@book{winzer2019temporary,
  author = {Fredrik Winzer and Benjamin Herd and Sebastian Faust},
  title = {Temporary {Censorship} {Attacks} in the {Presence} of {Rational} {Miners}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/748},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/748},
}
@book{judmayer2019pay-to-win,
  author = {Aljosha Judmayer and Nicholas Stifter and Alexei Zamyatin and Itay Tsabary and Ittay Eyal and Peter Ga{\v z}i and Sarah Meiklejohn and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {Pay-{To}-{Win}: {Incentive} {Attacks} on {Proof}-of-{Work} {Cryptocurrencies}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/775.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/775},
}
@book{kim2019is,
  author = {Minjeong Kim and Yujin Kwon and Yongdae Kim},
  title = {Is {Stellar} {As} {Secure} {As} {You} {Think}?},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.13302.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1904.13302},
}
@book{harz2019balance,
  author = {Dominik Harz and Lewis Gudgeon and Arthur Gervais and William J. Knottenbelt},
  title = {Balance: {Dynamic} {Adjustment} of {Cryptocurrency} {Deposits}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/675.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/675},
}
@book{garay2019iterated,
  author = {Juan A Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Giorgos Panagiotakos},
  title = {Iterated {Search} {Problems} and {Blockchain} {Security} under {Falsifiable} {Assumptions}.},
  volume = {2019},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/315.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Publication Title: IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
}
@book{saad2019partitioning,
  author = {Muhammad Saad and Victor Cook and Lan Nguyen and My T Thai and Aziz Mohaisen},
  title = {Partitioning {Attacks} on {Bitcoin}: {Colliding} {Space}, {Time} and {Logic}},
  url = {http://www.cs.ucf.edu/ msaad/icdcs_19.pdf},
  year = {2019},
}
@inproceedings{vukolic2017rethinking,
  author = {Marko Vukoli{\'c}},
  title = {Rethinking permissioned blockchains},
  url = {http://www.vukolic.com/rethinking-permissioned-blockchains-BCC2017.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the {ACM} {Workshop} on {Blockchain}, {Cryptocurrencies} and {Contracts}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {3--7},
}
@book{nakamura2019refinement,
  author = {Ryuya Nakamura and Takayuki Jimba and Dominik Harz},
  title = {Refinement and {Verification} of {CBC} {Casper}},
  volume = {2},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/415.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Publication Title: networks},
}
@book{sfirakis2019validating,
  author = {Ilias Sfirakis and Vasileios Kotronis},
  title = {Validating {IP} {Prefixes} and {AS}-{Paths} with {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.03172.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1906.03172},
}
@book{marmolejo-cossio2019competing,
  author = {Francisco J. Marmolejo-Coss{\'i}o and Eric Brigham and Benjamin Sela and Jonathan Katz},
  title = {Competing ({Semi})-{Selfish} {Miners} in {Bitcoin}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.04502.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1906.04502},
}
@article{jalalzai2019window,
  author = {Mohammad M. Jalalzai and Costas Busch},
  title = {Window {Based} {BFT} {Blockchain} {Consensus}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.04381.pdf},
  doi = {10.1109/Cybermatics_2018.2018.00184},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1906.04381},
}
@book{robinson2019merits,
  author = {Peter Robinson},
  title = {The merits of using {Ethereum} {MainNet} as a {Coordination} {Blockchain} for {Ethereum} {Private} {Sidechains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.04421.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1906.04421},
}
@book{albert2019safevm,
  author = {Elvira Albert and Jes{\'u}s Correas and Pablo Gordillo and Guillermo Rom{\'a}n-D{\'i}ez and Albert Rubio},
  title = {{SAFEVM}: {A} {Safety} {Verifier} for {Ethereum} {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.04984.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1906.04984},
}
@book{homayoun2019blockchain-based,
  author = {Sajad Homayoun and Ali Dehghantanha and Reza M. Parizi and Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo},
  title = {A {Blockchain}-based {Framework} for {Detecting} {Malicious} {Mobile} {Applications} in {App} {Stores}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.04951.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1906.04951},
}
@book{parizi2019integrating,
  author = {Reza M. Parizi and Sajad Homayoun and Abbas Yazdinejad and Ali Dehghantanha and Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo},
  title = {Integrating {Privacy} {Enhancing} {Techniques} into {Blockchains} {Using} {Sidechains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.04953.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1906.04953},
}
@book{min2019security,
  author = {Tian Min and Wei Cai},
  title = {A {Security} {Case} {Study} for {Blockchain} {Games}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.05538.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1906.05538 Published: IEEE Games Entertainment \& Media Conference 2019 (GEM 2019), New Haven, Connecticut, United States, June 19-22, 2019},
}
@book{stathakopoulou2019mir-bft,
  author = {Chrysoula Stathakopoulou and Tudor David and Marko Vukoli{\'c}},
  title = {Mir-{BFT}: {High}-{Throughput} {BFT} for {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.05552.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1906.05552},
}
@book{min2019blockchain,
  author = {Tian Min and Hanyi Wang and Yaoze Guo and Wei Cai},
  title = {Blockchain {Games}: {A} {Survey}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.05558.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1906.05558 Published: IEEE Conference on Games (CoG 2019), London, United Kingdom, Aug 20-23, 2019},
}
@book{leonardos2019presto,
  author = {Stefanos Leonardos and Daniel Reijsbergen and Georgios Piliouras},
  title = {{PREStO}: {A} {Systematic} {Framework} for {Blockchain} {Consensus} {Protocols}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.06540.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1906.06540},
}
@book{mahmoody2019note,
  author = {Mohammad Mahmoody and Caleb Smith and David J. Wu},
  title = {A {Note} on the ({Im})possibility of {Verifiable} {Delay} {Functions} in the {Random} {Oracle} {Model}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/663.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/663},
}
@book{luzio2019arcula,
  author = {Adriano Di Luzio and Danilo Francati and Giuseppe Ateniese},
  title = {Arcula: {A} {Secure} {Hierarchical} {Deterministic} {Wallet} for {Multi}-asset {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.05919.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1906.05919},
}
@book{dryja2019utreexo,
  author = {Thaddeus Dryja},
  title = {Utreexo: {A} dynamic hash-based accumulator optimized for the {Bitcoin} {UTXO} set},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/611.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/611},
}
@book{kokoris-kogias2018verifiable,
  author = {Eleftherios Kokoris-Kogias and Enis Ceyhun Alp and Sandra Deepthy Siby and Nicolas Gailly and Linus Gasser and Philipp Jovanovic and Ewa Syta and Bryan Ford},
  title = {Verifiable {Management} of {Private} {Data} under {Byzantine} {Failures}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/209.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/209},
}
@inproceedings{liu2019survey,
  author = {Ziyao Liu and Nguyen Cong Luong and Wenbo Wang and Dusit Niyato and Ping Wang and Ying-Chang Liang and Dong In Kim},
  title = {A {Survey} on {Blockchain}: {A} {Game} {Theoretical} {Perspective}},
  volume = {7},
  url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel7/6287639/8600701/08684838.pdf},
  booktitle = {{IEEE} {Access}},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2019},
  pages = {47615--47643},
}
@book{yang2019empirically,
  author = {Renlord Yang and Toby Murray and Paul Rimba and Udaya Parampalli},
  title = {Empirically {Analyzing} {Ethereum}'s {Gas} {Mechanism}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.00553.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1905.00553},
}
@book{sheff2019charlotte,
  author = {Isaac Sheff and Xinwen Wang and Haobin Ni and Robbert Renesse and Andrew C Myers},
  title = {Charlotte: {Composable} {Authenticated} {Distributed} {Data} {Structures}, {Technical} {Report}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.03888.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1905.03888},
}
@book{rohrer2019discharged,
  author = {Elias Rohrer and Julian Malliaris and Florian Tschorsch},
  title = {Discharged {Payment} {Channels}: {Quantifying} the {Lightning} {Network}'s {Resilience} to {Topology}-{Based} {Attacks}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.10253.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1904.10253},
}
@book{chatzigiannis2019diversification,
  author = {Panagiotis Chatzigiannis and Foteini Baldimtsi and Igor Griva and Jiasun Li},
  title = {Diversification {Across} {Mining} {Pools}: {Optimal} {Mining} {Strategies} under {PoW}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.04624.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1905.04624},
}
@book{azouvi2019sok,
  author = {Sarah Azouvi and Alexander Hicks},
  title = {{SoK}: {Tools} for {Game} {Theoretic} {Models} of {Security} for {Cryptocurrencies}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.08595.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1905.08595},
}
@book{loghin2019blockchain,
  author = {Dumitrel Loghin and Gang Chen and Tien Tuan Anh Dinh and Beng Chin Ooi and Yong Meng Teo},
  title = {Blockchain {Goes} {Green}? {An} {Analysis} of {Blockchain} on {Low}-{Power} {Nodes}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.06520.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.06520},
}
@book{sigwart2019blockchain-based,
  author = {Marten Sigwart and Michael Borkowski and Marco Peise and Stefan Schulte and Stefan Tai},
  title = {Blockchain-based {Data} {Provenance} for the {Internet} of {Things}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.06852.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.06852},
}
@book{naumenko2019bandwidth-efficient,
  author = {Gleb Naumenko and Gregory Maxwell and Pieter Wuille and Sasha Fedorova and Ivan Beschastnikh},
  title = {Bandwidth-{Efficient} {Transaction} {Relay} for {Bitcoin}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.10518.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1905.10518},
}
@book{leelavimolsilp2019empirical,
  author = {Tin Leelavimolsilp and Long Tran-Thanh and Sebastian Stein and Viet Hung Nguyen},
  title = {An {Empirical} {Evaluation} of {Selfish} {Mining} and {Strategic} {Mining} in {Proof}-of-{Work} {Blockchain} with {Multiple} {Miners}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.06853.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.06853},
}
@book{wustholz2019harvey,
  author = {Valentin W{\"u}stholz and Maria Christakis},
  title = {Harvey: {A} {Greybox} {Fuzzer} for {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.06944.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.06944},
}
@book{pang2019concurrency,
  author = {Shuaifeng Pang and Xiaodong Qi and Zhao Zhang and Cheqing Jin and Aoying Zhou},
  title = {Concurrency {Protocol} {Aiming} at {High} {Performance} of {Execution} and {Replay} for {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.07169.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.07169},
}
@book{frauenthaler2019framework,
  author = {Philipp Frauenthaler and Michael Borkowski and Stefan Schulte},
  title = {A {Framework} for {Blockchain} {Interoperability} and {Runtime} {Selection}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.07014.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.07014},
}
@article{koutsoupias2019blockchain,
  author = {Elias Koutsoupias and Philip Lazos and Paolo Serafino and Foluso Ogunlana},
  title = {Blockchain {Mining} {Games} with {Pay} {Forward}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.07397.pdf},
  doi = {10.1145/3308558.3313740},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.07397},
}
@book{atzei2019developing,
  author = {Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Stefano Lande and Nobuko Yoshida and Roberto Zunino},
  title = {Developing secure {Bitcoin} contracts with {BitML}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.07639.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.07639},
}
@book{brenzikofer2019privacy-preserving,
  author = {Alain Brenzikofer and Noa Melchior},
  title = {Privacy-{Preserving} {P2P} {Energy} {Market} on the {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.07940.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.07940},
}
@book{datta2019blockchain,
  author = {Anwitaman Datta},
  title = {Blockchain in the {Government} {Technology} {Fabric}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.08517.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.08517},
}
@book{sanchez2019zero-knowledge,
  author = {David Cerezo S{\'a}nchez},
  title = {Zero-{Knowledge} {Proof}-of-{Identity}: {Sybil}-{Resistant}, {Anonymous} {Authentication} on {Permissionless} {Blockchains} and {Incentive} {Compatible}, {Strictly} {Dominant} {Cryptocurrencies}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.09093.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.09093},
}
@book{ayman2019smart,
  author = {Afiya Ayman and Amna Aziz and Amin Alipour and Aron Laszka},
  title = {Smart {Contract} {Development} in {Practice}: {Trends}, {Issues}, and {Discussions} on {Stack} {Overflow}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.08833.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.08833},
}
@book{al-bassam2019lazyledger,
  author = {Mustafa Al-Bassam},
  title = {{LazyLedger}: {A} {Distributed} {Data} {Availability} {Ledger} {With} {Client}-{Side} {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.09274.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.09274},
}
@book{zakhary2019towards,
  author = {Victor Zakhary and Mohammad Javad Amiri and Sujaya Maiyya and Divyakant Agrawal and Amr El Abbadi},
  title = {Towards {Global} {Asset} {Management} in {Blockchain} {Systems}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.09359.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.09359},
}
@book{chen2019domain,
  author = {Jiachi Chen and Xin Xia and David Lo and John Grundy and Daniel Xiapu Luo and Ting Chen},
  title = {Domain {Specific} {Code} {Smells} in {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.01467.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.01467},
}
@book{siris2019oauth,
  author = {Vasilios A. Siris and Dimitrios Dimopoulos and Nikos Fotiou and Spyros Voulgaris and George C. Polyzos},
  title = {{OAuth} 2.0 meets {Blockchain} for {Authorization} in {Constrained} {IoT} {Environments}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.01665.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.01665},
}
@book{wang2019blocklite,
  author = {Xinying Wang and Abdullah Al-Mamun and Feng Yan and Mohammad Sadoghi and Dongfang Zhao},
  title = {{BlockLite}: {A} {Lightweight} {Emulator} for {Public} {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.02157.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.02157},
}
@book{yazdinejad2019blockchain-enabled,
  author = {Abbas Yazdinejad and Reza M. Parizi and Ali Dehghantanha and Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo},
  title = {Blockchain-enabled {Authentication} {Handover} with {Efficient} {Privacy} {Protection} in {SDN}-based {5G} {Networks}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.03193.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.03193},
}
@book{feng2019bug,
  author = {Xiaotao Feng and Qin Wang and Xiaogang Zhu and Sheng Wen},
  title = {Bug {Searching} in {Smart} {Contract}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.00799.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.00799},
}
@book{siris2019interledger,
  author = {Vasilios A. Siris and Dimitrios Dimopoulos and Nikos Fotiou and Spyros Voulgaris and George C. Polyzos},
  title = {Interledger {Smart} {Contracts} for {Decentralized} {Authorization} to {Constrained} {Things}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.01671.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.01671},
}
@book{zakhary2019atomic,
  author = {Victor Zakhary and Divyakant Agrawal and Amr El Abbadi},
  title = {Atomic {Commitment} {Across} {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.02847.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.02847},
}
@book{bartoletti2019true,
  author = {Massimo Bartoletti and Letterio Galletta and Maurizio Murgia},
  title = {A true concurrent model of smart contracts executions},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.04366.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.04366},
}
@book{hardjono2019decentralized,
  author = {Thomas Hardjono and Ned Smith},
  title = {Decentralized {Trusted} {Computing} {Base} for {Blockchain} {Infrastructure} {Security}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.04412.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.04412},
}
@book{ketsdever2019incentives,
  author = {Shea Ketsdever and Michael J. Fischer},
  title = {Incentives {Don}'t {Solve} {Blockchain}'s {Problems}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.04792.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.04792},
}
@book{kwon2019impossibility,
  author = {Yujin Kwon and Jian Liu and Minjeong Kim and Dawn Song and Yongdae Kim},
  title = {Impossibility of {Full} {Decentralization} in {Permissionless} {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.05158.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.05158},
}
@book{zichichi2019likestarter,
  author = {Mirko Zichichi and Michele Contu and Stefano Ferretti and Gabriele D'Angelo},
  title = {{LikeStarter}: a {Smart}-contract based {Social} {DAO} for {Crowdfunding}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.05560.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.05560},
}
@book{cao2019when,
  author = {Bin Cao and Yixin Li and Lei Zhang and Long Zhang and Shahid Mumtaz and Zhenyu Zhou and Mugen Peng},
  title = {When {Internet} of {Things} {Meets} {Blockchain}: {Challenges} in {Distributed} {Consensus}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.06022.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.06022},
}
@book{magri2019afgjort,
  author = {Bernardo Magri and Christian Matt and Jesper Buus Nielsen and Daniel Tschudi},
  title = {Afgjort {\textendash} {A} {Semi}-{Synchronous} {Finality} {Layer} for {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/504.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/504},
}
@book{yang2019tapestry,
  author = {Yifan Yang and Daniel Cooper and John Collomosse and Constantin C. Dr{\v a}gan and Mark Manulis and Jamie Steane and Arthi Manohar and Jo Briggs and Helen Jones and Wendy Moncur},
  title = {{TAPESTRY}: {A} {Blockchain} based {Service} for {Trusted} {Interaction} {Online}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.06186.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.06186},
}
@book{borkowski2019dextt,
  author = {Michael Borkowski and Marten Sigwart and Philipp Frauenthaler and Taneli Hukkinen and Stefan Schulte},
  title = {{DeXTT}: {Deterministic} {Cross}-{Blockchain} {Token} {Transfers}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.06204.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1905.06204},
}
@book{yuen2019ringct,
  author = {Tsz Hon Yuen and Shi-feng Sun and Joseph K. Liu and Man Ho Au and Muhammed F. Esgin and Qingzhao Zhang and Dawu Gu},
  title = {{RingCT} 3.0 for {Blockchain} {Confidential} {Transaction}: {Shorter} {Size} and {Stronger} {Security}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/508.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/508},
}
@book{gorbunov2019digital,
  author = {Sergey Gorbunov and Hoeteck Wee},
  title = {Digital {Signatures} for {Consensus}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/269.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/269},
}
@book{omolola2019revisiting,
  author = {Olamide Omolola and Paul Plessing},
  title = {Revisiting {Privacy}-aware {Blockchain} {Public} {Key} {Infrastructure}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/527.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/527},
}
@book{chervinski2019floodxmr,
  author = {Jo{\~a}o Ot{\'a}vio Massari Chervinski and Diego Kreutz and Jiangshan Yu},
  title = {{FloodXMR}: {Low}-cost transaction flooding attack with {Monero}'s bulletproof protocol},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/455.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/455},
}
@book{drijvers2019pixel,
  author = {Manu Drijvers and Sergey Gorbunov and Gregory Neven and Hoeteck Wee},
  title = {Pixel: {Multi}-signatures for {Consensus}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/514.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/514},
}
@book{ni2019uniquechain,
  author = {Peifang Ni and Hongda Li and Xianning Meng and Dongxue Pan},
  title = {{UniqueChain}: {A} {Fast}, {Provably} {Secure} {Proof}-of-{Stake} {Based} {Blockchain} {Protocol} in the {Open} {Setting}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/456.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/456},
}
@inproceedings{avarikioti2019bitcoin,
  author = {Georgia Avarikioti and Lukas K{\"a}ppeli and Yuyi Wang and Roger Wattenhofer},
  title = {Bitcoin {Security} under {Temporary} {Dishonest} {Majority}},
  url = {https://www.tik.ee.ethz.ch/file/ab83461dc5ca3b739c079a27f3757e94/bitcoin%20security%20under%20temporary%20dishonest%20majority.pdf},
  booktitle = {23rd {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} ({FC})},
  year = {2019},
}
@book{daian2019flash,
  author = {Philip Daian and Steven Goldfeder and Tyler Kell and Yunqi Li and Xueyuan Zhao and Iddo Bentov and Lorenz Breidenbach and Ari Juels},
  title = {Flash {Boys} 2.0: {Frontrunning}, {Transaction} {Reordering}, and {Consensus} {Instability} in {Decentralized} {Exchanges}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.05234.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv preprint arXiv:1904.05234},
}
@book{khalil2019tex,
  author = {Rami Khalil and Arthur Gervais and Guillaume Felley},
  title = {{TEX} - {A} {Securely} {Scalable} {Trustless} {Exchange}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/265.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/265},
}
@book{nehai2019deductive,
  author = {Zeinab Nehai and Fran{\c c}ois Bobot},
  title = {Deductive {Proof} of {Ethereum} {Smart} {Contracts} {Using} {Why3}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.11281.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1904.11281},
}
@book{lee2019detective,
  author = {Suhyeon Lee and Seungjoo Kim},
  title = {Detective {Mining}: {Selfish} {Mining} {Becomes} {Unrealistic} under {Mining} {Pool} {Environment}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/486.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/486},
}
@article{li2019blockchain-based,
  author = {Chunmiao Li and Yang Cao and Zhenjiang Hu and Masatoshi Yoshikawa},
  title = {Blockchain-based {Bidirectional} {Updates} on {Fine}-grained {Medical} {Data}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.10606.pdf},
  doi = {10.1109/ICDEW.2019.00010},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1904.10606},
}
@book{bui2019archangel,
  author = {Tu Bui and Daniel Cooper and John Collomosse and Mark Bell and Alex Green and John Sheridan and Jez Higgins and Arindra Das and Jared Keller and Olivier Thereaux and Alan Brown},
