Graph},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1912.10105},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.10105.pdf},
}
@misc{xu2019microchain,
  author = {Ronghua Xu and Yu Chen},
  Title = {Microchain: a Light Hierarchical Consensus Protocol for IoT System},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1912.10357},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.10357.pdf},
}
@misc{voron2019dispel,
  author = {Gauthier Voron and Vincent Gramoli},
  Title = {Dispel: Byzantine SMR with Distributed Pipelining},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1912.10367},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.10367.pdf},
}
@article{zheng2019overview,
  author = {Zibin Zheng and Shaoan Xie and Hong-Ning Dai and Weili Chen and Xiangping Chen and Jian Weng and Muhammad Imran},
  Title = {An Overview on Smart Contracts: Challenges, Advances and Platforms},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1912.10370},
  Howpublished = {Future Generation Computer Systems, 2019},
  Doi = {10.1016/j.future.2019.12.019},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.10370.pdf},
}
@misc{kurt2019lnbot,
  author = {Ahmet Kurt and Enes Erdin and Mumin Cebe and Kemal Akkaya and A. Selcuk Uluagac},
  Title = {LNBot: A Covert Hybrid Botnet on Bitcoin Lightning Network},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1912.10617},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.10617.pdf},
}
@misc{lunardi2019impact,
  author = {Roben C. Lunardi and Regio A. Michelin and Charles V. Neu and Avelino F. Zorzo and Salil S. Kanhere},
  Title = {Impact of consensus on appendable-block blockchain for IoT},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1912.11043},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.11043.pdf},
}
@misc{chung2019performance,
  author = {Grant Chung and Luc Desrosiers and Manav Gupta and Andrew Sutton and Kaushik Venkatadri and Ontak Wong and Goran Zugic},
  Title = {Performance Tuning and Scaling Enterprise Blockchain Applications},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1912.11456},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.11456.pdf},
}
@misc{imtiaz2019characterizing,
  author = {Muhammad Anas Imtiaz and David Starobinski and Ari Trachtenberg},
  Title = {Characterizing Orphan Transactions in the Bitcoin Network},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1912.11541},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.11541.pdf},
}
@misc{shi2019hopping,
  author = {Hongwei Shi and Shengling Wang and Qin Hu and Xiuzhen Cheng and Junshan Zhang and Jiguo Yu},
  Title = {Hopping-Proof and Fee-Free Pooled Mining in Blockchain},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1912.11575},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.11575.pdf},
}
@misc{albert2019gasol,
  author = {Elvira Albert and Jes\'{u}s Correas and Pablo Gordillo and Guillermo Rom\'{a}n-D\'{i}ez and Albert Rubio},
  Title = {GASOL: Gas Analysis and Optimization for Ethereum Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1912.11929},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.11929.pdf},
}
@misc{hu2019characterizing,
  author = {Yining Hu and Suranga Seneviratne and Kanchana Thilakarathna and Kensuke Fukuda and Aruna Seneviratne},
  Title = {Characterizing and Detecting Money Laundering Activities on the Bitcoin Network},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1912.12060},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.12060.pdf},
}
@article{xiao2019edgetoll,
  author = {Bowen Xiao and Xiaoyi Fan and Sheng Gao and Wei Cai},
  Title = {EdgeToll: A Blockchain-based Toll Collection System for Public Sharing of Heterogeneous Edges},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1912.12681},
  Howpublished = {The 3rd International Workshop on Integrating Edge Computing, Caching, and Offloading in Next Generation Networks (INFOCOM workshop IECCO 2019), At Paris, France},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.12681.pdf},
}
@misc{kiayias2019coalition,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Aikaterini-Panagiota Stouka},
  Title = {Coalition-Safe Equilibria with Virtual Payoffs},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:2001.00047},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.00047.pdf},
}
@misc{shrestha2019user,
  author = {Ajay Kumar Shrestha and Julita Vassileva},
  Title = {User Acceptance of Usable Blockchain-Based Research Data Sharing System: An Extended TAM Based Study},
  Year = {2019},
  Eprint = {arXiv:2001.00079},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.00079.pdf},
}
@misc{thyagarajan2020reparo,
  author = {Sri Aravinda Krishnan Thyagarajan and Adithya Bhat and Bernardo Magri and Daniel Tschudi and Aniket Kate},
  Title = {Reparo: Publicly Verifiable Layer to Repair Blockchains},
  Year = {2020},
  Eprint = {arXiv:2001.00486},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.00486.pdf},
}
@misc{ali2020peer,
  author = {Faizan Ali and Moayad Aloqaily and Omar Alfandi and Oznur Ozkasap},
  Title = {Peer-to-Peer Blockchain based Energy Trading},
  Year = {2020},
  Eprint = {arXiv:2001.00746},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.00746.pdf},
}
@misc{ali2020improving,
  author = {Faizan Safdar Ali and Alptekin Kupcu},
  Title = {Improving PKI, BGP, and DNS Using Blockchain: A Systematic Review},
  Year = {2020},
  Eprint = {arXiv:2001.00747},
  Howpublished = {https://www.iscturkey.org/, 2019},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.00747.pdf},
}
@misc{wang2020distributed,
  author = {Xinying Wang and Olamide Timothy Tawose and Feng Yan and Dongfang Zhao},
  Title = {Distributed Nonblocking Commit Protocols for Many-Party Cross-Blockchain Transactions},
  Year = {2020},
  Eprint = {arXiv:2001.01174},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.01174.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{di2019survey,
  author = {Monika Di Angelo and Gernot Salzer},
  title = {A survey of tools for analyzing ethereum smart contracts},
  booktitle = {2019 IEEE International Conference on Decentralized Applications and Infrastructures (DAPPCON)},
  year = {2019},
  organization = {IEEE},
  url = {https://publik.tuwien.ac.at/files/publik_278277.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{cheng2019ekiden,
  author = {Raymond Cheng and Fan Zhang and Jernej Kos and Warren He and Nicholas Hynes and Noah Johnson and Ari Juels and Andrew Miller and Dawn Song},
  title = {Ekiden: A platform for confidentiality-preserving, trustworthy, and performant smart contracts},
  booktitle = {2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS\&P)},
  pages = {185--200},
  year = {2019},
  organization = {IEEE},
  ulr = {https://dprating.oss-cn-shanghai.aliyuncs.com/test/frontend/project/15374484817005510.pdf},
}
@misc{brent2018vandal,
  author = {Lexi Brent and Anton Jurisevic and Michael Kong and Eric Liu and Francois Gauthier and Vincent Gramoli and Ralph Holz and Bernhard Scholz},
  Title = {Vandal: A Scalable Security Analysis Framework for Smart Contracts},
  Year = {2018},
  Eprint = {arXiv:1809.03981},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1809.03981.pdf},
}
@inproceedings{zhou2018erays,
  author = {Yi Zhou and Deepak Kumar and Surya Bakshi and Joshua Mason and Andrew Miller and Michael Bailey},
  title = {Erays: reverse engineering ethereum's opaque smart contracts},
  booktitle = {27th $\{$USENIX$\}$ Security Symposium ($\{$USENIX$\}$ Security 18)},
  pages = {1371--1385},
  year = {2018},
  url = {https://www.usenix.org/system/files/conference/usenixsecurity18/sec18-zhou.pdf},
}