  title = {{ARCHANGEL}: {Tamper}-proofing {Video} {Archives} using {Temporal} {Content} {Hashes} on the {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.12059.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1904.12059},
}
@book{bokkem2019self-sovereign,
  author = {Dirk van Bokkem and Rico Hageman and Gijs Koning and Luat Nguyen and Naqib Zarin},
  title = {Self-{Sovereign} {Identity} {Solutions}: {The} {Necessity} of {Blockchain} {Technology}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.12816.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1904.12816},
}
@book{lopez2019please,
  author = {Pedro Garcia Lopez and Alberto Montresor and Anwitaman Datta},
  title = {Please, do not decentralize the {Internet} with (permissionless) blockchains!},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.13093.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1904.13093},
}
@book{cao2019exploring,
  author = {Tong Cao and Jiangshan Yu and J{\'e}r{\'e}mie Decouchant and Xiapu Luo and Paulo Verissimo},
  title = {Exploring the {Monero} {Peer}-to-{Peer} {Network}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/411.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/411},
}
@book{florian2019erasing,
  author = {Martin Florian and Sophie Beaucamp and Sebastian Henningsen and Bj{\"o}rn Scheuermann},
  title = {Erasing {Data} from {Blockchain} {Nodes}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.08901.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1904.08901},
}
@book{grunspan2019selfish,
  author = {Cyril Grunspan and Ricardo P{\'e}rez-Marco},
  title = {Selfish {Mining} and {Dyck} {Words} in {Bitcoin} and {Ethereum} {Networks}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.07675.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1904.07675},
}
@book{li2019incentivized,
  author = {Chao Li and Balaji Palanisamy},
  title = {Incentivized {Blockchain}-based {Social} {Media} {Platforms}: {A} {Case} {Study} of {Steemit}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.07310.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1904.07310},
}
@article{delgado-mohatar2019biometric,
  author = {Oscar Delgado-Mohatar and Julian Fierrez and Ruben Tolosana and Ruben Vera-Rodriguez},
  title = {Biometric {Template} {Storage} with {Blockchain}: {A} {First} {Look} into {Cost} and {Performance} {Tradeoffs}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.13128.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1904.13128 Published: Proc. Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops, CVPRw, 2019},
}
@book{he2019characterizing,
  author = {Ningyu He and Lei Wu and Haoyu Wang and Yao Guo and Xuxian Jiang},
  title = {Characterizing {Code} {Clones} in the {Ethereum} {Smart} {Contract} {Ecosystem}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1905.00272.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1905.00272},
}
@book{schrans2019flint,
  author = {Franklin Schrans and Daniel Hails and Alexander Harkness and Sophia Drossopoulou and Susan Eisenbach},
  title = {Flint for {Safer} {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.06534.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1904.06534},
}
@book{gudgeon2019sok,
  author = {Lewis Gudgeon and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Stefanie Roos and Patrick McCorry and Arthur Gervais},
  title = {{SoK}: {Off} {The} {Chain} {Transactions}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/360.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/360},
}
@book{herrera-joancomarti2019difficulty,
  author = {Jordi Herrera-Joancomart{\'i} and Guillermo Navarro-Arribas and Alejandro Ranchal-Pedrosa and Cristina P{\'e}rez-Sol{\`a} and Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro},
  title = {On the {Difficulty} of {Hiding} the {Balance} of {Lightning} {Network} {Channels}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/328.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/328},
}
@book{ganesh2018proof-of-stake,
  author = {Chaya Ganesh and Claudio Orlandi and Daniel Tschudi},
  title = {Proof-of-{Stake} {Protocols} for {Privacy}-{Aware} {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/1105.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/1105},
}
@book{jourenko2019sok,
  author = {Maxim Jourenko and Kanta Kurazumi and Mario Larangeira and Keisuke Tanaka},
  title = {{SoK}: {A} {Taxonomy} for {Layer}-2 {Scalability} {Related} {Protocols} for {Cryptocurrencies}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/352.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/352},
}
@book{jivanyan2019lelantus,
  author = {Aram Jivanyan},
  title = {Lelantus: {Towards} {Confidentiality} and {Anonymity} of {Blockchain} {Transactions} from {Standard} {Assumptions}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/373.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/373},
}
@book{abraham2019sync,
  author = {Ittai Abraham and Dahlia Malkhi and Kartik Nayak and Ling Ren and Maofan Yin},
  title = {Sync {HotStuff}: {Synchronous} {SMR} with {2$\Delta$} {Latency} and {Optimistic} {Responsiveness}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/270.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/270},
}
@book{dauterman2018true2f,
  author = {Emma Dauterman and Henry Corrigan-Gibbs and David Mazi{\`e}res and Dan Boneh and Dominic Rizzo},
  title = {{True2F}: {Backdoor}-resistant authentication tokens},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1810.04660.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1810.04660},
}
@book{boneh2018batching,
  author = {Dan Boneh and Benedikt B{\"u}nz and Ben Fisch},
  title = {Batching {Techniques} for {Accumulators} with {Applications} to {IOPs} and {Stateless} {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/1188.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/1188},
}
@book{zhang2018improvements,
  author = {Qingzhao Zhang and Yijun Leng and Lei Fan},
  title = {Improvements of {Blockchain}'s {Block} {Broadcasting}:{An} {Incentive} {Approach}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/1152.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/1152},
}
@book{das2019fastkitten,
  author = {Poulami Das and Lisa Eckey and Tommaso Frassetto and David Gens and Kristina Host{\'a}kov{\'a} and Patrick Jauernig and Sebastian Faust and Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi},
  title = {{FastKitten}: {Practical} {Smart} {Contracts} on {Bitcoin}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/154.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/154},
}
@article{pourheidari2019case,
  author = {Vahid Pourheidari and Sara Rouhani and Ralph deters},
  title = {A {Case} {Study} of {Execution} of {Untrusted} {Business} {Process} on {Permissioned} {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.05710.pdf},
  doi = {10.1109/Cybermatics_2018.2018.00266},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1904.05710 Published: IEEE Blockchain 2018},
}
@book{weng2018deepchain,
  author = {Jiasi Weng and Jian Weng and Jilian Zhang and Ming Li and Yue Zhang and Weiqi Luo},
  title = {{DeepChain}: {Auditable} and {Privacy}-{Preserving} {Deep} {Learning} with {Blockchain}-based {Incentive}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/679.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/679},
}
@book{garay2017consensus,
  author = {Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Giorgos Panagiotakos},
  title = {Consensus from {Signatures} of {Work}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/775.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/775},
}
@book{hassanzadeh-nazarabadi2019lightchain,
  author = {Yahya Hassanzadeh-Nazarabadi and Alptekin K{\"u}p{\"u} and {\"O}znur {\"O}zkasap},
  title = {{LightChain}: {A} {DHT}-based {Blockchain} for {Resource} {Constrained} {Environments}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/342.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/342},
}
@book{xiao2019survey,
  author = {Yang Xiao and Ning Zhang and Wenjing Lou and Y. Thomas Hou},
  title = {A {Survey} of {Distributed} {Consensus} {Protocols} for {Blockchain} {Networks}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.04098.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1904.04098},
}
@book{saad2019exploring,
  author = {Muhammad Saad and Jeffrey Spaulding and Laurent Njilla and Charles Kamhoua and Sachin Shetty and DaeHun Nyang and Aziz Mohaisen},
  title = {Exploring the {Attack} {Surface} of {Blockchain}: {A} {Systematic} {Overview}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.03487.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1904.03487},
}
@book{truong2019gdpr-compliant,
  author = {Nguyen Binh Truong and Kai Sun and Gyu Myoung Lee and Yike Guo},
  title = {{GDPR}-{Compliant} {Personal} {Data} {Management}: {A} {Blockchain}-based {Solution}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.03038.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1904.03038},
}
@book{leonardos2019oceanic,
  author = {Nikos Leonardos and Stefanos Leonardos and Georgios Piliouras},
  title = {Oceanic {Games}: {Centralization} {Risks} and {Incentives} in {Blockchain} {Mining}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.02368.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1904.02368},
}
@inproceedings{lamport1983weak,
  author = {Leslie Lamport},
  title = {The weak {Byzantine} generals problem},
  volume = {30},
  url = {http://131.107.65.14/en-us/um/people/lamport/pubs/weak-byz.pdf},
  booktitle = {Journal of the {ACM} ({JACM})},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1983},
  note = {Issue: 3},
  pages = {668--676},
}
@inproceedings{dolev1982efficient,
  author = {Danny Dolev and Michael J Fischer and Rob Fowler and Nancy A Lynch and H Raymond Strong},
  title = {An {Efficient} {Algorithm} for {Byzantine} {Agreement} without {Authentication}},
  volume = {52},
  url = {http://groups.csail.mit.edu/tds/papers/Lynch/dffls-ic.pdf},
  booktitle = {Information and {Control}},
  year = {1982},
  note = {Issue: 3},
  pages = {257--274},
}
@inproceedings{fischer1982lower,
  author = {Michael J FISCHER and Nancy A LYNCH},
  title = {A {LOWER} {BOUND} {FOR} {THE} {TIME} {TO} {ASSURE} {INTERACTIVE} {CONSISTENCY}},
  volume = {14},
  url = {http://groups.csail.mit.edu/tds/papers/Lynch/ipl82.pdf},
  booktitle = {{INFORMATION} {PROCESSING} {LETTERS}},
  month = {June},
  year = {1982},
  note = {Issue: 4},
}
@inproceedings{dolev1982polynomial,
  author = {Danny Dolev and H Raymond Strong},
  title = {Polynomial algorithms for multiple processor agreement},
  url = {http://www.cse.huji.ac.il/ dolev/pubs/p401-dolev.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the fourteenth annual {ACM} symposium on {Theory} of computing},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1982},
  pages = {401--407},
}
@inproceedings{lamport1982byzantine,
  author = {Leslie Lamport and Robert Shostak and Marshall Pease},
  title = {The {Byzantine} generals problem},
  volume = {4},
  url = {http://people.cs.uchicago.edu/ shanlu/teaching/33100_wi15/papers/byz.pdf},
  booktitle = {{ACM} {Transactions} on {Programming} {Languages} and {Systems} ({TOPLAS})},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1982},
  note = {Issue: 3},
  pages = {382--401},
}
@inproceedings{dolev1981unanimity,
  author = {Danny Dolev},
  title = {Unanimity in an unknown and unreliable environment},
  url = {http://w3.cs.huji.ac.il/ dolev/pubs/unanimity-1981.pdf},
  booktitle = {Foundations of {Computer} {Science}, 1981. {SFCS}'81. 22nd {Annual} {Symposium} on},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {1981},
  pages = {159--168},
}
@book{ruffing2018burning,
  author = {Tim Ruffing and Sri Aravinda Thyagarajan and Viktoria Ronge and Dominique Schr{\"o}der},
  title = {Burning {Zerocoins} for {Fun} and for {Profit}: {A} {Cryptographic} {Denial}-of-{Spending} {Attack} on the {Zerocoin} {Protocol}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/612.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/612},
}
@book{yi2018new,
  author = {Xun Yi and Kwok-Yan Lam and Dieter Gollmann},
  title = {A {New} {Blind} {ECDSA} {Scheme} for {Bitcoin} {Transaction} {Anonymity}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/660.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/660},
}
@book{zhou2018loamit,
  author = {Lijing Zhou and Licheng Wang and Yiru Sun and Pin Lv},
  title = {Loamit: {A} {Blockchain}-based {Residual} {Loanable}-limit {Query} {System}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/655.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/655},
}
@inproceedings{pease1980reaching,
  author = {Marshall Pease and Robert Shostak and Leslie Lamport},
  title = {Reaching agreement in the presence of faults},
  volume = {27},
  url = {https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/uploads/prod/2016/12/Reaching-Agreement-in-the-Presence-of-Faults.pdf},
  booktitle = {Journal of the {ACM} ({JACM})},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1980},
  note = {Issue: 2},
  pages = {228--234},
}
@book{pietrzak2018simple,
  author = {Krzysztof Pietrzak},
  title = {Simple {Verifiable} {Delay} {Functions}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/627.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/627},
}
@book{boneh2018verifiable,
  author = {Dan Boneh and Joseph Bonneau and Benedikt B{\"u}nz and Ben Fisch},
  title = {Verifiable {Delay} {Functions}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/601.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/601},
}
@book{chalkias2018blockchained,
  author = {Konstantinos Chalkias and James Brown and Mike Hearn and Tommy Lillehagen and Igor Nitto and Thomas Schroeter},
  title = {Blockchained {Post}-{Quantum} {Signatures}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/658.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/658},
}
@book{yu2018platform-independent,
  author = {Bin Yu and Joseph Liu and Amin Sakzad and Surya Nepal and Paul Rimba and Ron Steinfeld and Man Ho Au},
  title = {Platform-independent {Secure} {Blockchain}-{Based} {Voting} {System}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/657.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/657},
}
@book{zhang2018treasury,
  author = {Bingsheng Zhang and Roman Oliynykov and Hamed Balogun},
  title = {A {Treasury} {System} for {Cryptocurrencies}: {Enabling} {Better} {Collaborative} {Intelligence}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/435.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/435},
}
@inproceedings{boneh2018compact,
  author = {Dan Boneh and Manu Drijvers and Gregory Neven},
  title = {Compact multi-signatures for smaller blockchains},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/483.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Conference} on the {Theory} and {Application} of {Cryptology} and {Information} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2018},
  pages = {435--464},
}
@book{yu2018repucoin,
  author = {Jiangshan Yu and David Kozhaya and Jeremie Decouchant and Paulo Esteves-Verissimo},
  title = {{RepuCoin}: {Your} {Reputation} is {Your} {Power}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/239.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/239},
}
@book{wan2018goshawk,
  author = {Cencen Wan and Shuyang Tang and Yuncong Zhang and Chen Pan and Zhiqiang Liu and Yu Long and Zhen Liu and Yu Yu},
  title = {Goshawk: {A} {Novel} {Efficient}, {Robust} and {Flexible} {Blockchain} {Protocol}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/407.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/407},
}
@article{schindler2018hydrand,
  author = {Philipp Schindler and Aljosha Judmayer and Nicholas Stifter and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {{HydRand}: {Practical} {Continuous} {Distributed} {Randomness}},
  volume = {2018},
  journal = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
  year = {2018},
  pages = {319},
}
@book{zamani2018rapidchain,
  author = {Mahdi Zamani and Mahnush Movahedi and Mariana Raykova},
  title = {{RapidChain}: {A} {Fast} {Blockchain} {Protocol} via {Full} {Sharding}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/460.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/460},
}
@book{stifter2018agreement,
  author = {Nicholas Stifter and Aljosha Judmayer and Philipp Schindler and Alexei Zamyatin and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {Agreement with {Satoshi} - {On} the {Formalization} of {Nakamoto} {Consensus}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/400.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/400},
}
@book{stewart2018committing,
  author = {I Stewart and D Ilie and A Zamyatin and S Werner and MF Torshizi and WJ Knottenbelt},
  title = {Committing to {Quantum} {Resistance}: {A} {Slow} {Defence} for {Bitcoin} against a {Fast} {Quantum} {Computing} {Attack}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/213.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/213},
}
@book{hanke2018dfinity,
  author = {Time Hanke and Mahnush Movahedi and Dominic Williams},
  title = {{DFINITY} {Technology} {Overview} {Series} {Consensus} {System}},
  url = {https://dfinity.org/pdf-viewer/library/dfinity-consensus.pdf},
  year = {2018},
}
@book{cohen2018database,
  author = {Sara Cohen and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {Database {Perspectives} on {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.06015.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1803.06015},
}
@book{abraham2018hot-stuff,
  author = {Ittai Abraham and Guy Gueta and Dahlia Malkhi},
  title = {Hot-{Stuff} the {Linear}, {Optimal}-{Resilience}, {One}-{Message} {BFT} {Devil}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.05069.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1803.05069},
}
@book{covaci2018nectar,
  author = {Alexandra Covaci and Simone Madeo and Patrick Motylinski and St{\'e}phane Vincent},
  title = {{NECTAR}: {Non}-{Interactive} {Smart} {Contract} {Protocol} using {Blockchain} {Technology}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.04860.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  doi = {10.1145/3194113.3194116},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1803.04860},
}
@book{chase2018analysis,
  author = {Brad Chase and Ethan MacBrough},
  title = {Analysis of the {XRP} {Ledger} {Consensus} {Protocol}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1802.07242.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1802.07242},
}
@book{macbrough2018cobalt,
  author = {Ethan MacBrough},
  title = {Cobalt: {BFT} {Governance} in {Open} {Networks}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1802.07240.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1802.07240},
}
@book{bartoletti2018data,
  author = {Massimo Bartoletti and Barbara Pes and Sergio Serusi},
  title = {Data mining for detecting {Bitcoin} {Ponzi} schemes},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.00646.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1803.006},
}
@book{grishchenko2018semantic,
  author = {Ilya Grishchenko and Matteo Maffei and Clara Schneidewind},
  title = {A {Semantic} {Framework} for the {Security} {Analysis} of {Ethereum} smart contracts},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1802.08660.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1802.08660},
}
@book{li2018survey,
  author = {Xiaoqi Li and Peng Jiang and Ting Chen and Xiapu Luo and Qiaoyan Wen},
  title = {A {Survey} on the {Security} of {Blockchain} {Systems}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1802.06993.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Li X, Jiang P, Chen T, Luo X, Wen Q. A survey on the security of blockchain systems, Future Generation Computer Systems (2017)},
}
@book{martens2018reviewchain,
  author = {Daniel Martens and Walid Maalej},
  title = {{ReviewChain}: {Untampered} {Product} {Reviews} on the {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.01661.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1803.01661},
}
@book{anta2018formalizing,
  author = {Antonio Fern{\'a}ndez Anta and Chryssis Georgiou and Kishori Konwar and Nicolas Nicolaou},
  title = {Formalizing and {Implementing} {Distributed} {Ledger} {Objects}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1802.07817.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1802.07817},
}
@book{eskandari2018first,
  author = {Shayan Eskandari and Andreas Leoutsarakos and Troy Mursch and Jeremy Clark},
  title = {A first look at browser-based {Cryptojacking}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.02887.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1803.02887},
}
@book{wang2018limit,
  author = {Yongge Wang and Qutaibah m Malluhi},
  title = {The {Limit} of {Blockchains}: {Infeasibility} of a {Smart} {Obama}-{Trump} {Contract}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/252.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/252},
}
@book{gazi2018stake-bleeding,
  author = {Peter Ga{\v z}i and Aggelos Kiayias and Alexander Russell},
  title = {Stake-{Bleeding} {Attacks} on {Proof}-of-{Stake} {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/248.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/248},
}
@book{atzei2018sok,
  author = {Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Tiziana Cimoli and Stefano Lande and Roberto Zunino},
  title = {{SoK}: unraveling {Bitcoin} smart contracts},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/192.pdf},
  year = {2018},
}
@book{matzutt2018thwarting,
  author = {Roman Matzutt and Martin Henze and Jan Henrik Ziegeldorf and Jens Hiller and Klaus Wehrle},
  title = {Thwarting {Unwanted} {Blockchain} {Content} {Insertion}},
  url = {https://www.comsys.rwth-aachen.de/fileadmin/papers/2018/2018-matzutt-blockchain-contents-countermeasures.pdf},
  year = {2018},
}
@book{badertscher2018but,
  author = {Christian Badertscher and Juan Garay and Ueli Maurer and Daniel Tschudi and Vassilis Zikas},
  title = {But {Why} does it {Work}? {A} {Rational} {Protocol} {Design} {Treatment} of {Bitcoin}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/138.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/138},
}
@book{cohen2018simple,
  author = {Bram Cohen and Krzysztof Pietrzak},
  title = {Simple {Proofs} of {Sequential} {Work}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/183.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/183},
}
@book{zhang2018smart,
  author = {Yuanyu Zhang and Shoji Kasahara and Yulong Shen and Xiaohong Jiang and Jianxiong Wan},
  title = {Smart {Contract}-{Based} {Access} {Control} for the {Internet} of {Things}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1802.04410.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1802.04410},
}
@book{harz2018scalability,
  author = {Dominik Harz and Magnus Boman},
  title = {The {Scalability} of {Trustless} {Trust}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.09535.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1801.09535},
}
@book{herlihy2018atomic,
  author = {Maurice Herlihy},
  title = {Atomic {Cross}-{Chain} {Swaps}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.09515.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1801.09515},
}
@book{sompolinsky2018phantom,
  author = {Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {{PHANTOM}: {A} {Scalable} {BlockDAG} {Protocol}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/104.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/104},
}
@book{krafft2018experimental,
  author = {Peter M. Krafft and Nicol{\textbackslash}' as Della Penna and Alex Pentland},
  title = {An {Experimental} {Study} of {Cryptocurrency} {Market} {Dynamics}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.05831.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  doi = {10.1145/3173574.3174179},
  note = {\_eprint: 1801.05831 Published: Peter Krafft, Nicol{\'a}s Della Penna, Alex Pentland. (2018). An Experimental Study of Cryptocurrency Market Dynamics. ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI)},
}
@book{aggarwal2018simple,
  author = {Abhinav Aggarwal and Yue Guo},
  title = {A {Simple} {Reduction} from {State} {Machine} {Replication} to {Binary} {Agreement} in {Partially} {Synchronous} or {Asynchronous} {Networks}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/060.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/060},
}
@book{ren2018scale-out,
  author = {Zhijie Ren and Zekeriya Erkin},
  title = {A {Scale}-out {Blockchain} for {Value} {Transfer} with {Spontaneous} {Sharding}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.02531.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1801.02531},
}
@book{shudo2018towards,
  author = {Kazuyuki Shudo and Kenji Saito},
  title = {Towards {Application} {Portability} on {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.01421.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1801.01421},
}
@book{chen2018towards,
  author = {Yize Chen and Quanlai Li and Hao Wang},
  title = {Towards {Trusted} {Social} {Networks} with {Blockchain} {Technology}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.02796.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1801.02796},
}
@book{maxwell2018simple,
  author = {Gregory Maxwell and Andrew Poelstra and Yannick Seurin and Pieter Wuille},
  title = {Simple {Schnorr} {Multi}-{Signatures} with {Applications} to {Bitcoin}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/068.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/068},
}
@book{singh2018violable,
  author = {Munindar P. Singh and Amit K. Chopra},
  title = {Violable {Contracts} and {Governance} for {Blockchain} {Applications}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.02672.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1801.02672},
}
@book{chatterjee2018quantitative,
  author = {Krishnendu Chatterjee and Amir Kafshdar Goharshady and Yaron Velner},
  title = {Quantitative {Analysis} of {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.03367.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1801.03367},
}
@book{grossman2018online,
  author = {Shelly Grossman and Ittai Abraham and Guy Golan-Gueta and Yan Michalevsky and Noam Rinetzky and Mooly Sagiv and Yoni Zohar},
  title = {Online {Detection} of {Effectively} {Callback} {Free} {Objects} with {Applications} to {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.04032.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1801.04032},
}
@book{dunphy2018first,
  author = {Paul Dunphy and Fabien A. P. Petitcolas},
  title = {A {First} {Look} at {Identity} {Management} {Schemes} on the {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.03294.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1801.03294},
}
@book{sergey2018scilla,
  author = {Ilya Sergey and Amrit Kumar and Aquinas Hobor},
  title = {Scilla: a {Smart} {Contract} {Intermediate}-{Level} {LAnguage}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1801.00687.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1801.00687},
}
@book{crain2017dbft,
  author = {Tyler Crain and Vincent Gramoli and Mikel Larrea and Michel Raynal},
  title = {{DBFT}: {Efficient} {Byzantine} {Consensus} with a {Weak} {Coordinator} and its {Application} to {Consortium} {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.03068.pdf},
  year = {2017},
}
@book{garay2017blockchain,
  author = {Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Giorgos Panagiotakos},
  title = {Blockchain and {Consensus} from {Proofs} of {Work} without {Random} {Oracles}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/775.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/775},
}
@book{li2017designing,
  author = {Taotao Li and Parhat Abla and Mingsheng Wang and Qianwen Wei},
  title = {Designing {Proof} of {Transaction} {Puzzles} for {Cryptocurrency}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1242.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1242},
}
@book{bentov2017tesseract,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Yan Ji and Fan Zhang and Yunqi Li and Xueyuan Zhao and Lorenz Breidenbach and Philip Daian and Ari Juels},
  title = {Tesseract: {Real}-{Time} {Cryptocurrency} {Exchange} using {Trusted} {Hardware}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1153.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1153},
}
@book{micali2017byzantine,
  author = {Silvio Micali},
  title = {Byzantine {Agreement}, {Made} {Trivial}},
  month = {April},
  year = {2017},
}
@book{tikhomirov2017ethereum,
  author = {Sergei Tikhomirov},
  title = {Ethereum: state of knowledge and research perspectives},
  url = {http://orbilu.uni.lu/bitstream/10993/32468/1/ethereum-sok.pdf},
  year = {2017},
}
@book{al-bassam2017contour,
  author = {Mustafa Al-Bassam and Sarah Meiklejohn},
  title = {Contour: {A} {Practical} {System} for {Binary} {Transparency}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1712.08427.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1712.08427},
}
@book{anzei2017how,
  author = {Simina Br{\textasciicircum} anzei and Erel Segal-Halevi and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {How to {Charge} {Lightning}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1712.10222.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1712.10222},
}
@book{abraham2017efficient,
  author = {Ittai Abraham and Srinivas Devadas and Danny Dolev and Kartik Nayak and Ling Ren},
  title = {Efficient {Synchronous} {Byzantine} {Consensus}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/307.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/307},
}
@book{ersoy2017information,
  author = {Oguzhan Ersoy and Zhijie Ren and Zekeriya Erkin and Reginald L. Lagendijk},
  title = {Information {Propagation} on {Permissionless} {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1712.07564.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1712.07564},
}
@book{liu2017strategy,
  author = {Hanqing Liu and Na Ruan and Rongtian Du and Weijia Jia},
  title = {On the {Strategy} and {Behavior} of {Bitcoin} {Mining} with {N}-attackers},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1255.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1255},
}
@book{norvill2017automated,
  author = {R Norvill and Irfan U Awan and BBF Pontiveros and Andrea J Cullen and {others}},
  title = {Automated labeling of unknown contracts in {Ethereum}},
  url = {https://bradscholars.brad.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/10454/12220/automated-labeling-unknown(5).pdf},
  year = {2017},
}
@book{engelmann2017towards,
  author = {Felix Engelmann and Florian Glaser and Henning Kopp and Frank Kargl and Christof Weinhardt},
  title = {Towards an {Economic} {Analysis} of {Routing} in {Payment} {Channel} {Networks}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1711.02597.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  doi = {10.1145/3152824.3152826},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1711.02597},
}
@book{quesnelle2017linkability,
  author = {Jeffrey Quesnelle},
  title = {On the linkability of {Zcash} transactions},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1712.01210.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1712.01210},
}
@book{bentov2017tesseract-1,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Yan Ji and Fan Zhang and Yunqi Li and Xueyuan Zhao and Lorenz Breidenbach and Philip Daian and Ari Juels},
  title = {Tesseract: {Real}-{Time} {Cryptocurrency} {Exchange} using {Trusted} {Hardware}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1153.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1153},
}
@book{dziembowski2017perun,
  author = {Stefan Dziembowski and Lisa Eckey and Sebastian Faust and Daniel Malinowski},
  title = {{PERUN}: {Virtual} {Payment} {Channels} over {Cryptographic} {Currencies}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/635.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/635},
}
@book{bano2017consensus,
  author = {Shehar Bano and Alberto Sonnino and Mustafa Al-Bassam and Sarah Azouvi and Patrick McCorry and Sarah Meiklejohn and George Danezis},
  title = {Consensus in the {Age} of {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1711.03936.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1711.03936},
}
@book{raman2017dynamic,
  author = {Ravi Kiran Raman and Lav R. Varshney},
  title = {Dynamic {Distributed} {Storage} for {Scaling} {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1711.07617.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1711.07617},
}
@book{mavridou2017designing,
  author = {Anastasia Mavridou and Aron Laszka},
  title = {Designing {Secure} {Ethereum} {Smart} {Contracts}: {A} {Finite} {State} {Machine} {Based} {Approach}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1711.09327.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1711.09327},
}
@book{atzei2017formal,
  author = {Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Stefano Lande and Roberto Zunino},
  title = {A formal model of {Bitcoin} transactions},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1124.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1124},
}
@book{espel2017proposal,
  author = {Thomas Espel and Laurent Katz and Guillaume Robin},
  title = {Proposal for {Protocol} on a {Quorum} {Blockchain} with {Zero} {Knowledge}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1093.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1093},
}
@book{unz2017bulletproofs,
  author = {Benedikt B{\textbackslash}" unz and Jonathan Bootle and Dan Boneh and Andrew Poelstra and Pieter Wuille and Greg Maxwell},
  title = {Bulletproofs: {Efficient} {Range} {Proofs} for {Confidential} {Transactions}},
  url = {http://web.stanford.edu/ buenz/pubs/bulletproofs.pdf},
  year = {2017},
}
@book{bissias2017bobtail,
  author = {George Bissias and Brian Neil Levine},
  title = {Bobtail: {A} {Proof}-of-{Work} {Target} that {Minimizes} {Blockchain} {Mining} {Variance}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.08750.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1709.08750},
}
@book{buterin2017casper,
  author = {Vitalik Buterin and Virgil Griffith},
  title = {Casper the {Friendly} {Finality} {Gadget}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.09437.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1710.09437},
}
@book{chepurnoy2017space-scarce,
  author = {Alexander Chepurnoy and Dmitry Meshkov},
  title = {On {Space}-{Scarce} {Economy} {In} {Blockchain} {Systems}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/644.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/644},
}
@book{eze2017triplicate,
  author = {Peter Eze and Tochukwu Eziokwu and Chinedu Okpara},
  title = {A {Triplicate} {Smart} {Contract} {Model} using {Blockchain} {Technology}},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Peter_Eze7/publication/317349621_A_Triplicate_Smart_Contract_Model_using_Blockchain_Technology/links/5937782c4585158f6464595f/A-Triplicate-Smart-Contract-Model-using-Blockchain-Technology.pdf},
  year = {2017},
}
@book{blass2017strain,
  author = {Erik-Oliver Blass and Florian Kerschbaum},
  title = {Strain: {A} {Secure} {Auction} for {Blockchains}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1044.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/1044},
}
@book{aggarwal2017quantum,
  author = {Divesh Aggarwal and Gavin K. Brennen and Troy Lee and Miklos Santha and Marco Tomamichel},
  title = {Quantum attacks on {Bitcoin}, and how to protect against them},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.10377.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1710.10377},
}
@book{augot2017transforming,
  author = {Daniel Augot and Herv{\textbackslash}' e Chabanne and Olivier Cl{\textbackslash}' emot and William George},
  title = {Transforming face-to-face identity proofing into anonymous digital identity using the {Bitcoin} blockchain},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.02951.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1710.02951},
}
@book{ali2017nuts,
  author = {Syed Taha Ali and Dylan Clarke and Patrick McCorry},
  title = {The {Nuts} and {Bolts} of {Micropayments}: {A} {Survey}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.02964.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1710.02964},
}
@book{alwen2017moderately,
  author = {Jo{\textbackslash}" el Alwen and Bj{\textbackslash}" orn Tackmann},
  title = {Moderately {Hard} {Functions}: {Definition}, {Instantiations}, and {Applications}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/945.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/945},
}
@book{tran2017obscuro,
  author = {Muoi Tran and Loi Luu and Min Suk Kang and Iddo Bentov and Prateek Saxena},
  title = {Obscuro: {A} {Bitcoin} {Mixer} using {Trusted} {Execution} {Environments}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/974.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/974},
}
@book{alharby2017blockchain-based,
  author = {Maher Alharby and Aad van Moorsel},
  title = {Blockchain-based {Smart} {Contracts}: {A} {Systematic} {Mapping} {Study}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1710.06372.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Fourth International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology (CSIT-2017)},
}
@book{fisch2017socially,
  author = {Ben A Fisch and Rafael Pass and Abhi Shelat},
  title = {Socially {Optimal} {Mining} {Pools}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.03846.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.03846},
}
@book{goyal2017overcoming,
  author = {Rishab Goyal and Vipul Goyal},
  title = {Overcoming {Cryptographic} {Impossibility} {Results} using {Blockchains}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/935.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/935},
}
@book{sun2017ringct,
  author = {Shi-Feng Sun and Man Ho Au and Joseph K. Liu and Tsz Hon Yuen and Dawu Gu},
  title = {{RingCT} 2.0: {A} {Compact} {Accumulator}-{Based} ({Linkable} {Ring} {Signature}) {Protocol} for {Blockchain} {Cryptocurrency} {Monero}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/921.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/921},
}
@book{eckey2017efficient,
  author = {Lisa Eckey and Sebastian Faust and Julian Loss},
  title = {Efficient {Algorithms} for {Broadcast} and {Consensus} {Based} on {Proofs} of {Work}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/915.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/915},
}
@book{kiayias2017non-interactive,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Andrew Miller and Dionysis Zindros},
  title = {Non-interactive proofs of proof-of-work},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/963.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/963},
}
@book{cachin2017blockchain,
  author = {Christian Cachin and Marko Vukoli{\'c}},
  title = {Blockchain {Consensus} {Protocols} in the {Wild}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1707.01873.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1707.01873},
}
@book{pass2017thunderella,
  author = {Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Thunderella: {Blockchains} with {Optimistic} {Instant} {Confirmation}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/913.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/913},
}
@book{anchez2017raziel,
  author = {David Cerezo S{\textbackslash}' anchez},
  title = {Raziel: {Private} and {Verifiable} {Smart} {Contracts} on {Blockchains}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/878.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/878},
}
@book{david2017kaleidoscope,
  author = {Bernardo David and Rafael Dowsley and Mario Larangeira},
  title = {Kaleidoscope: {An} {Efficient} {Poker} {Protocol} with {Payment} {Distribution} and {Penalty} {Enforcement}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/899.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/899},
}
@book{meiklejohn2017mobius,
  author = {Sarah Meiklejohn and Rebekah Mercer},
  title = {M{\"o}bius: {Trustless} {Tumbling} for {Transaction} {Privacy}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/881.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/881},
}
@book{apostolaki2016hijacking,
  author = {Maria Apostolaki and Aviv Zohar and Laurent Vanbever},
  title = {Hijacking {Bitcoin}: {Large}-scale {Network} {Attacks} on {Cryptocurrencies}},
  volume = {abs/1605.07524},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.07524.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: CoRR},
}
@book{norta2016designing,
  author = {Alex Norta},
  title = {Designing a {Smart}-{Contract} {Application} {Layer} for {Transacting} {Decentralized} {Autonomous} {Organizations}},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Alex_Norta/publication/308986556_Designing_a_Smart-Contract_Application_Layer_for_Transacting_Decentralized_Autonomous_Organizations/links/57fcddf608aeb857afa0943d/Designing-a-Smart-Contract-Application-Layer-for-Transacting-Decentralized-Autonomous-Organizations.pdf},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{bartoletti2016constant-deposit,
  author = {Massimo Bartoletti and Roberto Zunino},
  title = {Constant-deposit multiparty lotteries on {Bitcoin}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/955.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/955},
}
@book{mccorry2016removing,
  author = {Patrick McCorry and Ehsan Toreini and Maryam Mehrnezhad},
  title = {Removing {Trusted} {Tallying} {Authorities}},
  url = {https://www.economist.com/sites/default/files/newcastle.pdf},
  publisher = {Newcastle University},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{boyen2016blockchain-free,
  author = {Xavier Boyen and Christopher Carr and Thomas Haines},
  title = {Blockchain-{Free} {Cryptocurrencies}. {A} {Rational} {Framework} for {Truly} {Decentralised} {Fast} {Transactions}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/871.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/871},
}
@book{miller2016zero-collateral,
  author = {Andrew Miller and Iddo Bentov},
  title = {Zero-{Collateral} {Lotteries} in {Bitcoin} and {Ethereum}},
  volume = {abs/1612.05390},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.05390.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: CoRR},
}
@book{micali2016algorand,
  author = {Silvio Micali},
  title = {{ALGORAND}: {The} {Efficient} and {Democratic} {Ledger}},
  volume = {abs/1607.01341},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1607.01341.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: CoRR},
}
@book{gencer2016service-oriented,
  author = {Adem Efe Gencer and Robbert Renesse and Emin G{\"u}n Sirer},
  title = {Service-{Oriented} {Sharding} with {Aspen}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1611.06816.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1611.06816},
}
@book{camacho2016decor,
  author = {Philippe Camacho and Sergio Demian Lerner},
  title = {{DECOR}+ {LAMI}: {A} {Scalable} {Blockchain} {Protocol}},
  url = {https://scalingbitcoin.org/papers/DECOR-LAMI.pdf},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{sompolinsky2016spectre,
  author = {Yonatan Sompolinsky and Yoad Lewenberg and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {{SPECTRE}: {A} {Fast} and {Scalable} {Cryptocurrency} {Protocol}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1159.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/1159},
}
@book{kiayias2016ouroboros,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Alexander Russell and Bernardo David and Roman Oliynykov},
  title = {Ouroboros: {A} {Provably} {Secure} {Proof}-of-{Stake} {Blockchain} {Protocol}},
  url = {https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a583/3270b14e251f0b16d86438d04652b1b8d7f3.pdf},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{duong2016securing,
  author = {Tuyet Duong and Lei Fan and Thomas Veale and Hong-Sheng Zhou},
  title = {Securing {Bitcoin}-like {Backbone} {Protocols} against a {Malicious} {Majority} of {Computing} {Power}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/eprint-bin/getfile.pl?entry=2016/716&version=20160721:174624&file=716.pdf},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{jain2016how,
  author = {Sanjay Jain and Prateek Saxena and Frank Stephan and Jason Teutsch},
  title = {How to verify computation with a rational network},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1606.05917.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.05917},
}
@book{natoli2016balance,
  author = {Christopher Natoli and Vincent Gramoli},
  title = {The {Balance} {Attack} {Against} {Proof}-{Of}-{Work} {Blockchains}: {The} {R3} {Testbed} as an {Example}},
  volume = {abs/1612.09426},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.09426.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: CoRR},
}
@book{kiayias2016blockchain,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Elias Koutsoupias and Maria Kyropoulou and Yiannis Tselekounis},
  title = {Blockchain {Mining} {Games}},
  volume = {abs/1607.02420},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1607.02420.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: CoRR},
}
@book{jarecki2016highly-efficient,
  author = {Stanislaw Jarecki and Aggelos Kiayias and Hugo Krawczyk and Jiayu Xu},
  title = {Highly-{Efficient} and {Composable} {Password}-{Protected} {Secret} {Sharing} ({Or}: {How} to {Protect} {Your} {Bitcoin} {Wallet} {Online})},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/144.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/144},
}
@book{abraham2016solidus,
  author = {Ittai Abraham and Dahlia Malkhi and Kartik Nayak and Ling Ren and Alexander Spiegelman},
  title = {Solidus: {An} {Incentive}-compatible {Cryptocurrency} {Based} on {Permissionless} {Byzantine} {Consensus}},
  volume = {abs/1612.02916},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.02916.pdf},
  month = {December},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: CoRR},
}
@book{baars2016towards,
  author = {Djuri Baars},
  title = {Towards {Self}-{Sovereign} {Identity} using {Blockchain} {Technology}},
  url = {http://essay.utwente.nl/71274/1/Baars_MA_BMS.pdf},
  publisher = {Master's Thesis at University of Twente},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{lajoie-mazenc2016increasing,
  author = {Thibaut Lajoie-Mazenc},
  title = {Increasing the robustness of the {Bitcoincrypto}-system in presence of undesirable behaviours},
  url = {http://www.nada.kth.se/ ann/exjobb/thibaut_lajoie-mazenc.pdf},
  publisher = {Master's Thesis sumbmitted at KTH CSC},
  year = {2016},
}
@inproceedings{miller2016honey,
  author = {Andrew Miller and Yu Xia and Kyle Croman and Elaine Shi and Dawn Song},
  title = {The honey badger of {BFT} protocols},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/199.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2016 {ACM} {SIGSAC} {Conference} on {Computer} and {Communications} {Security}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {31--42},
}
@book{kiayias2016trees,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Giorgos Panagiotakos},
  title = {On {Trees}, {Chains} and {Fast} {Transactions} in the {Blockchain}.},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/545.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/545},
}
@book{garay2016bitcoin,
  author = {Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos},
  title = {The {Bitcoin} {Backbone} {Protocol} with {Chains} of {Variable} {Difficulty}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1048.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/1048},
}
@book{buchman2016tendermint,
  author = {Ethan Buchman},
  title = {Tendermint: {Byzantine} {Fault} {Tolerance} in the {Age} of {Blockchains}},
  url = {http://atrium.lib.uoguelph.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10214/9769/Buchman_Ethan_201606_MAsc.pdf},
  publisher = {Master's Thesis at University of Guelph, Ontario},
  month = {June},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{clack2016smart,
  author = {Christopher D. Clack and Vikram A. Bakshi and Lee Braine},
  title = {Smart {Contract} {Templates}: foundations, design landscape and research directions},
  volume = {abs/1608.00771},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1608.00771v2.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: CoRR},
}
@book{kiayias2016provably,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Ioannis Konstantinou and Alexander Russell and Bernardo David and Roman Oliynykov},
  title = {A {Provably} {Secure} {Proof}-of-{Stake} {Blockchain} {Protocol}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/889.pdf},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/889},
  month = {September},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{atzei2016survey,
  author = {Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Tiziana Cimoli},
  title = {A survey of attacks on {Ethereum} smart contracts},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1007.pdf},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/1007},
  month = {October},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{pass2016fruitchains,
  author = {Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Fruitchains: {A} fair blockchain},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/916.pdf},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/916},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{garay2016bootstrapping,
  author = {Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos and Giorgos Panagiotakos},
  title = {Bootstrapping the {Blockchain} {\textemdash} {Directly}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/991.pdf},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/991},
  month = {October},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{bentov2016snow,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Snow {White}: {Provably} {Secure} {Proofs} of {Stake}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/919.pdf},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/919},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{bentov2016sleepy,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi},
  title = {The sleepy model of consensus},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/918.pdf},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/918},
  year = {2016},
}
@phdthesis{miller2016provable,
  author = {Andrew Miller},
  type = {{PhD} {Thesis}},
  title = {Provable {Security} for {Cryptocurrencies}},
  url = {http://www.cs.umd.edu/ jkatz/THESES/amiller-thesis.pdf},
  school = {University of Maryland, College Park},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{wust2016security,
  author = {Karl W{\"u}st},
  title = {Security of {Blockchain} {Technologies}},
  url = {http://e-collection.library.ethz.ch/eserv/eth:49632/eth-49632-01.pdf},
  publisher = {Master's Thesis - Department of Computer Science, ETH Z{\"u}rich},
  month = {July},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{abraham2016bvp,
  author = {Ittai Abraham and Dahlia Malkhi},
  title = {{BVP}: {Byzantine} {Vertical} {Paxos}},
  url = {https://www.zurich.ibm.com/dccl/papers/abraham_dccl.pdf},
  month = {May},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{cachin2016non-determinism,
  author = {Christian Cachin and Simon Schubert and Marko Vukolic},
  title = {Non-determinism in {Byzantine} {Fault}-{Tolerant} {Replication}},
  url = {http://www.zurich.ibm.com/ cca/papers/sieve.pdf},
  month = {March},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{blocki2016designing,
  author = {Jeremiah Blocki and Hong-Sheng Zhou},
  title = {Designing {Proof} of {Human}-work {Puzzles} for {Cryptocurrency} and {Beyond}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/145.pdf},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/145},
  month = {August},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{pettersson2016safer,
  author = {Jack Pettersson and Robert Edstr{\"o}m},
  address = {Gothenburg, Sweden},
  title = {Safer smart contracts through type-driven development},
  url = {https://publications.lib.chalmers.se/records/fulltext/234939/234939.pdf},
  publisher = {Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{gramoli2016danger,
  author = {Vincent Gramoli},
  title = {On the {Danger} of {Private} {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://www.zurich.ibm.com/dccl/papers/gramoli_dccl.pdf},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{vukolic2016eventually,
  author = {Marko Vukolic},
  title = {Eventually {Returning} to {Strong} {Consistency}},
  url = {https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/a6a1/b70305b27c556aac779fb65429db9c2e1ef2.pdf},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{pass2016hybrid,
  author = {Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Hybrid {Consensus}: {Scalable} {Permissionless} {Consensus}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/917.pdf},
  month = {September},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{pass2016analysis,
  author = {Rafael Pass and Lior Seeman and abhi shelat},
  title = {Analysis of the {Blockchain} {Protocol} in {Asynchronous} {Networks}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/454.pdf},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{bhargavan2016short,
  author = {Karthikeyan Bhargavan and Antoine Delignat-Lavaud and C{\'e}dric Fournet and Anitha Gollamudi and Georges Gonthier and Nadim Kobeissi and Aseem Rastogi and Thomas Sibut-Pinote and Nikhil Swamy and Santiago Zanella-B{\'e}guelin},
  title = {Short {Paper}: {Formal} {Verification} of {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://www.cs.umd.edu/ aseem/solidetherplas.pdf},
  month = {August},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{cachin2016architecture,
  author = {Christian Cachin},
  title = {Architecture of the {Hyperledger} {Blockchain} {Fabric}},
  url = {https://www.zurich.ibm.com/dccl/papers/cachin_dccl.pdf},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{nelson2016extending,
  author = {Jude Nelson and Muneeb Ali and Ryan Shea and Michael J Freedman},
  title = {Extending {Existing} {Blockchains} with {Virtualchain}},
  url = {https://www.zurich.ibm.com/dccl/papers/nelson_dccl.pdf},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{poon2016bitcoin,
  author = {Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja},
  title = {The bitcoin lightning network},
  url = {https://lightning.network/lightning-network-paper.pdf},
  year = {2016},
}
@article{sompolinsky2016bitcoins,
  author = {Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {Bitcoin's {Security} {Model} {Revisited}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.09193.pdf},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1605.09193},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{bentov2016bitcoin,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Ariel Gabizon and David Zuckerman},
  title = {Bitcoin {Beacon}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.04559v2.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv prepring arXiv:1605.04559},
}
@book{narayanan_arvind_and_bonneau_joseph_and_felten_edward_and_miller_andrew_and_goldfeder_steven2016bitcoin,
  author = {{Narayanan, Arvind and Bonneau, Joseph and Felten, Edward and Miller, Andrew and Goldfeder, Steven}},
  title = {Bitcoin and {Cryptocurrency} {Technologies}},
  url = {https://d28rh4a8wq0iu5.cloudfront.net/bitcointech/readings/princeton_bitcoin_book.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies},
}
@book{ali2016blockstack,
  author = {Muneeb Ali and Jude Nelson and Ryan Shea and Michael J Freedman},
  title = {Blockstack: {Design} and {Implementation} of a {Global} {Naming} {System} with {Blockchains}},
  url = {http://www.the-blockchain.com/docs/Blockstack Design and Implementation of a Global Naming System.pdf},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{zyskind2015enigma,
  author = {Guy Zyskind and Oz Nathan and Alex Pentland},
  title = {Enigma: {Decentralized} computation platform with guaranteed privacy},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1506.03471.pdf},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Published: arXiv preprint arXiv:1506.03471},
}
@book{park2015spacemint,
  author = {Sunoo Park and Krzysztof Pietrzak and Albert Kwon and Jo{\"e}l Alwen and Georg Fuchsbauer and Peter Ga{\v z}i},
  title = {{SpaceMint}: {A} {Cryptocurrency} {Based} on {Proofs} of {Space}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/528.pdf},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2015/528},
}
@book{anderson2016new,
  author = {Luke Anderson and Ralph Holz and Alexander Ponomarev and Paul Rimba and Ingo Weber},
  title = {New kids on the block: an analysis of modern blockchains},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1606.06530.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.06530},
}
@book{judmayer2016cryptographic,
  author = {Aljosha Judmayer and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {Cryptographic {Currencies} {Crash} {Course} ({C4})},
  url = {http://www2016.net/proceedings/companion/p1021.pdf},
  month = {April},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: Tutorial at WWW2016},
}
@inproceedings{sapirshtein2016optimal,
  author = {Ayelet Sapirshtein and Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {Optimal selfish mining strategies in bitcoin},
  url = {https://fc16.ifca.ai/preproceedings/30_Sapirshtein.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {515--532},
}
@book{swanson2015consensus-as-a-service,
  author = {Tim Swanson},
  title = {Consensus-as-a-service: a brief report on the emergence of permissioned, distributed ledger systems},
  url = {http://www.ofnumbers.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Permissioned-distributed-ledgers.pdf},
  month = {April},
  year = {2015},
}
@book{mazieres2015stellar,
  author = {David Mazieres},
  title = {The stellar consensus protocol: {A} federated model for internet-level consensus},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.696.93&=&rep=rep1&=&type=pdf},
  year = {2015},
}
@book{andrychowicz2015multiparty,
  author = {Marcin Andrychowicz},
  title = {Multiparty {Computation} {Protocols} {Based} on {Cryptocurrencies}},
  url = {https://depotuw.ceon.pl/bitstream/handle/item/1327/dis.pdf},
  year = {2015},
}
@book{kiayias2015speed-security,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Giorgos Panagiotakos},
  title = {Speed-{Security} {Tradeoff} s in {Blockchain} {Protocols}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/1019.pdf},
  month = {October},
  year = {2015},
}
@book{sapirshtein2015optimal,
  author = {Ayelet Sapirshtein and Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {Optimal selfish mining strategies in {Bitcoin}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1507.06183.pdf},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1507.06183},
}
@book{luu2015scp,
  author = {Loi Luu and Viswesh Narayanan and Kunal Baweja and Chaodong Zheng and Seth Gilbert and Prateek Saxena},
  title = {{SCP}: a computationally-scalable {Byzantine} consensus protocol for blockchains},
  url = {https://www.weusecoins.com/assets/pdf/library/SCP - +A Computationally-Scalable Byzantine.pdf},
  year = {2015},
}
@book{mazieres2015stellar-1,
  author = {David Mazieres},
  title = {The {Stellar} {Consensus} {Protocol}: {A} {Federated} {Model} for {Internet}-level {Consensus}},
  url = {https://www.stellar.org/papers/stellar-consensus-protocol.pdf},
  year = {2015},
}
@book{goldfeder2015securing,
  author = {Steven Goldfeder and Rosario Gennaro and Harry Kalodner and Joseph Bonneau and Joshua Kroll and Edward W. Felten and Arvind Narayanan},
  title = {Securing {Bitcoin} wallets via a new {DSA}/{ECDSA} threshold signature scheme},
  url = {http://www.cs.princeton.edu/ stevenag/threshold_sigs.pdf},
  year = {2015},
}
@book{delmolino2015step,
  author = {Kevin Delmolino and Mitchell Arnett and Ahmed E Kosba and Andrew Miller and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Step by {Step} {Towards} {Creating} a {Safe} {Smart} {Contract}: {Lessons} and {Insights} from a {Cryptocurrency} {Lab}.},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2015/460.pdf},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Publication Title: IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
}
@book{chaudhary2015modeling,
  author = {Kaylash Chaudhary and Ansgar Fehnker and Jaco Pol and Marielle Stoelinga},
  title = {Modeling and verification of the bitcoin protocol},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1511.04173.pdf},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1511.04173},
}
@book{gobel2015bitcoin,
  author = {Johannes G{\"o}bel and Paul Keeler and Anthony E Krzesinski and Peter G Taylor},
  title = {Bitcoin {Blockchain} {Dynamics}: the {Selfish}-{Mine} {Strategy} in the {Presence} of {Propagation} {Delay}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.05343.pdf},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1505.05343},
}
@book{bonneau2015bitcoin,
  author = {Joseph Bonneau and Jeremy Clark and Steven Goldfeder},
  title = {On {Bitcoin} as a public randomness source},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/1015.pdf},
  year = {2015},
}
@article{odwyer2014bitcoin,
  author = {Karl J O'Dwyer and David Malone},
  title = {Bitcoin mining and its energy footprint},
  url = {http://karlodwyer.com/publications/pdf/bitcoin_KJOD_2014.pdf},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Publisher: IET},
}
@book{miller2015discovering,
  author = {Andrew Miller and James Litton and Andrew Pachulski and Neal Gupta and Dave Levin and Neil Spring and Bobby Bhattacharjee},
  title = {Discovering bitcoin's public topology and influential nodes},
  url = {http://cs.umd.edu/projects/coinscope/coinscope.pdf},
  month = {May},
  year = {2015},
}
@book{katz2014pseudonymous,
  author = {Jonathan Katz and Andrew Miller and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Pseudonymous {Broadcast} and {Secure} {Computation} from {Cryptographic} {Puzzles}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2014/857.pdf},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2014/857},
}
@book{shomer2014phase,
  author = {Assaf Shomer},
  title = {On the {Phase} {Space} of {Block}-{Hiding} {Strategies} in {Bitcoin}-like networks},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.4233v1.pdf},
  month = {February},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1402.4233},
}
@book{schwartz2014ripple,
  author = {David Schwartz and Noah Youngs and Arthur Britto},
  title = {The {Ripple} protocol consensus algorithm},
  url = {https://ripple.com/files/ripple_consensus_whitepaper.pdf},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Publication Title: Ripple Labs Inc White Paper},
}
@book{courtois2014longest,
  author = {Nicolas T Courtois},
  title = {On the longest chain rule and programmed self-destruction of crypto currencies},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1405.0534.pdf},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Published: arXiv preprint arXiv:1405.0534},
}
@book{courtois2014subversive,
  author = {Nicolas T Courtois and Lear Bahack},
  title = {On subversive miner strategies and block withholding attack in bitcoin digital currency},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.1718.pdf},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Published: arXiv preprint arXiv:1402.1718},
}
@book{wood2017ethereum,
  author = {Gavin Wood},
  title = {Ethereum: {A} secure decentralised generalised transaction ledger {EIP}-150 {REVISION} (759dccd - 2017-08-07)},
  url = {https://ethereum.github.io/yellowpaper/paper.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: Ethereum Project Yellow Paper},
}
@book{buterin2014ethereum,
  author = {Vitalik Buterin},
  title = {Ethereum: {A} next-generation smart contract and decentralized application platform},
  url = {https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper},
  year = {2014},
}
@book{beukema2014formalising,
  author = {WJB Beukema},
  title = {Formalising the {Bitcoin} protocol},
  url = {http://referaat.cs.utwente.nl/conference/21/paper/7450/formalising-the-bitcoin-protocol.pdf},
  year = {2014},
}
@book{back2014enabling,
  author = {Adam Back and Matt Corallo and Luke Dashjr and Mark Friedenbach and Gregory Maxwell and Andrew Miller and Andrew Poelstra and Jorge Tim{\'o}n and Pieter Wuille},
  title = {Enabling blockchain innovations with pegged sidechains},
  url = {http://newspaper23.com/ripped/2014/11/http-_____-___-_www___-blockstream___-com__-_sidechains.pdf},
  year = {2014},
}
@book{jacobs2014providing,
  author = {F. Jacobs},
  title = {Providing better confidentiality and authentication on the {Internet} using {Namecoin} and {MinimaLT}},
  url = {https://raw.githubusercontent.com/FredericJacobs/safeweb/master/paper.pdf},
  month = {April},
  year = {2014},
}
@book{community2014filecoin,
  author = {Filecoin community},
  title = {Filecoin: {A} {Cryptocurrency} {Operated} {File} {Storage} {Network}},
  url = {http://filecoin.io/filecoin.pdf},
  publisher = {filecoin.io},
  month = {October},
  year = {2014},
}
@book{bruce2014mini-blockchain,
  author = {J. D. Bruce},
  title = {The {Mini}-{Blockchain} {Scheme} (a.k.a {Purely} {P2P} {Crypto}-{Currency} {With} {Finite} {Mini}-{Blockchain})},
  url = {http://cryptonite.info/files/mbc-scheme-rev2.pdf},
  month = {July},
  year = {2014},
}
@book{bentov2014cryptocurrencies,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Ariel Gabizon and Alex Mizrahi},
  title = {Cryptocurrencies without proof of work},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1406.5694.pdf},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1406.5694},
}
@book{rosenfeld2014analysis,
  author = {M. Rosenfeld},
  title = {Analysis of {Hashrate}-{Based} {Double} {Spending}},
  volume = {abs/1402.2009},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2009.pdf},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Publication Title: CoRR},
}
@phdthesis{naik2013optimising,
  author = {Rahul P Naik and Nicolas T Courtois},
  type = {{PhD} {Thesis}},
  title = {Optimising the {SHA256} {Hashing} {Algorithm} for {Faster} and {More} {Efficient} {Bitcoin} {Mining}},
  url = {http://www.nicolascourtois.com/bitcoin/Optimising%20the%20SHA256%20Hashing%20Algorithm%20for%20Faster%20and%20More%20Efficient%20Bitcoin%20Mining_Rahul_Naik.pdf},
  school = {University College London},
  month = {September},
  year = {2013},
}
@book{miller2014anonymous,
  author = {A Miller and LaViola JJ},
  title = {Anonymous byzantine consensus from moderately-hard puzzles: {A} model for bitcoin},
  url = {https://socrates1024.s3.amazonaws.com/consensus.pdf},
  year = {2014},
}
@article{fromknecht2014decentralized,
  author = {Conner Fromknecht and Dragos Velicanu and Sophia Yakoubov},
  title = {A {Decentralized} {Public} {Key} {Infrastructure} with {Identity} {Retention}.},
  volume = {2014},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2014/803.pdf},
  journal = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {803},
}
@book{courtois2013unreasonable,
  author = {Nicolas T Courtois and Marek Grajek and Rahul Naik},
  title = {The unreasonable fundamental incertitudes behind bitcoin mining},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1310.7935.pdf},
  year = {2013},
  note = {Published: arXiv preprint arXiv:1310.7935},
}
@book{sun2014solving,
  author = {Felix Sun and Peitong Duan},
  title = {Solving {Byzantine} {Problems} in {Synchronized} {Systems} using {Bitcoin}},
  url = {http://web.mit.edu/felixsun/www/projects/bitcoin.pdf},
  year = {2014},
}
@mastersthesis{herrmann2012implementation,
  author = {Matthias Herrmann},
  title = {Implementation, evaluation and detection of a doublespend-attack on {Bitcoin}},
  url = {http://e-collection.library.ethz.ch/eserv/eth:5606/eth-5606-01.pdf?pid=eth:5606&dsID=eth-5606-01.pdf},
  school = {Master Thesis ETH Z{\"u}rich, 2012},
  month = {April},
  year = {2012},
}
@book{taylor2012bitmessage,
  author = {M. B. Taylor},
  title = {Bitmessage: {A} {Peer}-to-{Peer} {Message} {Authentication} and {Delivery} {System}},
  url = {https://bitmessage.org/bitmessage.pdf},
  month = {November},
  year = {2012},
}
@book{sompolinsky2013accelerating,
  author = {Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {Accelerating {Bitcoin}'s {Transaction} {Processing}. {Fast} {Money} {Grows} on {Trees}, {Not} {Chains}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2013/881.pdf},
  year = {2013},
  note = {Publication Title: IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
}
@book{bahack2013theoretical,
  author = {Lear Bahack},
  title = {Theoretical {Bitcoin} {Attacks} with less than {Half} of the {Computational} {Power}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1312.7013.pdf},
  year = {2013},
}
@book{ron2012quantitative,
  author = {D. Ron and A. Shamir},
  title = {Quantitative {Analysis} of the {Full} {Bitcoin} {Transaction} {Graph}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2012/584.pdf},
  publisher = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2012/584},
  year = {2012},
}
@article{rosenfeld2011analysis,
  author = {Meni Rosenfeld},
  title = {Analysis of {Bitcoin} pooled mining reward systems},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1112.4980.pdf},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1112.4980},
  year = {2011},
}
@book{laurie2011decentralised,
  author = {Ben Laurie},
  title = {Decentralised currencies are probably impossible (but let's at least make them efficient)},
  url = {http://w.fipr.org/files/decentralised-currencies.pdf},
  year = {2011},
}
@book{rosenfeld2012overview,
  author = {Meni Rosenfeld},
  title = {Overview of colored coins},
  url = {https://bitcoil.co.il/BitcoinX.pdf},
  year = {2012},
  note = {Publication Title: White paper, bitcoil. co. il},
}
@book{schwarz2011squaring,
  author = {Aaron Schwarz},
  title = {Squaring the {Triangle}: {Secure}, {Decentralized}, {Human}-{Readable} {Names}},
  url = {http://www.aaronsw.com/weblog/squarezooko},
  month = {January},
  year = {2011},
}
@book{percival2009stronger,
  author = {Colin Percival},
  title = {Stronger key derivation via sequential memory-hard functions},
  url = {http://www.bsdcan.org/2009/schedule/attachments/87_scrypt.pdf},
  year = {2009},
}
@book{nakamoto2008bitcoin,
  author = {Satoshi Nakamoto},
  title = {Bitcoin: {A} {Peer}-to-{Peer} {Electronic} {Cash} {System}},
  url = {https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf},
  month = {December},
  year = {2008},
}
@book{szabo2005bit,
  author = {Nick Szabo},
  title = {Bit gold},
  url = {http://unenumerated.blogspot.co.at/2005/12/bit-gold.html},
  year = {2005},
}
@phdthesis{golze2009fairness,
  author = {Sebastian Golze},
  type = {{PhD} {Thesis}},
  title = {Fairness in {\"U}berlastsituationen mittels {Proof}-of-{Work}-{Funktionen}.},
  url = {https://depositonce.tu-berlin.de/bitstream/11303/2499/2/Dokument_41.pdf},
  school = {Berlin Institute of Technology},
  year = {2009},
}
@book{finney2004reusable,
  author = {Hal Finney},
  title = {Reusable {Proofs} of {Work} ({RPOW})},
  url = {http://web.archive.org/web/20071222072154/http://rpow.net/},
  year = {2004},
}
@book{khalil2017revive,
  author = {Rami Khalil and Arthur Gervais},
  title = {Revive: {Rebalancing} {Off}-{Blockchain} {Payment} {Networks}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/823.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/823},
}
@book{zhang2017z-channel,
  author = {Yuncong Zhang and Yu Long and Zhen Liu and Zhiqiang Liu and Dawu Gu},
  title = {Z-{Channel}: {Scalable} and {Efficient} {Scheme} in {Zerocash}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/684.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/684},
}
@book{liu2017fork-free,
  author = {Zhiqiang Liu and Shuyang Tang and Sherman S. M. Chow and Zhen Liu and Yu Long},
  title = {Fork-{Free} {Hybrid} {Consensus} with {Flexible} {Proof}-of-{Activity}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/367.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/367},
}
@book{badertscher2017bitcoin,
  author = {Christian Badertscher and Ueli Maurer and Daniel Tschudi and Vassilis Zikas},
  title = {Bitcoin as a {Transaction} {Ledger}: {A} {Composable} {Treatment}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/149.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/149},
}
@book{pinna2017petri,
  author = {Andrea Pinna and Roberto Tonelli and Matteo Orr{\textbackslash}' u and Michele Marchesi},
  title = {A {Petri} {Nets} {Model} for {Blockchain} {Analysis}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.07790.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1709.07790},
}
@book{sousa2017byzantine,
  author = {Jo\ {} ao Sousa and Alysson Bessani and Marko Vukoli{\textbackslash}' c},
  title = {A {Byzantine} {Fault}-{Tolerant} {Ordering} {Service} for the {Hyperledger} {Fabric} {Blockchain} {Platform}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.06921.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1709.06921},
}
@book{wang2017towards,
  author = {Liang Wang and Ivan Pustogarov},
  title = {Towards {Better} {Understanding} of {Bitcoin} {Unreachable} {Peers}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.06837.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1709.06837},
}
@book{dubovitskaya2017secure,
  author = {Alevtina Dubovitskaya and Zhigang Xu and Samuel Ryu and Michael Schumacher and Fusheng Wang},
  title = {Secure and {Trustable} {Electronic} {Medical} {Records} {Sharing} using {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.06528.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1709.06528},
}
@book{kalodner2017blocksci,
  author = {Harry Kalodner and Steven Goldfeder and Alishah Chator and Malte M{\textbackslash}" oser and Arvind Narayanan},
  title = {{BlockSci}: {Design} and applications of a blockchain analysis platform},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.02489.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1709.02489},
}
@book{kwon2017be,
  author = {Yujin Kwon and Dohyun Kim and Yunmok Son and Eugene Vasserman and Yongdae Kim},
  title = {Be {Selfish} and {Avoid} {Dilemmas}: {Fork} {After} {Withholding} ({FAW}) {Attacks} on {Bitcoin}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.09790.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1708.09790},
}
@book{oliver2017proposal,
  author = {Carlos G. Oliver and Alessandro Ricottone and Pericles Philippopoulos},
  title = {Proposal for a fully decentralized blockchain and proof-of-work algorithm for solving {NP}-complete problems},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.09419.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1708.09419},
}
@book{roos2017settling,
  author = {Stefanie Roos and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Aniket Kate and Ian Goldberg},
  title = {Settling {Payments} {Fast} and {Private}: {Efficient} {Decentralized} {Routing} for {Path}-{Based} {Transactions}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.05748.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1709.05748},
}
@book{chatzopoulos2017localcoin,
  author = {Dimitris Chatzopoulos and Sujit Gujar and Boi Faltings and Pan Hui},
  title = {{LocalCoin}: {An} {Ad}-hoc {Payment} {Scheme} for {Areas} with {High} {Connectivity}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.08086.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1708.08086},
}
@book{goldfeder2017when,
  author = {Steven Goldfeder and Harry Kalodner and Dillon Reisman and Arvind Narayanan},
  title = {When the cookie meets the blockchain: {Privacy} risks of web payments via cryptocurrencies},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.04748.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1708.04748},
}
@book{rosenfeld2017predicting,
  author = {Meni Rosenfeld},
  title = {Predicting {Block} {Halving} {Party} {Times}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.05185.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1708.05185},
}
@book{tasca2017ontology,
  author = {Paolo Tasca and Thayabaran Thanabalasingham and Claudio J. Tessone},
  title = {Ontology of {Blockchain} {Technologies}. {Principles} of {Identification} and {Classification}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.04872.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1708.04872},
}
@book{bui2017key,
  author = {Thanh Bui and Tuomas Aura},
  title = {Key exchange with the help of a public ledger},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.03468.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1708.03468},
}
@book{dong2017betrayal,
  author = {Changyu Dong and Yilei Wang and Amjad Aldweesh and Patrick McCorry and Aad van Moorsel},
  title = {Betrayal, {Distrust}, and {Rationality}: {Smart} {Counter}-{Collusion} {Contracts} for {Verifiable} {Cloud} {Computing}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.01171.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1708.01171},
}
@book{bartoletti2017general,
  author = {Massimo Bartoletti and Andrea Bracciali and Stefano Lande and Livio Pompianu},
  title = {A general framework for {Bitcoin} analytics},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1707.01021.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1707.01021},
}
@book{al-bassam2017chainspace,
  author = {Mustafa Al-Bassam and Alberto Sonnino and Shehar Bano and Dave Hrycyszyn and George Danezis},
  title = {Chainspace: {A} {Sharded} {Smart} {Contracts} {Platform}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.03778.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1708.03778},
}
@book{unnler2017logic,
  author = {Kai Br{\textbackslash}" unnler and Dandolo Flumini and Thomas Studer},
  title = {A {Logic} of {Blockchain} {Updates}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1707.01766.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1707.01766},
}
@book{ozisik2017estimation,
  author = {A. Pinar Ozisik and George Bissias and Brian Levine},
  title = {Estimation of {Miner} {Hash} {Rates} and {Consensus} on {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1707.00082.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv preprint arXiv:1707.00082},
}
@book{dinh2017untangling,
  author = {Tien Tuan Anh Dinh and Rui Liu and Meihui Zhang and Gang Chen and Beng Chin Ooi and Ji Wang},
  title = {Untangling {Blockchain}: {A} {Data} {Processing} {View} of {Blockchain} {Systems}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.05665.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv preprint arXiv:1708.05665},
}
@book{beccuti2017bitcoin,
  author = {Juan Beccuti and Christian Jaag and {others}},
  title = {The {Bitcoin} {Mining} {Game}: {On} the {Optimality} of {Honesty} in {Proof}-of-work {Consensus} {Mechanism}},
  url = {http://www.swiss-economics.ch/RePEc/files/0060JaagBeccuti.pdf},
  year = {2017},
}
@book{garay2017proofs,
  author = {Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Giorgos Panagiotakos},
  title = {Proofs of {Work} for {Blockchain} {Protocols}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/775.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/775},
}
@book{setty2017enabling,
  author = {Srinath Setty and Soumya Basu and Lidong Zhou and Michael Lowell Roberts and Ramarathnam Venkatesan},
  title = {Enabling secure and resource-efficient blockchain networks with {VOLT}},
  url = {https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/volt.pdf},
  month = {August},
  year = {2017},
}
@book{tang2017improved,
  author = {Shuyang Tang and Zhiqiang Liu and Zhen Liu and Yu Long and Shengli Liu},
  title = {Improved {Hybrid} {Consensus} {Scheme} with {Privacy}-preserving {Property}.},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/eprint-bin/getfile.pl?entry=2017/192&version=20170228:193152&file=192.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
}
@book{poon2017plasma,
  author = {Joseph Poon and Vitalik Buterin},
  title = {Plasma: {Scalable} {Autonomous} {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://plasma.io/plasma.pdf},
  month = {August},
  year = {2017},
}
@book{meshkov2017revisiting,
  author = {Dmitry Meshkov and Alexander Chepurnoy and Marc Jansen},
  title = {Revisiting {Difficulty} {Control} for {Blockchain} {Systems}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/731.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/731},
}
@book{zhang2017necessity,
  author = {Ren Zhang and Bart Preneel},
  title = {On the {Necessity} of a {Prescribed} {Block} {Validity} {Consensus}: {Analyzing} {Bitcoin} {Unlimited} {Mining} {Protocol}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/686.pdf},
  year = {2017},
}
@book{neisse2017blockchain-based,
  author = {Ricardo Neisse and Gary Steri and Igor Nai-Fovino},
  title = {A {Blockchain}-based {Approach} for {Data} {Accountability} and {Provenance} {Tracking}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.04507.pdf},
  year = {2017},
}
@book{ball2017proofs,
  author = {Marshall Ball and Alon Rosen and Manuel Sabin and Prashant Nalini Vasudevan},
  title = {Proofs of {Useful} {Work}},
  volume = {2017},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/203.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
}
@book{moreno-sanchez2017mind,
  author = {Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Navin Modi and Raghuvir Songhela and Aniket Kate and Sonia Fahmy},
  title = {Mind {Your} {Credit}: {Assessing} the {Health} of the {Ripple} {Credit} {Network}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.02358.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1706.02358},
}
@book{moinet2017blockchain,
  author = {Axel Moinet and Beno{\textasciicircum} it Darties and Jean-Luc Baril},
  title = {Blockchain based trust \& authentication for decentralized sensor networks},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.01730.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1706.01730},
}
@book{conti2017survey,
  author = {Mauro Conti and Sandeep Kumar E and Chhagan Lal and Sushmita Ruj},
  title = {A {Survey} on {Security} and {Privacy} {Issues} of {Bitcoin}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.00916.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1706.00916},
}
@book{ren2017implicit,
  author = {Zhijie Ren and Kelong Cong and Johan Pouwelse and Zekeriya Erkin},
  title = {Implicit {Consensus}: {Blockchain} with {Unbounded} {Throughput}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1705.11046.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1705.11046},
}
@book{kiktenko2017quantum-secured,
  author = {E. O. Kiktenko and N. O. Pozhar and M. N. Anufriev and A. S. Trushechkin and R. R. Yunusov and Y. V. Kurochkin and A. I. Lvovsky and A. K. Fedorov},
  title = {Quantum-secured blockchain},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1705.09258.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1705.09258},
}
@book{riemann2017distributed,
  author = {Robert Riemann and St{\textbackslash}' ephane Grumbach},
  title = {Distributed {Protocols} at the {Rescue} for {Trustworthy} {Online} {Voting}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1705.04480.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  doi = {10.5220/0006228504990505},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1705.04480},
}
@book{ren2017practical,
  author = {Ling Ren and Kartik Nayak and Ittai Abraham and Srinivas Devadas},
  title = {Practical {Synchronous} {Byzantine} {Consensus}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1704.02397.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1704.02397},
}
@book{fanti2017anonymity,
  author = {Giulia Fanti and Pramod Viswanath},
  title = {Anonymity {Properties} of the {Bitcoin} {P2P} {Network}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.08761.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1703.08761},
}
@book{recabarren2017hardening,
  author = {Ruben Recabarren and Bogdan Carbunar},
  title = {Hardening {Stratum}, the {Bitcoin} {Pool} {Mining} {Protocol}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.06545.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1703.06545},
}
@book{narayanan2017obfuscation,
  author = {Arvind Narayanan and Malte M{\textbackslash}" oser},
  title = {Obfuscation in {Bitcoin}: {Techniques} and {Politics}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.05432.pdf},
  year = {2017},
}
@book{cecchetti2017solidus,
  author = {Ethan Cecchetti and Fan Zhang and Yan Ji and Ahmed Kosba and Ari Juels and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Solidus: {Confidential} {Distributed} {Ledger} {Transactions} via {PVORM}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/317.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/317},
}
@book{jaiyeola2017good,
  author = {Mercy O. Jaiyeola and Kyle Patron and Jared Saia and Maxwell Young and Qian M. Zhou},
  title = {Good {Things} {Come} in {LogLog}(n)-{Sized} {Packages}: {Robustness} with {Small} {Quorums}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1705.10387.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1705.10387},
}
@book{bentov2017tortoise,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Pavel Hub{\'a}{\v c}ek and Tal Moran and Asaf Nadler},
  title = {Tortoise and {Hares} {Consensus}: the {Meshcash} {Framework} for {Incentive}-{Compatible}, {Scalable} {Cryptocurrencies}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/300.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/300},
}
@book{kumar2017traceability,
  author = {Amrit Kumar and Cl{\'e}ment Fischer and Shruti Tople and Prateek Saxena},
  title = {A {Traceability} {Analysis} of {Monero}'s {Blockchain}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/338.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/338},
}
@book{kokoris-kogias2017omniledger,
  author = {Eleftherios Kokoris-Kogias and Philipp Jovanovic and Linus Gasser and Nicolas Gailly and Bryan Ford},
  title = {{OmniLedger}: {A} {Secure}, {Scale}-{Out}, {Decentralized} {Ledger}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/406.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/406},
}
@book{li2017crowdbc,
  author = {Ming Li and Jian Weng and Anjia Yang and Wei Lu},
  title = {{CrowdBC}: {A} {Blockchain}-based {Decentralized} {Framework} for {Crowdsourcing}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/444.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/444},
}
@book{gilad2017algorand,
  author = {Yossi Gilad and Rotem Hemo and Silvio Micali and Georgios Vlachos and Nickolai Zeldovich},
  title = {Algorand: {Scaling} {Byzantine} {Agreements} for {Cryptocurrencies}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/454.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/454},
}
@book{altawy2017lelantos,
  author = {Riham AlTawy and Muhammad ElSheikh and Amr M. Youssef and Guang Gong},
  title = {Lelantos: {A} {Blockchain}-based {Anonymous} {Physical} {Delivery} {System}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/465.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/465},
}
@book{david2017ouroboros,
  author = {Bernardo David and Peter Ga{\v z}i and Aggelos Kiayias and Alexander Russell},
  title = {Ouroboros {Praos}: {An} adaptively-secure, semi-synchronous proof-of-stake protocol},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/573.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/573},
}
@book{tarasov2017internet,
  author = {Pavel Tarasov and Hitesh Tewari},
  title = {Internet {Voting} {Using} {Zcash}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/585.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/585},
}
@book{ust2017you,
  author = {Karl W{\textbackslash}" ust and Arthur Gervais},
  title = {Do you need a {Blockchain}?},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/375.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/375},
}
@book{a2017double-spending,
  author = {Cristina P{\textbackslash}' erez-Sol{\textbackslash}` a and Sergi Delgado-Segura and Guillermo Navarro-Arribas and Jordi Herrera-Joancomart{\textbackslash}' i},
  title = {Double-spending {Prevention} for {Bitcoin} zero-confirmation transactions},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/394.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/394},
}
@book{li2017block,
  author = {Huige Li and Haibo Tian and Fangguo Zhang},
  title = {Block {Chain} based {Searchable} {Symmetric} {Encryption}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/447.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/447},
}
@book{campanelli2017zero-knowledge,
  author = {Matteo Campanelli and Rosario Gennaro and Steven Goldfeder and Luca Nizzardo},
  title = {Zero-{Knowledge} {Contingent} {Payments} {Revisited}: {Attacks} and {Payments} for {Services}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/566.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/566},
}
@book{malavolta2017concurrency,
  author = {Giulio Malavolta and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Aniket Kate and Matteo Maffei and Srivatsan Ravi},
  title = {Concurrency and {Privacy} with {Payment}-{Channel} {Networks}},
  url = {https://www.cs.purdue.edu/homes/pmorenos/public/paychannels.pdf},
  year = {2017},
}
@book{english2017conditions,
  author = {S Matthew English and Ehsan Nezhadian},
  title = {Conditions of {Full} {Disclosure}: {The} {Blockchain} {Remuneration} {Model}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.04196.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.04196},
}
@book{danzi2017distributed,
  author = {Pietro Danzi and Marko Angjelichinoski and {\v C}edomir Stefanovi{\'c} and Petar Popovski},
  title = {Distributed {Proportional}-{Fairness} {Control} in {MicroGrids} via {Blockchain} {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1705.01453.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1705.01453},
}
@book{pappalardo2017blockchain,
  author = {Giuseppe Pappalardo and T Di Matteo and Guido Caldarelli and Tomaso Aste},
  title = {Blockchain {Inefficiency} in the {Bitcoin} {Peers} {Network}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1704.01414.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.01414},
}
@book{miller2017empirical,
  author = {Andrew Miller and Malte Moeser and Kevin Lee and Arvind Narayanan},
  title = {An {Empirical} {Analysis} of {Linkability} in the {Monero} {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1704.04299.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.04299},
}
@book{zhang2017rem,
  author = {Fan Zhang and Ittay Eyal and Robert Escriva and Ari Juels and Robbert van Renesse},
  title = {{REM}: {Resource}-{Efficient} {Mining} for {Blockchains}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/179.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/179},
}
@book{porru2017blockchain-oriented,
  author = {Simone Porru and Andrea Pinna and Michele Marchesi and Roberto Tonelli},
  title = {Blockchain-oriented {Software} {Engineering}: {Challenges} and {New} {Directions}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.05146.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.05146},
}
@book{rowan2017securing,
  author = {Sean Rowan and Michael Clear and Mario Gerla and Meriel Huggard and Ciar{\'a}n Mc Goldrick},
  title = {Securing {Vehicle} to {Vehicle} {Communications} using {Blockchain} through {Visible} {Light} and {Acoustic} {Side}-{Channels}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1704.02553.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.02553},
}
@book{dorri2017blockchain,
  author = {Ali Dorri and Marco Steger and Salil S Kanhere and Raja Jurdak},
  title = {{BlockChain}: {A} distributed solution to automotive security and privacy},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1704.00073.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1704.00073},
}
@book{cascudo2017scrape,
  author = {Ignacio Cascudo and Bernardo David},
  title = {{SCRAPE}: {Scalable} {Randomness} {Attested} by {Public} {Entities}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/216.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/216},
}
@book{ruffing2017switch,
  author = {Tim Ruffing and Giulio Malavolta},
  title = {Switch {Commitments}: {A} {Safety} {Switch} for {Confidential} {Transactions}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/237.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/237},
}
@book{chepurnoy2017twinscoin,
  author = {Alexander Chepurnoy and Tuyet Duong and Lei Fan and Hong-Sheng Zhou},
  title = {{TwinsCoin}: {A} {Cryptocurrency} via {Proof}-of-{Work} and {Proof}-of-{Stake}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/232.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/232},
}
@book{ruffing2017mixing,
  author = {Tim Ruffing and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez},
  title = {Mixing {Confidential} {Transactions}: {Comprehensive} {Transaction} {Privacy} for {Bitcoin}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/238.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/238},
}
@book{miller2017sprites,
  author = {Andrew Miller and Iddo Bentov and Ranjit Kumaresan and Patrick McCorry},
  title = {Sprites: {Payment} {Channels} that {Go} {Faster} than {Lightning}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.05812.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.05812},
}
@book{bartoletti2017dissecting,
  author = {Massimo Bartoletti and Salvatore Carta and Tiziana Cimoli and Roberto Saia},
  title = {Dissecting {Ponzi} schemes on {Ethereum}: identification, analysis, and impact},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/17@misc1605.02435, Author = Siamak Solat and Maria Potop-Butucaru, Title = ZeroBlock: Timestamp-Free Prevention of Block-Withholding Attack in Bitcoin, Year = 2016, Eprint = arXiv:1605.02435, 03.03779.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.03779},
}
@book{chen2017under-optimized,
  author = {Ting Chen and Xiaoqi Li and Xiapu Luo and Xiaosong Zhang},
  title = {Under-{Optimized} {Smart} {Contracts} {Devour} {Your} {Money}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.03994.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.03994},
}
@book{di_pascale2017smart,
  author = {Emanuele Di Pascale and Jasmina McMenamy and Irene Macaluso and Linda Doyle},
  title = {Smart {Contract} {SLAs} for {Dense} {Small}-{Cell}-as-a-{Service}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.04502.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.04502},
}
@book{ivan_puddu2017chain,
  author = {Srdjan Capkun Ivan Puddu},
  title = {$\mu$chain: {How} to {Forget} without {Hard} {Forks}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/106.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/106},
}
@book{kaptchuk2017managing,
  author = {Gabriel Kaptchuk and Ian Miers and Matthew Green},
  title = {Managing {Secrets} with {Consensus} {Networks}: {Fairness}, {Ransomware} and {Access} {Control}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/201.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/201},
}
@book{boyd2017key,
  author = {Colin Boyd and Xavier Boyen and Christopher Carr and Thomas Haines},
  title = {Key {Recovery}: {Inert} and {Public}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/243.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/243},
}
@book{luu2017smart,
  author = {Loi Luu and Yaron Velner and Jason Teutsch and Prateek Saxena},
  title = {{SMART} {POOL} : {Practical} {Decentralized} {Pooled} {Mining}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/019.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/019},
}
@book{sergey2017concurrent,
  author = {Ilya Sergey and Aquinas Hobor},
  title = {A {Concurrent} {Perspective} on {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.05511.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.05511},
}
@inproceedings{pass2017analysis,
  author = {Rafael Pass and Lior Seeman and Abhi Shelat},
  title = {Analysis of the blockchain protocol in asynchronous networks},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/454.pdf},
  booktitle = {Annual {International} {Conference} on the {Theory} and {Applications} of {Cryptographic} {Techniques}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {643--673},
}
@book{dinh2017blockbench,
  author = {Tien Tuan Anh Dinh and Ji Wang and Gang Chen and Rui Liu and Beng Chin Ooi and Kian-Lee Tan},
  title = {{BLOCKBENCH}: {A} {Framework} for {Analyzing} {Private} {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.04057.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1703.04057},
}
@inproceedings{bartoletti2017analysis,
  author = {Massimo Bartoletti and Livio Pompianu},
  title = {An analysis of {Bitcoin} {OP}\_RETURN metadata},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.01024.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {218--230},
}
@inproceedings{kiayias2017trees,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Georgios Panagiotakos},
  title = {On {Trees}, {Chains} and {Fast} {Transactions} in the {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://www.research.ed.ac.uk/portal/files/44941465/gBackbone_1.pdf},
  booktitle = {Latincrypt 2017, the {Fifth} {International} {Conference} on {Cryptology} and {Information} {Security} in {Latin} {America}},
  year = {2017},
}
@article{gobel2016bitcoin,
  author = {Johannes G{\"o}bel and Holger Paul Keeler and Anthony E Krzesinski and Peter G Taylor},
  title = {Bitcoin blockchain dynamics: {The} selfish-mine strategy in the presence of propagation delay},
  volume = {104},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.05343.pdf},
  journal = {Performance Evaluation},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publisher: Elsevier},
  pages = {23--41},
}
@book{dickerson2017adding,
  author = {Thomas Dickerson and Paul Gazzillo and Maurice Herlihy and Eric Koskinen},
  title = {Adding {Concurrency} to {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1702.04467.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1702.04467},
}
@book{bentov2017instantaneous,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Ranjit Kumaresan and Andrew Miller},
  title = {Instantaneous {Decentralized} {Poker}},
  volume = {abs/1701.06726},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1701.06726.pdf},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publication Title: CoRR},
}
@article{rizun2016subchains,
  author = {Peter R Rizun},
  title = {Subchains: {A} {Technique} to {Scale} {Bitcoin} and {Improve} the {User} {Experience}},
  volume = {1},
  url = {https://www.bitcoinunlimited.info/resources/subchains.pdf},
  journal = {Ledger},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {38--52},
}
@article{egbertsen2016replacing,
  author = {Wesley Egbertsen and Gerdinand Hardeman and Maarten Hoven and Gert Kolk and Arthur Rijsewijk},
  title = {Replacing {Paper} {Contracts} {With} {Ethereum} {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://wesleyegbertsen.nl/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/replacing-paper-contracts.pdf},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{heilman2016blindly,
  author = {Ethan Heilman and Foteini Baldimtsi and Sharon Goldberg},
  title = {Blindly {Signed} {Contracts}: {Anonymous} {On}-{Blockchain} and {Off}-{Blockchain} {Bitcoin} {Transactions}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/056.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/056},
}
@book{heilman2016tumblebit,
  author = {Ethan Heilman and Leen Alshenibr and Foteini Baldimtsi and Alessandra Scafuro and Sharon Goldberg},
  title = {{TumbleBit}: {An} untrusted {Bitcoin}-compatible anonymous payment hub},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/575.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/575, Tech. Rep.},
}
@book{solat2016zeroblock,
  author = {Siamak Solat and Maria Potop-Butucaru},
  title = {{ZeroBlock}: {Timestamp}-{Free} {Prevention} of {Block}-{Withholding} {Attack} in {Bitcoin}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.02435.pdf},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{green2016bolt,
  author = {Matthew Green and Ian Miers},
  title = {Bolt: {Anonymous} {Payment} {Channels} for {Decentralized} {Currencies}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/701.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/701},
}
@book{malavolta2016silentwhispers,
  author = {Giulio Malavolta and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Aniket Kate and Matteo Maffei},
  title = {{SilentWhispers}: {Enforcing} {Security} and {Privacy} in {Decentralized} {Credit} {Networks}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1054.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/1054},
}
@book{reijers2016governance,
  author = {Wessel Reijers and Fiachra O'Brolch{\'a}in and Paul Haynes},
  title = {Governance in {Blockchain} {Technologies} \& {Social} {Contract} {Theories}},
  volume = {1},
  url = {http://ledger.pitt.edu/ojs/index.php/ledger/article/download/62/51},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: Ledger},
}
@book{buterin2016chain,
  author = {Vitalik Buterin},
  title = {Chain {Interoperability}},
  url = {https://static1.squarespace.com/static/55f73743e4b051cfcc0b02cf/t/5886800ecd0f68de303349b1/1485209617040/Chain+Interoperability.pdf},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{noyes2016bitav,
  author = {Charles Noyes},
  title = {{BitAV}: {Fast} {Anti}-{Malware} by {Distributed} {Blockchain} {Consensus} and {Feedforward} {Scanning}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1601.01405.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1601.01405},
}
@book{ateniese2016redactable,
  author = {Giuseppe Ateniese and Bernardo Magri and Daniele Venturi and Ewerton Andrade},
  title = {Redactable {Blockchain}{\textendash}or{\textendash}{Rewriting} {History} in {Bitcoin} and {Friends}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/757.pdf},
  publisher = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{lind2016teechan,
  author = {Joshua Lind and Ittay Eyal and Peter R. Pietzuch and Emin G{\"u}n Sirer},
  title = {Teechan: {Payment} {Channels} {Using} {Trusted} {Execution} {Environments}},
  volume = {abs/1612.07766},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1612.07766.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: CoRR},
}
@book{seijas2016scripting,
  author = {Pablo Lamela Seijas and Simon Thompson and Darryl McAdams},
  title = {Scripting smart contracts for distributed ledger technology},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/1156.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publication Title: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/1156},
}
@book{ozisik2016secure,
  author = {A Pinar Ozisik and Gavin Andresen and George Bissias and Amir Houmansadr and Brian N Levine},
  title = {A {Secure}, {Efficient}, and {Transparent} {Network} {Architecture} for {Bitcoin}},
  url = {https://people.cs.umass.edu/ gbiss/bitcoin_architecture.pdf},
  publisher = {UMass Amherst, Tech. Rep. UM-CS-2016-006, 2016},
  year = {2016},
}
@book{reyzin2016improving,
  author = {Leonid Reyzin and Dmitry Meshkov and Alexander Chepurnoy and Sasha Ivanov},
  title = {Improving {Authenticated} {Dynamic} {Dictionaries}, with {Applications} to {Cryptocurrencies}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/994.pdf},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/994},
}
@book{szabo2003advances,
  author = {Nick Szabo},
  title = {Advances in {Distributed} {Security}},
  year = {2003},
}
@book{back2002hashcash-a,
  author = {Adam Back and {others}},
  title = {Hashcash-a denial of service counter-measure},
  url = {http://www.hashcash.org/papers/hashcash.pdf},
  year = {2002},
}
@book{dai1998bmoney,
  author = {Wei Dai},
  title = {bmoney},
  url = {http://www.weidai.com/bmoney.txt},
  year = {1998},
}
@article{shamir1979how,
  author = {Adi Shamir},
  title = {How to share a secret},
  volume = {22},
  number = {11},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  year = {1979},
  note = {Publisher: ACM},
  pages = {612--613},
}
@inproceedings{bonneau2014fawkescoin,
  author = {Joseph Bonneau and Andrew Miller},
  title = {Fawkescoin: {Bitcoin} without public-key crypto},
  url = {http://www.jbonneau.com/doc/BM14-SPW-fawkescoin.pdf},
  booktitle = {Security {Protocols} {XXII}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {350--358},
}
@inproceedings{biryukov2015bitcoin,
  author = {Alex Biryukov and Ivan Pustogarov},
  title = {Bitcoin over {Tor} isn't a good idea},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1410.6079},
  booktitle = {Security and {Privacy} ({SP}), 2015 {IEEE} {Symposium} on},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {122--134},
}
@inproceedings{garman2014decentralized,
  author = {Christina Garman and Matthew Green and Ian Miers},
  title = {Decentralized {Anonymous} {Credentials}.},
  url = {http://www.internetsociety.org/sites/default/files/07_3_1.pdf},
  booktitle = {{NDSS}},
  year = {2014},
}
@inproceedings{miller2014permacoin,
  author = {Andrew Miller and Ari Juels and Elaine Shi and Bryan Parno and Jonathan Katz},
  title = {Permacoin: {Repurposing} bitcoin work for data preservation},
  url = {http://cs.umd.edu/ amiller/permacoin.pdf},
  booktitle = {Security and {Privacy} ({SP}), 2014 {IEEE} {Symposium} on},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {475--490},
}
@inproceedings{saxena2014increasing,
  author = {Amitabh Saxena and Janardan Misra and Aritra Dhar},
  title = {Increasing {Anonymity} in {Bitcoin}},
  url = {http://fc14.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin14_submission_19.pdf},
  booktitle = {Financial {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {122--139},
}
@inproceedings{huang2014botcoin,
  author = {Danny Yuxing Huang and Hitesh Dharmdasani and Sarah Meiklejohn and Vacha Dave and Chris Grier and Damon McCoy and Stefan Savage and Nicholas Weaver and Alex C Snoeren and Kirill Levchenko},
  title = {Botcoin: {Monetizing} {Stolen} {Cycles}.},
  url = {https://www.cs.gmu.edu/ mccoy/papers/botcoin-ndss14.pdf},
  booktitle = {{NDSS}},
  year = {2014},
}
@inproceedings{ruffing2014coinshuffle,
  author = {Tim Ruffing and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Aniket Kate},
  title = {{CoinShuffle}: {Practical} decentralized coin mixing for {Bitcoin}},
  url = {http://crypsys.mmci.uni-saarland.de/projects/CoinShuffle/coinshuffle.pdf},
  booktitle = {Computer {Security}-{ESORICS} 2014},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {345--364},
}
@inproceedings{biryukov2014deanonymisation,
  author = {Alex Biryukov and Dmitry Khovratovich and Ivan Pustogarov},
  title = {Deanonymisation of clients in {Bitcoin} {P2P} network},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1405.7418.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2014 {ACM} {SIGSAC} {Conference} on {Computer} and {Communications} {Security}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {15--29},
}
@inproceedings{eyal2014majority,
  author = {Ittay Eyal and Emin G{\"u}n Sirer},
  title = {Majority is not enough: {Bitcoin} mining is vulnerable},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1311.0243},
  booktitle = {Financial {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {436--454},
}
@inproceedings{clark2014decentralizing,
  author = {Jeremy Clark and Joseph Bonneau and Edward W Felten and Joshua A Kroll and Andrew Miller and Arvind Narayanan},
  title = {On {Decentralizing} {Prediction} {Markets} and {Order} {Books}},
  url = {http://users.encs.concordia.ca/ clark/papers/2014_weis.pdf},
  booktitle = {{WEIS}},
  year = {2014},
}
@inproceedings{ben_sasson2014zerocash,
  author = {Eli Ben Sasson and Alessandro Chiesa and Christina Garman and Matthew Green and Ian Miers and Eran Tromer and Madars Virza},
  title = {Zerocash: {Decentralized} anonymous payments from bitcoin},
  url = {http://zerocash-project.org/media/pdf/zerocash-extended-20140518.pdf},
  booktitle = {Security and {Privacy} ({SP}), 2014 {IEEE} {Symposium} on},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {459--474},
}
@inproceedings{androulaki2013evaluating,
  author = {Elli Androulaki and Ghassan O Karame and Marc Roeschlin and Tobias Scherer and Srdjan Capkun},
  title = {Evaluating user privacy in bitcoin},
  url = {http://book.itep.ru/depository/bitcoin/User_privacy_in_bitcoin.pdf},
  booktitle = {Financial {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {34--51},
}
@inproceedings{miers2013zerocoin,
  author = {Ian Miers and Christina Garman and Matthew Green and Aviel D Rubin},
  title = {Zerocoin: {Anonymous} distributed e-cash from bitcoin},
  url = {https://isi.jhu.edu/ mgreen/ZerocoinOakland.pdf},
  booktitle = {Security and {Privacy} ({SP}), 2013 {IEEE} {Symposium} on},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {397--411},
}
@inproceedings{donet2014bitcoin,
  author = {Joan Antoni Donet Donet and Cristina P{\'e}rez-Sola and Jordi Herrera-Joancomart{\'i}},
  title = {The bitcoin p2p network},
  url = {http://fc14.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin14_submission_3.pdf},
  booktitle = {Financial {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {87--102},
}
@inproceedings{meiklejohn2013fistful,
  author = {Sarah Meiklejohn and Marjori Pomarole and Grant Jordan and Kirill Levchenko and Damon McCoy and Geoffrey M Voelker and Stefan Savage},
  title = {A fistful of bitcoins: characterizing payments among men with no names},
  url = {https://cseweb.ucsd.edu/ smeiklejohn/files/imc13.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2013 conference on {Internet} measurement conference},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {127--140},
}
@inproceedings{decker2013information,
  author = {Christian Decker and Roger Wattenhofer},
  title = {Information propagation in the bitcoin network},
  url = {http://diyhpl.us/ bryan/papers2/bitcoin/Information%20propagation%20in%20the%20Bitcoin%20network.pdf},
  booktitle = {Peer-to-{Peer} {Computing} ({P2P}), 2013 {IEEE} {Thirteenth} {International} {Conference} on},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {1--10},
}
@inproceedings{bamert2013have,
  author = {Tobias Bamert and Christian Decker and Lennart Elsen and Roger Wattenhofer and Samuel Welten},
  title = {Have a snack, pay with bitcoins},
  url = {http://www.bheesty.com/cracker/1450709524_17035424cb/p2p2013_093.pdf},
  booktitle = {Peer-to-{Peer} {Computing} ({P2P}), 2013 {IEEE} {Thirteenth} {International} {Conference} on},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {1--5},
}
@inproceedings{taylor2013bitcoin,
  author = {Michael Bedford Taylor},
  title = {Bitcoin and the age of bespoke silicon},
  url = {https://cseweb.ucsd.edu/ mbtaylor/papers/bitcoin_taylor_cases_2013.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2013 {International} {Conference} on {Compilers}, {Architectures} and {Synthesis} for {Embedded} {Systems}},
  publisher = {IEEE Press},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {16},
}
@inproceedings{mahmoody2013publicly,
  author = {Mohammad Mahmoody and Tal Moran and Salil Vadhan},
  title = {Publicly verifiable proofs of sequential work},
  url = {http://www.cs.cornell.edu/ mohammad/files/papers/15%20TimeStamp.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 4th conference on {Innovations} in {Theoretical} {Computer} {Science}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {373--388},
}
@inproceedings{cap2012structural,
  author = {Clemens H Cap},
  title = {A {Structural} {Analysis} of {Bitcoin}},
  url = {http://cs.emis.de/LNI/Proceedings/Proceedings208/51.pdf},
  booktitle = {Annual {Meeting} of the {German} {Computer} {Scoiety} {GI}. {Braunschweig}},
  year = {2012},
}
@inproceedings{aguilera2012correctness,
  author = {Marcos K Aguilera and Sam Toueg},
  title = {The correctness proof of {Ben}-{Or}'s randomized consensus algorithm},
  volume = {25},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.261.481&rep=rep1&type=pdf},
  booktitle = {Distributed {Computing}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2012},
  note = {Issue: 5},
  pages = {371--381},
}
@inproceedings{androulaki2012two,
  author = {Eli Androulaki and Srdjan Capkun and Ghassan O Karame},
  title = {Two {Bitcoins} at the {Price} of {One}? {Double}-{Spending} {Attacks} on {Fast} {Payments} in {Bitcoin}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2012/248.pdf},
  booktitle = {{CCS}},
  year = {2012},
}
@inproceedings{veronese2013efficient,
  author = {Giuliana Santos Veronese and Miguel Correia and Alysson Neves Bessani and Lau Cheuk Lung and Paulo Verissimo},
  title = {Efficient byzantine fault-tolerance},
  volume = {62},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Miguel_Correia3/publication/260585535_Efficient_Byzantine_Fault-Tolerance/links/5419615d0cf25ebee9885215.pdf},
  booktitle = {{IEEE} {Transactions} on {Computers}},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2013},
  note = {Issue: 1},
  pages = {16--30},
}
@inproceedings{becker2012can,
  author = {J{\"o}rg Becker and Dominic Breuker and Tobias Heide and Justus Holler and Hans Peter Rauer and Rainer B{\"o}hme},
  title = {Can we afford integrity by proof-of-work? {Scenarios} inspired by the {Bitcoin} currency},
  url = {http://users.encs.concordia.ca/ clark/biblio/bitcoin/Becker%202012.pdf},
  booktitle = {{WEIS}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2012},
}
@inproceedings{moore2013beware,
  author = {Tyler Moore and Nicolas Christin},
  address = {Okinawa, Japan},
  title = {Beware the {Middleman}: {Empirical} {Analysis} of {Bitcoin}-{Exchange} {Risk}},
  url = {https://www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/nicolasc/publications/MC-FC13.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of {IFCA} {Financial} {Cryptography}'13},
  month = {April},
  year = {2013},
}
@inproceedings{christin2013traveling,
  author = {Nicolas Christin},
  address = {Rio de Janeiro, Brazil},
  title = {Traveling the {Silk} {Road}: {A} measurement analysis of a large anonymous online marketplace},
  url = {https://www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/nicolasc/publications/Christin-WWW13.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd {World} {Wide} {Web} {Conference} ({WWW}'13)},
  month = {May},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {213--224},
}
@inproceedings{kroll2013economics,
  author = {Joshua A Kroll and Ian C Davey and Edward W Felten},
  title = {The economics of {Bitcoin} mining, or {Bitcoin} in the presence of adversaries},
  volume = {2013},
  url = {https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c55a/6c95b869938b817ed3fe3ea482bc65a7206b.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of {WEIS}},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {11},
}
@inproceedings{groce2012byzantine,
  author = {Adam Groce and Jonathan Katz and Aishwarya Thiruvengadam and Vassilis Zikas},
  title = {Byzantine agreement with a rational adversary},
  url = {http://cs.ucla.edu/ vzikas/pubs/GKTZ12.pdf},
  booktitle = {Automata, languages, and programming},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {561--572},
}
@inproceedings{delporte-gallet2012homonyms,
  author = {Carole Delporte-Gallet and Hugues Fauconnier and {others}},
  title = {Homonyms with forgeable identifiers},
  url = {https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00687836/document},
  booktitle = {International {Colloquium} on {Structural} {Information} and {Communication} {Complexity}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {171--182},
}
@inproceedings{ron2013quantitative,
  author = {Dorit Ron and Adi Shamir},
  title = {Quantitative analysis of the full bitcoin transaction graph},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2012/584.pdf},
  booktitle = {Financial {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2013},
  pages = {6--24},
}
@book{mahmoody2011publicly,
  author = {Mohammad Mahmoody and Tal Moran and Salil Vadhan},
  title = {Publicly {Verifiable} {Proofs} of {Sequential} {Work}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2011/553.pdf},
  year = {2011},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2011/553},
}
@inproceedings{correia2011byzantine,
  author = {Miguel Correia and Giuliana Santos Veronese and Nuno Ferreira Neves and Paulo Verissimo},
  title = {Byzantine consensus in asynchronous message-passing systems: a survey},
  volume = {2},
  url = {http://homepages.di.fc.ul.pt/ nuno/PAPERS/IJCCBS11.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Journal} of {Critical} {Computer}-{Based} {Systems}},
  publisher = {Inderscience Publishers},
  year = {2011},
  note = {Issue: 2},
  pages = {141--161},
}
@inproceedings{delporte-gallet2011byzantine,
  author = {Carole Delporte-Gallet and Hugues Fauconnier and Rachid Guerraoui and Anne-Marie Kermarrec and Eric Ruppert and {others}},
  title = {Byzantine agreement with homonyms},
  url = {https://hal-univ-diderot.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/58/01/33/PDF/main.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 30th annual {ACM} {SIGACT}-{SIGOPS} symposium on {Principles} of distributed computing},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {21--30},
}
@inproceedings{jaffe2012price,
  author = {Alexander Jaffe and Thomas Moscibroda and Siddhartha Sen},
  title = {On the {Price} of {Equivocation} in {Byzantine} {Agreement}},
  url = {http://sns.cs.princeton.edu/docs/hypergraph-podc12.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2012 {ACM} symposium on {Principles} of distributed computing},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {309--318},
}
@inproceedings{clark2012commitcoin,
  author = {Jeremy Clark and Aleksander Essex},
  title = {Commitcoin: {Carbon} dating commitments with bitcoin},
  url = {http://users.encs.concordia.ca/ clark/papers/2012_fc.pdf},
  booktitle = {Financial {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {390--398},
}
@inproceedings{babaioff2012bitcoin,
  author = {Moshe Babaioff and Shahar Dobzinski and Sigal Oren and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {On bitcoin and red balloons},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1111.2626.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 13th {ACM} conference on electronic commerce},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {56--73},
}
@inproceedings{barber2012bitter,
  author = {Simon Barber and Xavier Boyen and Elaine Shi and Ersin Uzun},
  title = {Bitter to better - how to make bitcoin a better currency},
  url = {http://eprints.qut.edu.au/69169/1/Boyen_accepted_draft.pdf},
  booktitle = {Financial cryptography and data security},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {399--414},
}
@inproceedings{lamport2011leaderless,
  author = {Leslie Lamport},
  title = {Leaderless {Byzantine} {Paxos}},
  url = {https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/uploads/prod/2016/12/Leaderless-Byzantine-Paxos.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Symposium} on {Distributed} {Computing}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {141--142},
}
@inproceedings{stebila2011stronger,
  author = {Douglas Stebila and Lakshmi Kuppusamy and Jothi Rangasamy and Colin Boyd and Juan Gonzalez Nieto},
  title = {Stronger difficulty notions for client puzzles and denial-of-service-resistant protocols},
  url = {http://eprints.qut.edu.au/40036/6/40036-full-revised.pdf},
  booktitle = {Cryptographers {Track} at the {RSA} {Conference}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {284--301},
}
@inproceedings{f_reid2011analysis,
  author = {M. Harrigan F. Reid},
  title = {An {Analysis} of {Anonymity} in the {Bitcoin} {System}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1107.4524},
  booktitle = {2011 {IEEE} {International} {Conference} on {Privacy}, {Security}, {Risk}, and {Trust}, and {IEEE} {International} {Conference} on {Social} {Computing}},
  year = {2011},
}
@inproceedings{guerraoui2010next,
  author = {Rachid Guerraoui and Nikola Kne{\v z}evi{\'c} and Vivien Qu{\'e}ma and Marko Vukoli{\'c}},
  title = {The next 700 {BFT} protocols},
  url = {https://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/121590/files/TR-700-2009.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th {European} conference on {Computer} systems},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {363--376},
}
@inproceedings{chen2009security,
  author = {Liqun Chen and Paul Morrissey and Nigel P Smart and Bogdan Warinschi},
  title = {Security notions and generic constructions for client puzzles},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.215.7179&rep=rep1&type=pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Conference} on the {Theory} and {Application} of {Cryptology} and {Information} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {505--523},
}
@inproceedings{delporte-gallet2010brief,
  author = {Carole Delporte-Gallet and Hugues Fauconnier and Rachid Guerraoui and Anne-Marie Kermarrec},
  title = {Brief announcement: {Byzantine} agreement with homonyms},
  url = {https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/247d/860edb68c0673a48f90bc5e108455cc11b1c.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the twenty-second annual {ACM} symposium on {Parallelism} in algorithms and architectures},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {74--75},
}
@inproceedings{abraham2010fast,
  author = {Ittai Abraham and Marcos K Aguilera and Dahlia Malkhi},
  title = {Fast {Asynchronous} {Consensus} with {Optimal} {Resilience}},
  url = {https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/disc-camera-ready.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Symposium} on {Distributed} {Computing}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {4--19},
}
@inproceedings{white2010overcoming,
  author = {Andrew White and Alan Tickle and Andrew Clark},
  title = {Overcoming reputation and proof-of-work systems in botnets},
  url = {http://eprints.qut.edu.au/35657/1/c35657.pdf},
  booktitle = {Network and {System} {Security} ({NSS}), 2010 4th {International} {Conference} on},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {120--127},
}
@inproceedings{singh2009zeno,
  author = {Atul Singh and Pedro Fonseca and Petr Kuznetsov and Rodrigo Rodrigues and Petros Maniatis and {others}},
  title = {Zeno: {Eventually} {Consistent} {Byzantine}-{Fault} {Tolerance}.},
  volume = {9},
  url = {http://www.academia.edu/download/39803261/singh.pdf},
  booktitle = {{NSDI}},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {169--184},
}
@inproceedings{okun2008efficient,
  author = {Michael Okun and Amnon Barak},
  title = {Efficient algorithms for anonymous {Byzantine} agreement},
  volume = {42},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Michael_Okun2/publication/220544414_Efficient_Algorithms_for_Anonymous_Byzantine_Agreement/links/5400c7eb0cf23d9765a48890.pdf},
  booktitle = {Theory of {Computing} {Systems}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2008},
  note = {Issue: 2},
  pages = {222--238},
}
@article{delporte-gallet2008consensus,
  author = {Carole Delporte-Gallet and St{\'e}phane Devismes and Hugues Fauconnier and Franck Petit and Sam Toueg},
  title = {Consensus is {Easier} {Than} {Reliable} {Broadcast}},
  url = {https://hal.inria.fr/hal-00325470/PDF/reliable.pdf},
  month = {September},
  year = {2008},
}
@inproceedings{clement2009making,
  author = {Allen Clement and Edmund L Wong and Lorenzo Alvisi and Michael Dahlin and Mirco Marchetti},
  title = {Making {Byzantine} {Fault} {Tolerant} {Systems} {Tolerate} {Byzantine} {Faults}.},
  volume = {9},
  url = {http://static.usenix.org/events/nsdi09/tech/full_papers/clement/clement.pdf},
  booktitle = {{NSDI}},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {153--168},
}
@inproceedings{ishii2008vegas,
  author = {Hideaki Ishii and Roberto Tempo},
  title = {Las {Vegas} randomized algorithms in distributed consensus problems},
  url = {http://www.nt.ntnu.no/users/skoge/prost/proceedings/acc08/data/papers/0446.pdf},
  booktitle = {2008 {American} {Control} {Conference}},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {2579--2584},
}
@inproceedings{kapron2008fast,
  author = {Bruce Kapron and David Kempe and Valerie King and Jared Saia and Vishal Sanwalani},
  title = {Fast {Asynchronous} {Byzantine} {Agreement} and {Leader} {Election} with {Full} {Information}},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Bruce_Kapron/publication/220390388_Fast_asynchronous_Byzantine_agreement_and_leader_election_with_full_information/links/0912f5109e74191137000000.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the nineteenth annual {ACM}-{SIAM} symposium on {Discrete} algorithms},
  publisher = {Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {1038--1047},
}
@inproceedings{li2006bar,
  author = {Harry C Li and Allen Clement and Edmund L Wong and Jeff Napper and Indrajit Roy and Lorenzo Alvisi and Michael Dahlin},
  title = {{BAR} gossip},
  url = {http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/dahlin/papers/bar-gossip-apr-2006.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 7th symposium on {Operating} systems design and implementation},
  publisher = {USENIX Association},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {191--204},
}
@inproceedings{alchieri2008byzantine,
  author = {Eduardo A Alchieri and Alysson Neves Bessani and Joni Silva Fraga and Fab{\'i}ola Greve},
  title = {Byzantine {Consensus} with {Unknown} {Participants}},
  url = {http://www.di.fc.ul.pt/ bessani/publications/opodis08-bftcup.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 12th {International} {Conference} on {Principles} of {Distributed} {Systems}},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {22--40},
}
@inproceedings{nagy2008openpgp-based,
  author = {Daniel A Nagy and Nadzeya V Shakel},
  title = {{OpenPGP}-{Based} {Financial} {Instruments} and {Dispute} {Arbitration}},
  url = {http://www.epointsystem.org/ nagydani/fc2008.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {267--271},
}
@inproceedings{hoepman2007distributed,
  author = {Jaap-Henk Hoepman},
  title = {Distributed {Double} {Spending} {Prevention}.},
  url = {http://www.cs.kun.nl/ jhh/publications/double-spending.pdf},
  booktitle = {Security {Protocols} {Workshop}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {152--165},
}
@inproceedings{chun2007attested,
  author = {Byung-Gon Chun and Petros Maniatis and Scott Shenker and John Kubiatowicz},
  title = {Attested append-only memory: {Making} adversaries stick to their word},
  volume = {41},
  url = {http://news.cs.nyu.edu/ jinyang/fa08/papers/a2m.pdf},
  booktitle = {{ACM} {SIGOPS} {Operating} {Systems} {Review}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2007},
  note = {Issue: 6},
  pages = {189--204},
}
@inproceedings{beerliova-trubiniova2007efficient,
  author = {Zuzana Beerliov{\'a}-Trub{\'i}niov{\'a} and Martin Hirt and Micha Riser},
  title = {Efficient {Byzantine} agreement with faulty minority},
  url = {http://www.crypto.ethz.ch/alumni/trubini/BeHiRi07.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the {Advances} in {Crypotology} 13th international conference on {Theory} and application of cryptology and information security},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {393--409},
}
@inproceedings{aspnes2006relationships,
  author = {James Aspnes and Faith Ellen Fich and Eric Ruppert},
  title = {Relationships between broadcast and shared memory in reliable anonymous distributed systems},
  volume = {18},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.6.2802&rep=rep1&type=pdf},
  booktitle = {Distributed {Computing}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2006},
  note = {Issue: 3},
  pages = {209--219},
}
@inproceedings{angluin2006stabilizing,
  author = {Dana Angluin and Michael J Fischer and Hong Jiang},
  title = {Stabilizing consensus in mobile networks},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.60.1040&rep=rep1&type=pdf},
  booktitle = {Distributed {Computing} in {Sensor} {Systems}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {37--50},
}
@inproceedings{aiyer2005bar,
  author = {Amitanand S Aiyer and Lorenzo Alvisi and Allen Clement and Mike Dahlin and Jean-Philippe Martin and Carl Porth},
  title = {{BAR} fault tolerance for cooperative services},
  volume = {39},
  url = {http://www.dcc.fc.up.pt/ Ines/aulas/1314/SDM/papers/BAR%20Fault%20Tolerance%20for%20Cooperative%20Services%20-%20UIUC.pdf},
  booktitle = {{ACM} {SIGOPS} operating systems review},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2005},
  note = {Issue: 5},
  pages = {45--58},
}
@article{levine2006survey,
  author = {Brian Neil Levine and Clay Shields and N Boris Margolin},
  title = {A survey of solutions to the sybil attack},
  volume = {7},
  url = {http://forensics.umass.edu/pubs/levine.sybil.tr.2006.pdf},
  journal = {University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA},
  year = {2006},
}
@inproceedings{malkhi2003objects,
  author = {Dahlia Malkhi and Michael Merritt and Michael K Reiter and Gadi Taubenfeld},
  title = {Objects shared by {Byzantine} processes},
  volume = {16},
  url = {ftp://194.153.101.9/Faculty/gadi/MyPapers/2003MMRT-byz1.pdf},
  booktitle = {Distributed {Computing}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2003},
  note = {Issue: 1},
  pages = {37--48},
}
@article{aspnes2005exposing,
  author = {James Aspnes and Collin Jackson and Arvind Krishnamurthy},
  title = {Exposing computationally-challenged {Byzantine} impostors},
  url = {http://www.cs.yale.edu/homes/aspnes/papers/tr1332.pdf},
  journal = {Department of Computer Science, Yale University, New Haven, CT, Tech. Rep},
  year = {2005},
}
@inproceedings{correia2004how,
  author = {Miguel Correia and Nuno Ferreira Neves and Paulo Verissimo},
  title = {How to tolerate half less one {Byzantine} nodes in practical distributed systems},
  url = {http://www.navigators.di.fc.ul.pt/archive/correia_m_sma.pdf},
  booktitle = {Reliable {Distributed} {Systems}, 2004. {Proceedings} of the 23rd {IEEE} {International} {Symposium} on},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {174--183},
}
@inproceedings{cavin2004consensus,
  author = {David Cavin and Yoav Sasson and Andr{\'e} Schiper},
  title = {Consensus with unknown participants or fundamental self-organization},
  url = {http://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/49887/files/CSS04.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Conference} on {Ad}-{Hoc} {Networks} and {Wireless}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {135--148},
}
@inproceedings{baldoni2003consensus,
  author = {Roberto Baldoni and Jean-Michel H{\'e}lary and Michel Raynal and Lenaik Tangui},
  title = {Consensus in {Byzantine} asynchronous systems},
  volume = {1},
  url = {http://ac.els-cdn.com/S157086670300025X/1-s2.0-S157086670300025X-main.pdf?_tid=0ce850b4-a744-11e6-a9cb-00000aab0f02&acdnat=1478782320_1c5fb3de333bc22d255442881f330e25},
  booktitle = {Journal of {Discrete} {Algorithms}},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  year = {2003},
  note = {Issue: 2},
  pages = {185--210},
}
@inproceedings{aspnes2003randomized,
  author = {James Aspnes},
  title = {Randomized protocols for asynchronous consensus},
  volume = {16},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/cs/0209014},
  booktitle = {Distributed {Computing}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2003},
  note = {Issue: 2-3},
  pages = {165--175},
}
@inproceedings{gilbert2002brewers,
  author = {Seth Gilbert and Nancy Lynch},
  title = {Brewer's conjecture and the feasibility of consistent, available, partition-tolerant web services},
  volume = {33},
  url = {https://www.glassbeam.com/sites/all/themes/glassbeam/images/blog/10.1.1.67.6951.pdf},
  booktitle = {Acm {Sigact} {News}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2002},
  note = {Issue: 2},
  pages = {51--59},
}
@inproceedings{douceur2002sybil,
  author = {John R Douceur},
  title = {The sybil attack},
  url = {http://www.cs.cornell.edu/people/egs/cs6460-spring10/sybil.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Workshop} on {Peer}-to-{Peer} {Systems}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {251--260},
}
@inproceedings{cachin2001secure,
  author = {Christian Cachin and Klaus Kursawe and Frank Petzold and Victor Shoup},
  title = {Secure and efficient asynchronous broadcast protocols},
  url = {https://www.zurich.ibm.com/ cca/papers/abc.pdf},
  booktitle = {Annual {International} {Cryptology} {Conference}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2001},
  pages = {524--541},
}
@inproceedings{cachin2000random,
  author = {Christian Cachin and Klaus Kursawe and Victor Shoup},
  title = {Random oracles in {Constantinople}: {Practical} {Asynchronous} {Byzantine} {Agreement} using {Cryptography}},
  url = {https://www.zurich.ibm.com/ cca/papers/abba.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the nineteenth annual {ACM} symposium on {Principles} of distributed computing},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {123--132},
}
@inproceedings{jakobsson1999proofs,
  author = {Markus Jakobsson and Ari Juels},
  title = {Proofs of work and bread pudding protocols},
  url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/978-0-387-35568-9_18.pdf},
  booktitle = {Secure {Information} {Networks}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {258--272},
}
@inproceedings{castro1999practical,
  author = {Miguel Castro and Barbara Liskov and {others}},
  title = {Practical {Byzantine} fault tolerance},
  volume = {99},
  url = {http://pmg.csail.mit.edu/papers/osdi99.pdf},
  booktitle = {{OSDI}},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {173--186},
}
@inproceedings{lamport1998part-time,
  author = {Leslie Lamport},
  title = {The part-time parliament},
  volume = {16},
  url = {https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/uploads/prod/2016/12/The-Part-Time-Parliament.pdf},
  booktitle = {{ACM} {Transactions} on {Computer} {Systems} ({TOCS})},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1998},
  note = {Issue: 2},
  pages = {133--169},
}
@inproceedings{miller2000capability-based,
  author = {Mark S Miller and Chip Morningstar and Bill Frantz},
  title = {Capability-based financial instruments},
  url = {http://www.erights.org/elib/capability/ode/ode.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {349--378},
}
@inproceedings{jarecki1997efficient,
  author = {Stanis{\textbackslash}law Jarecki and Andrew Odlyzko},
  title = {An efficient micropayment system based on probabilistic polling},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Stanislaw_Jarecki/publication/220797099_An_Efficient_Micropayment_System_Based_on_Probabilistic_Polling/links/0f31753c7f02552a9d000000.pdf},
  booktitle = {Financial {Cryptography}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {1997},
  pages = {173--191},
}
@inproceedings{dwork1992pricing,
  author = {Cynthia Dwork and Moni Naor},
  title = {Pricing via processing or combatting junk mail},
  url = {https://web.cs.dal.ca/ abrodsky/7301/readings/DwNa93.pdf},
  booktitle = {Annual {International} {Cryptology} {Conference}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {1992},
  pages = {139--147},
}
@inproceedings{law1996how,
  author = {Laurie Law and Susan Sabett and Jerry Solinas},
  title = {How to make a mint: the cryptography of anonymous electronic cash},
  volume = {46},
  url = {http://www.aulawreview.org/pdfs/46/46-4/law.pdf},
  booktitle = {Am. {UL} {Rev}.},
  publisher = {HeinOnline},
  year = {1996},
  pages = {1131},
}
@inproceedings{chandra1996unreliable,
  author = {Tushar Deepak Chandra and Sam Toueg},
  title = {Unreliable failure detectors for reliable distributed systems},
  volume = {43},
  url = {https://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/handle/1813/7192/95-1535.pdf?sequence=1},
  booktitle = {Journal of the {ACM} ({JACM})},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1996},
  note = {Issue: 2},
  pages = {225--267},
}
@inproceedings{barborak1993consensus,
  author = {Michael Barborak and Anton Dahbura and Miroslaw Malek},
  title = {The consensus problem in fault-tolerant computing},
  volume = {25},
  url = {ftp://ftp.cs.utexas.edu/pub/techreports/tr91-40.pdf},
  booktitle = {{aCM} {Computing} {Surveys} ({CSur})},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1993},
  note = {Issue: 2},
  pages = {171--220},
}
@inproceedings{goldwasser1989knowledge,
  author = {Shafi Goldwasser and Silvio Micali and Charles Rackoff},
  title = {The knowledge complexity of interactive proof systems},
  volume = {18},
  url = {http://crypto.cs.mcgill.ca/ crepeau/COMP647/2007/TOPIC02/GMR89.pdf},
  booktitle = {{SIAM} {Journal} on computing},
  publisher = {SIAM},
  year = {1989},
  note = {Issue: 1},
  pages = {186--208},
}
@inproceedings{feldman1988optimal,
  author = {Paul Feldman and Silvio Micali},
  title = {Optimal algorithms for {Byzantine} agreement},
  url = {https://dspace.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.1/14368/20051076-MIT.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the twentieth annual {ACM} symposium on {Theory} of computing},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1988},
  pages = {148--161},
}
@article{herlihy1991wait-free,
  author = {Maurice Herlihy},
  title = {Wait-free synchronization},
  volume = {13},
  url = {https://cs.brown.edu/ mph/Herlihy91/p124-herlihy.pdf},
  number = {1},
  journal = {ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS)},
  year = {1991},
  note = {Publisher: ACM},
  pages = {124--149},
}
@inproceedings{chaum1990untraceable,
  author = {David Chaum and Amos Fiat and Moni Naor},
  title = {Untraceable electronic cash},
  url = {http://people.dsv.su.se/ matei/courses/IK2001_SJE/Chaum90.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings on {Advances} in cryptology},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.},
  year = {1990},
  pages = {319--327},
}
@inproceedings{schneider1990implementing,
  author = {Fred B Schneider},
  title = {Implementing fault-tolerant services using the state machine approach: {A} tutorial},
  volume = {22},
  url = {http://www-users.cselabs.umn.edu/classes/Spring-2014/csci8980-sds/Papers/ProcessReplication/p299-schneider.pdf},
  booktitle = {{ACM} {Computing} {Surveys} ({CSUR})},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1990},
  note = {Issue: 4},
  pages = {299--319},
}
@inproceedings{herlihy1988impossibility,
  author = {Maurice P Herlihy},
  title = {Impossibility and universality results for wait-free synchronization},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Maurice_Herlihy/publication/221343511_Impossibility_and_Universality_Results_for_Wait-Free_Synchronization/links/00b4952ce7370656ff000000/Impossibility-and-Universality-Results-for-Wait-Free-Synchronization.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the seventh annual {ACM} {Symposium} on {Principles} of distributed computing},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1988},
  pages = {276--290},
}
@inproceedings{dolev1987minimal,
  author = {Danny Dolev and Cynthia Dwork and Larry Stockmeyer},
  title = {On the minimal synchronism needed for distributed consensus},
  volume = {34},
  url = {http://www.oocities.org/stockmeyer@sbcglobal.net/dds.pdf},
  booktitle = {Journal of the {ACM} ({JACM})},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1987},
  note = {Issue: 1},
  pages = {77--97},
}
@inproceedings{dolev1986reaching,
  author = {Danny Dolev and Nancy A Lynch and Shlomit S Pinter and Eugene W Stark and William E Weihl},
  title = {Reaching approximate agreement in the presence of faults},
  volume = {33},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.19.1605&rep=rep1&type=pdf},
  booktitle = {Journal of the {ACM} ({JACM})},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1986},
  note = {Issue: 3},
  pages = {499--516},
}
@inproceedings{chor1985simple,
  author = {Benny Chor and Brian A Coan},
  title = {A {Simple} and {Efficient} {Randomized} {Byzantine} {Agreement} {Algorithm}},
  url = {http://users.ece.utexas.edu/ garg/sp11/382n/resources/randomizedByzantine.pdf},
  booktitle = {{IEEE} {Transactions} on {Software} {Engineering}},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {1985},
  note = {Issue: 6},
  pages = {531--539},
}
@inproceedings{bracha1985asynchronous,
  author = {Gabriel Bracha and Sam Toueg},
  title = {Asynchronous {Consensus} and {Broadcast} {Protocols}},
  volume = {32},
  url = {https://zoo.cs.yale.edu/classes/cs426/2017/bib/bracha85asynchronous.pdf},
  booktitle = {Journal of the {Association} for {Computing} {Machinery}},
  publisher = {Citeseer},
  year = {1985},
  note = {Issue: 4},
  pages = {824--840},
}
@inproceedings{fischer1985impossibility,
  author = {Michael J Fischer and Nancy A Lynch and Michael S Paterson},
  title = {Impossibility of distributed consensus with one faulty process},
  volume = {32},
  url = {http://macs.citadel.edu/rudolphg/csci604/ImpossibilityofConsensus.pdf},
  booktitle = {Journal of the {ACM} ({JACM})},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1985},
  note = {Issue: 2},
  pages = {374--382},
}
@inproceedings{dwork1988consensus,
  author = {Cynthia Dwork and Nancy Lynch and Larry Stockmeyer},
  title = {Consensus in the presence of partial synchrony},
  volume = {35},
  url = {http://www-usr.inf.ufsm.br/ ceretta/papers/MITLCSTM270.pdf},
  booktitle = {Journal of the {ACM} ({JACM})},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1988},
  note = {Issue: 2},
  pages = {288--323},
}
@inproceedings{chaum1985security,
  author = {David Chaum},
  title = {Security without identification: {Transaction} systems to make big brother obsolete},
  volume = {28},
  url = {https://cosic.esat.kuleuven.be/apes/papers/p1030-chaum.pdf.gz},
  booktitle = {Communications of the {ACM}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1985},
  note = {Issue: 10},
  pages = {1030--1044},
}
@inproceedings{dolev1983authenticated,
  author = {Danny Dolev and H. Raymond Strong},
  title = {Authenticated algorithms for {Byzantine} agreement},
  volume = {12},
  url = {http://www.cse.huji.ac.il/ dolev/pubs/authenticated.pdf},
  booktitle = {{SIAM} {Journal} on {Computing}},
  publisher = {SIAM},
  year = {1983},
  note = {Issue: 4},
  pages = {656--666},
}
@inproceedings{lamport1984using,
  author = {Leslie Lamport},
  title = {Using {Time} {Instead} of {Timeout} for {Fault}-{Tolerant} {Distributed} {Systems}.},
  volume = {6},
  url = {http://131.107.65.14/en-us/um/people/lamport/pubs/using-time.pdf},
  booktitle = {{ACM} {Transactions} on {Programming} {Languages} and {Systems} ({TOPLAS})},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1984},
  note = {Issue: 2},
  pages = {254--280},
}
@inproceedings{toueg1984randomized,
  author = {Sam Toueg},
  title = {Randomized {Asynchronous} {Byzantine} {Agreements}},
  url = {https://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/handle/1813/6426/83-587.ps},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the third annual {ACM} symposium on {Principles} of distributed computing},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1984},
  pages = {163--178},
}
@inproceedings{chaum1983blind,
  author = {David Chaum},
  title = {Blind signatures for untraceable payments},
  url = {http://blog.koehntopp.de/uploads/Chaum.BlindSigForPayment.1982.PDF},
  booktitle = {Advances in cryptology},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {1983},
  pages = {199--203},
}
@inproceedings{rabin1983randomized,
  author = {Michael O Rabin},
  title = {Randomized byzantine generals},
  url = {https://www.cs.princeton.edu/courses/archive/fall05/cos521/byzantin.pdf},
  booktitle = {Foundations of {Computer} {Science}, 1983., 24th {Annual} {Symposium} on},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {1983},
  pages = {403--409},
}
@inproceedings{ben-or1983another,
  author = {Michael Ben-Or},
  title = {Another advantage of free choice (extended abstract): {Completely} asynchronous agreement protocols},
  url = {http://homepage.cs.uiowa.edu/ ghosh/BenOr.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the second annual {ACM} symposium on {Principles} of distributed computing},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {1983},
  pages = {27--30},
}
@inproceedings{fischer1983consensus,
  author = {Michael J Fischer},
  title = {The consensus problem in unreliable distributed systems (a brief survey)},
  url = {http://courses.csail.mit.edu/6.897/fall04/papers/Fischer/fischer-survey.ps},
  booktitle = {International {Conference} on {Fundamentals} of {Computation} {Theory}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {1983},
  pages = {127--140},
}
@inproceedings{lindman2017opportunities,
  author = {Juho Lindman and Virpi Kristiina Tuunainen and Matti Rossi},
  title = {Opportunities and {Risks} of {Blockchain} {Technologies}{\textendash}{A} {Research} {Agenda}},
  url = {http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/41338/1/paper0189.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 50th {Hawaii} {International} {Conference} on {System} {Sciences}},
  year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{gaetani2017blockchain-based,
  author = {Edoardo Gaetani and Leonardo Aniello and Roberto Baldoni and Federico Lombardi and Andrea Margheri and Vladimiro Sassone},
  title = {Blockchain-based database to ensure data integrity in cloud computing environments},
  url = {http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1816/paper-15.pdf},
  booktitle = {{ITA}-{SEC}. {CEUR}-{WS}. org, {To} {Appear}},
  year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{dorri2017blockchain-1,
  author = {Ali Dorri and Salil S Kanhere and Raja Jurdak and Praveen Gauravaram},
  title = {Blockchain for {IoT} security and privacy: {The} case study of a smart home},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ali_Dorri5/publication/312218574_Blockchain_for_IoT_Security_and_Privacy_The_Case_Study_of_a_Smart_Home/links/5877309508ae329d6226e96f/Blockchain-for-IoT-Security-and-Privacy-The-Case-Study-of-a-Smart-Home.pdf},
  booktitle = {Pervasive {Computing} and {Communications} {Workshops} ({PerCom} {Workshops}), 2017 {IEEE} {International} {Conference} on},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {618--623},
}
@phdthesis{stoffers2017trustworthy,
  author = {Martin Stoffers},
  type = {{PhD} {Thesis}},
  title = {Trustworthy {Provenance} {Recording} using a blockchain-like database},
  url = {http://elib.dlr.de/111772/1/thesis.pdf},
  school = {Leipzig University},
  year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{liang2017provchain,
  author = {Xueping Liang and Sachin Shetty and Deepak Tosh and Charles Kamhoua and Kevin Kwiat and Laurent Njilla},
  title = {{ProvChain}: {A} {Blockchain}-based {Data} {Provenance} {Architecture} in {Cloud} {Environment} with {Enhanced} {Privacy} and {Availability}},
  url = {https://www.cse.unr.edu/ toshd/assets/provchain.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Symposium} on {Cluster}, {Cloud} and {Grid} {Computing}, {IEEE}/{ACM}},
  year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{crain2017blockchain,
  author = {Tyler Crain and Vincent Gramoli and Mikel Larrea and Michel Raynal},
  title = {Blockchain {Consensus}},
  url = {https://hal.inria.fr/hal-01518743/document},
  booktitle = {{ALGO}TEL 2017-19{\`e}mes {Rencontres} {Francophones} sur les {Aspects} {Algorithmiques} des {T{\'e}l{\'e}communications}},
  year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{verma2017blockchain,
  author = {Dinesh Verma and Nirmit Desai and Alun Preece and Ian Taylor},
  title = {A blockchain based architecture for asset management in coalition operations},
  url = {http://orca.cf.ac.uk/99880/1/Block-Chain-Coalitions-v03.pdf},
  booktitle = {{SPIE} {Defense}+ {Security}},
  publisher = {International Society for Optics and Photonics},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {101900Y--101900Y},
}
@inproceedings{sikorski2017blockchain,
  author = {Janusz J Sikorski and Joy Haughton and Markus Kraft},
  title = {Blockchain technology in the chemical industry: machine-to-machine electricity market},
  volume = {195},
  url = {https://como.cheng.cam.ac.uk/preprints/c4e-Preprint-178.pdf},
  booktitle = {Applied {Energy}},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {234--246},
}
@inproceedings{ruffing2017p2p,
  author = {Tim Ruffing and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Aniket Kate},
  title = {{P2P} {Mixing} and {Unlinkable} {Bitcoin} {Transactions}},
  url = {https://crypsys.mmci.uni-saarland.de/projects/FastDC/paper.pdf},
  booktitle = {{NDSS}'17},
  year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{levy2017book-smart,
  author = {Karen EC Levy},
  title = {Book-{Smart}, {Not} {Street}-{Smart}: {Blockchain}-{Based} {Smart} {Contracts} and {The} {Social} {Workings} of {Law}},
  volume = {3},
  url = {http://estsjournal.org/article/download/107/61.pdf},
  booktitle = {Engaging {Science}, {Technology}, and {Society}},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {1--15},
}
@inproceedings{ohara2017smart,
  author = {Kieron O'Hara},
  title = {Smart {Contracts}-{Dumb} {Idea}},
  volume = {21},
  url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=7867719},
  booktitle = {{IEEE} {Internet} {Computing}},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Issue: 2},
  pages = {97--101},
}
@inproceedings{zhang2016town,
  author = {Fan Zhang and Ethan Cecchetti and Kyle Croman and Ari Juels and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Town {Crier}: {An} {Authenticated} {Data} {Feed} for {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/168.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2016 {ACM} {SIGSAC} {Conference} on {Computer} and {Communications} {Security}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {270--282},
}
@inproceedings{gervais2016security,
  author = {Arthur Gervais and Ghassan O Karame and Karl W{\"u}st and Vasileios Glykantzis and Hubert Ritzdo rf and Srdjan Capkun},
  title = {On the security and performance of proof of work blockchains},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2016 {ACM} {SIGSAC}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {3--16},
}
@inproceedings{natoli2016blockchain,
  author = {Christopher Natoli and Vincent Gramoli},
  title = {The blockchain anomaly},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1605.05438.pdf},
  booktitle = {Network {Computing} and {Applications} ({NCA}), 2016 {IEEE} 15th {International} {Symposium} on},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {310--317},
}
@inproceedings{carlsten2016instability,
  author = {Miles Carlsten and Harry Kalodner and S Matthew Weinberg and Arvind Narayanan},
  title = {On the instability of bitcoin without the block reward},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2016 {ACM} {SIGSAC} {Conference} on {Computer} and {Communications} {Security}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {154--167},
}
@inproceedings{burdges2016enabling,
  author = {Jeffrey Burdges and Florian Dold and Christian Grothoff and Marcello Stanisci},
  title = {Enabling {Secure} {Web} {Payments} with {GNU} {Taler}},
  url = {https://taler.net/papers/taler2016space.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Conference} on {Security}, {Privacy}, and {Applied} {Cryptography} {Engineering}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {251--270},
}
@inproceedings{yli-huumo2016where,
  author = {Jesse Yli-Huumo and Deokyoon Ko and Sujin Choi and Sooyong Park and Kari Smolander},
  title = {Where {Is} {Current} {Research} on {Blockchain} {Technology}? {\textendash} {A} {Systematic} {Review}},
  volume = {11},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jesse_Yli-Huumo/publication/308877750_Where_Is_Current_Research_on_Blockchain_Technology-A_Systematic_Review/links/57f4a87208ae91deaa5ae601/Where-Is-Current-Research-on-Blockchain-Technology-A-Systematic-Review.pdf},
  booktitle = {{PloS} one},
  publisher = {Public Library of Science},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Issue: 10},
  pages = {e0163477},
}
@phdthesis{oja2016calculating,
  author = {Rauno Oja and {others}},
  type = {{PhD} {Thesis}},
  title = {Calculating the return on security investment of recording {X}-{Road} and {Estonian} electronic identity software into blockchain},
  url = {http://dspace.ut.ee/bitstream/handle/10062/52269/oja_rauno.pdf},
  school = {Tartu {\"U}likool},
  year = {2016},
}
@inproceedings{milutinovic2016proof,
  author = {Mitar Milutinovic and Warren He and Howard Wu and Maxinder Kanwal},
  title = {Proof of {Luck}: {An} {Efficient} {Blockchain} {Consensus} {Protocol}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2017/249.pdf},
  booktitle = {{SysTEX} '16 {Proceedings} of the 1st {Workshop} on {System} {Software} for {Trusted} {Execution}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2016},
  note = {event-place: Trento, Italy},
  pages = {2:1--2:6},
}
@inproceedings{luu2016secure,
  author = {Loi Luu and Viswesh Narayanan and Chaodong Zheng and Kunal Baweja and Seth Gilbert and Prateek Saxena},
  title = {A secure sharding protocol for open blockchains},
  url = {https://www.comp.nus.edu.sg/ prateeks/papers/Elastico.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2016 {ACM} {SIGSAC} {Conference} on {Computer} and {Communications} {Security}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {17--30},
}
@inproceedings{teutsch2016when,
  author = {Jason Teutsch and Sanjay Jain and Prateek Saxena},
  title = {When cryptocurrencies mine their own business},
  url = {https://www.comp.nus.edu.sg/ prateeks/papers/38Attack.pdf},
  booktitle = {Financial {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} ({FC} 2016)},
  month = {February},
  year = {2016},
}
@phdthesis{gupta2016non-consensus,
  author = {Saurabh Gupta},
  type = {{PhD} {Thesis}},
  title = {A {Non}-{Consensus} {Based} {Decentralized} {Financial} {Transaction} {Processing} {Model} with {Support} for {Efficient} {Auditing}},
  url = {https://repository.asu.edu/attachments/172765/content/Gupta_asu_0010N_16201.pdf},
  school = {Arizona State University},
  year = {2016},
}
@inproceedings{peters2016understanding,
  author = {Gareth W Peters and Efstathios Panayi},
  title = {Understanding {Modern} {Banking} {Ledgers} through {Blockchain} {Technologies}: {Future} of {Transaction} {Processing} and {Smart} {Contracts} on the {Internet} of {Money}},
  url = {https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0a84/a077ada2acb6918e7764fafcd28f667dae28.pdf},
  booktitle = {Banking {Beyond} {Banks} and {Money}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {239--278},
}
@inproceedings{bouzid2016anonymity-preserving,
  author = {Zohir Bouzid and Corentin Travers},
  title = {Anonymity-{Preserving} {Failure} {Detectors}},
  url = {https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01344446/document},
  booktitle = {International {Symposium} on {Distributed} {Computing}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {173--186},
}
@inproceedings{anceaume2016safety,
  author = {Emmanuelle Anceaume and Thibaut Lajoie-Mazenc and Romaric Ludinard and Bruno Sericola},
  title = {Safety analysis of {Bitcoin} improvement proposals},
  url = {http://www.irisa.fr/dionysos/pages_perso/sericola/PAPIERS/NCA16c.pdf},
  booktitle = {Network {Computing} and {Applications} ({NCA}), 2016 {IEEE} 15th {International} {Symposium} on},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {318--325},
}
@inproceedings{abeyratne2016blockchain,
  author = {Saveen A. Abeyratne and Radmehr P. Monfared},
  title = {Blockchain ready manufacturing supply chain using distributed ledger},
  volume = {5},
  url = {http://esatjournals.net/ijret/2016v05/i09/IJRET20160509001.pdf},
  publisher = {eSAT},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Issue: 09},
  pages = {1--10},
}
@inproceedings{zhang2016secure,
  author = {Jie Zhang and Nian Xue and Xin Huang},
  title = {A {Secure} {System} {For} {Pervasive} {Social} {Network}-based {Healthcare}},
  url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=7801940},
  booktitle = {{IEEE} {Access}},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  month = {December},
  year = {2016},
}
@inproceedings{giechaskiel2016bitcoin,
  author = {Ilias Giechaskiel and Cas Cremers and Kasper B. Rasmussen},
  title = {On {Bitcoin} {Security} in the {Presence} of {Broken} {Cryptographic} {Primitives}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/167.pdf},
  booktitle = {European {Symposium} on {Research} in {Computer} {Security} ({ESORICS})},
  month = {September},
  year = {2016},
}
@inproceedings{tseng2016recent,
  author = {Lewis Tseng},
  title = {Recent results on fault-tolerant consensus in message-passing networks},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1608.07923.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Colloquium} on {Structural} {Information} and {Communication} {Complexity}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {92--108},
}
@inproceedings{marino2016setting,
  author = {Bill Marino and Ari Juels},
  title = {Setting {Standards} for {Altering} and {Undoing} {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {http://www.arijuels.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Setting-Standards-for-Altering-and-Undoing-Smart-Contracts.docx},
  booktitle = {International {Symposium} on {Rules} and {Rule} {Markup} {Languages} for the {Semantic} {Web}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {151--166},
}
@book{verbucheln2015how,
  author = {Stephan Verb{\"u}cheln},
  title = {How perfect offline wallets can still leak bitcoin private keys},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1501.00447.pdf},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1501.00447},
}
@inproceedings{idelberger2016evaluation,
  author = {Florian Idelberger and Guido Governatori and R{\'e}gis Riveret and Giovanni Sartor},
  title = {Evaluation of {Logic}-{Based} {Smart} {Contracts} for {Blockchain} {Systems}},
  url = {https://regisriveretdotorg.files.wordpress.com/2015/11/smart_ruleml.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Symposium} on {Rules} and {Rule} {Markup} {Languages} for the {Semantic} {Web}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {167--183},
}
@inproceedings{luu2016making,
  author = {Loi Luu and Duc-Hiep Chu and Hrishi Olickel and Prateek Saxena and Aquinas Hobor},
  title = {Making {Smart} {Contracts} {Smarter}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/633.pdf},
  booktitle = {23rd {ACM} {Conference} on {Computer} and {Communications} {Security} ({ACM} {CCS} 2016)},
  month = {October},
  year = {2016},
}
@inproceedings{kraft2016difficulty,
  author = {Daniel Kraft},
  title = {Difficulty {Control} for {Blockchain}-{Based} {Consensus} {Systems}},
  volume = {9},
  url = {https://www.domob.eu/research/DifficultyControl.pdf},
  doi = {10.1007/s12083-015-0347-x},
  booktitle = {Peer-to-{Peer} {Networking} and {Applications}},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Issue: 2},
  pages = {397--413},
}
@inproceedings{kiayias2016fair,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Hong-Sheng Zhou and Vassilis Zikas},
  title = {Fair and robust multi-party computation using a global transaction ledger},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/574.pdf},
  booktitle = {Annual {International} {Conference} on the {Theory} and {Applications} of {Cryptographic} {Techniques}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {705--734},
}
@inproceedings{kogias2016enhancing,
  author = {Eleftherios Kokoris Kogias and Philipp Jovanovic and Nicolas Gailly and Ismail Khoffi and Linus Gasser and Bryan Ford},
  address = {Austin, TX},
  title = {Enhancing {Bitcoin} {Security} and {Performance} with {Strong} {Consistency} via {Collective} {Signing}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1602.06997.pdf},
  booktitle = {25th {USENIX} {Security} {Symposium} ({USENIX} {Security} 16)},
  publisher = {USENIX Association},
  month = {August},
  year = {2016},
}
@inproceedings{schrijvers2016incentive,
  author = {Okke Schrijvers and Joseph Bonneau and Dan Boneh and Tim Roughgarden},
  title = {Incentive {Compatibility} of {Bitcoin} {Mining} {Pool} {Reward} {Functions}},
  url = {http://www.jbonneau.com/doc/SBBR16-FC-mining_pool_reward_incentive_compatibility.pdf},
  booktitle = {{FC} '16: {Proceedings} of the the 20th {International} {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography}},
  month = {February},
  year = {2016},
}
@inproceedings{eyal2016bitcoin-ng,
  author = {Ittay Eyal and Adem Efe Gencer and Emin Gun Sirer and Robbert Renesse},
  title = {Bitcoin-{NG}: {A} {Scalable} {Blockchain} {Protocol}},
  url = {http://www.usenix.org/system/files/conference/nsdi16/nsdi16-paper-eyal.pdf},
  booktitle = {13th {USENIX} {Security} {Symposium} on {Networked} {Systems} {Design} and {Implementation} ({NSDI}'16)},
  publisher = {USENIX Association},
  month = {March},
  year = {2016},
}
@inproceedings{nayak2016stubborn,
  author = {Kartik Nayak and Srijan Kumar and Andrew Miller and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Stubborn mining: {Generalizing} selfish mining and combining with an eclipse attack},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2015/796.pdf},
  booktitle = {1st {IEEE} {European} {Symposium} on {Security} and {Privacy}, 2016},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2016},
}
@inproceedings{moser2016bitcoin,
  author = {Malte M{\"o}ser and Ittay Eyal and Emin G{\"u}n Sirer},
  title = {Bitcoin {Covenants}},
  url = {http://fc16.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/MES16.pdf},
  booktitle = {{FC} '16: {Proceedings} of the the 20th {International} {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography}},
  month = {February},
  year = {2016},
}
@inproceedings{vasek2016bitcoin,
  author = {Marie Vasek and Joseph Bonneau and Ryan Castellucci and Cameron Keith and Tyler Moore},
  title = {The {Bitcoin} {Brain} {Drain}: {Examining} the {Use} and {Abuse} of {Bitcoin} {Brain} {Wallets}},
  url = {http://www.jbonneau.com/doc/VBCKM16-FC-bitcoin_brain_wallets.pdf},
  booktitle = {{FC} '16: {Proceedings} of the the 20th {International} {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography}},
  month = {February},
  year = {2016},
}
@inproceedings{bonneau2016ethiks,
  author = {Joseph Bonneau},
  title = {{EthIKS}: {Using} {Ethereum} to audit a {CONIKS} key transparency log},
  url = {http://fc16.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/Bon16a.pdf},
  booktitle = {3rd {Workshop} on {Bitcoin} and {Blockchain} {Research}, {Financial} {Cryptography} 16},
  year = {2016},
}
@inproceedings{croman2016scaling,
  author = {Kyle Croman and Christian Decker and Ittay Eyal and Adem Efe Gencer and Ari Juels and Ahmed Kosba and Andrew Miller and Prateek Saxena and Elaine Shi and Emin G{\"u}n},
  title = {On {Scaling} {Decentralized} {Blockchains}},
  url = {http://www.tik.ee.ethz.ch/file/74bc987e6ab4a8478c04950616612f69/main.pdf},
  booktitle = {3rd {Workshop} on {Bitcoin} and {Blockchain} {Research}, {Financial} {Cryptography} 16},
  year = {2016},
}
@inproceedings{kosba2016hawk,
  author = {Ahmed Kosba and Andrew Miller and Elaine Shi and Zikai Wen and Charalampos Papamanthou},
  title = {Hawk: {The} blockchain model of cryptography and privacy-preserving smart contracts},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2015/675.pdf},
  booktitle = {Symposium on {Security} \& {Privacy}},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2016},
}
@inproceedings{krombholz2016other,
  author = {Katharina Krombholz and Aljosha Judmayer and Matthias Gusenbauer and Edgar R. Weippl},
  title = {The {Other} {Side} of the {Coin}: {User} {Experiences} with {Bitcoin} {Security} and {Privacy}},
  url = {https://www.sba-research.org/wp-content/uploads/publications/TheOtherSideOfTheCoin_FC16preConf.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} ({FC})},
  year = {2016},
}
@inproceedings{danezis2016centrally,
  author = {George Danezis and Sarah Meiklejohn},
  title = {Centrally {Banked} {Cryptocurrencies}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.06895},
  booktitle = {Network and {Distributed} {System} {Security}},
  publisher = {The Internet Society},
  year = {2016},
}
@inproceedings{moser2015trends,
  author = {Malte M{\"o}ser and Rainer B{\"o}hme},
  title = {Trends, tips, tolls: {A} longitudinal study of {Bitcoin} transaction fees},
  url = {http://fc15.ifca.ai/preproceedings/bitcoin/paper_8.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {19--33},
}
@inproceedings{bonneau2016why,
  author = {Joseph Bonneau},
  title = {Why buy when you can rent? {Bribery} attacks on {Bitcoin} consensus},
  url = {http://fc16.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/Bon16b.pdf},
  booktitle = {{BITCOIN} '16: {Proceedings} of the 3rd {Workshop} on {Bitcoin} and {Blockchain} {Research}},
  month = {February},
  year = {2016},
}
@article{herrera-joancomarti2015research,
  author = {Jordi Herrera-Joancomart{\'i}},
  title = {Research and challenges on bitcoin anonymity},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jordi_Herrera-Joancomarti/publication/281773799_Research_and_Challenges_on_Bitcoin_Anonymity/links/55f7c7d408ae07629dcbc471.pdf},
  journal = {Data Privacy Management, Autonomous Spontaneous Security, and Security Assurance},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Publisher: Springer},
  pages = {3--16},
}
@inproceedings{luu2015demystifying,
  author = {Loi Luu and Jason Teutsch and Raghav Kulkarni and Prateek Saxena},
  title = {Demystifying incentives in the consensus computer},
  url = {http://www.comp.nus.edu.sg/ prateeks/papers/VeriEther.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd {ACM} {SIGSAC} {Conference} on {Computer} and {Communications} {Security}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {706--719},
}
@inproceedings{vukolic2015quest,
  author = {Marko Vukoli{\'c}},
  title = {The quest for scalable blockchain fabric: {Proof}-of-work vs. {BFT} replication},
  url = {http://vukolic.com/iNetSec_2015.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Workshop} on {Open} {Problems} in {Network} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {112--125},
}
@article{arevalo2015failure,
  author = {Sergio Ar{\'e}valo and Antonio Fern{\'a}ndez Anta and Damien Imbs and Ernesto Jim{\'e}nez and Michel Raynal},
  title = {Failure detectors in homonymous distributed systems (with an application to consensus)},
  volume = {83},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.697.1050&rep=rep1&type=pdf},
  journal = {Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Publisher: Elsevier},
  pages = {83--95},
}
@article{jimenez2015eventual,
  author = {Ernesto Jim{\'e}nez and Sergio Ar{\'e}valo and Carlos Herrera and Jian Tang},
  title = {Eventual election of multiple leaders for solving consensus in anonymous systems},
  volume = {71},
  url = {http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.697.3557&rep=rep1&type=pdf},
  number = {10},
  journal = {The Journal of Supercomputing},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Publisher: Springer},
  pages = {3726--3743},
}
@inproceedings{lewenberg2015bitcoin,
  author = {Yoad Lewenberg and Yoram Bachrach and Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar and Jeffrey S Rosenschein},
  title = {Bitcoin mining pools: {A} cooperative game theoretic analysis},
  url = {http://www.cs.huji.ac.il/ avivz/pubs/15/fp245-lewenbergA.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2015 {International} {Conference} on {Autonomous} {Agents} and {Multiagent} {Systems}},
  publisher = {International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {919--927},
}
@inproceedings{sompolinsky2015secure,
  author = {Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {Secure high-rate transaction processing in {Bitcoin}},
  url = {http://www.cs.huji.ac.il/ avivz/pubs/15/btc_ghost_full.pdf},
  booktitle = {Financial {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {507--527},
}
@inproceedings{vasek2015theres,
  author = {Marie Vasek and Tyler Moore},
  title = {There's {No} {Free} {Lunch}, {Even} {Using} {Bitcoin}: {Tracking} the {Popularity} and {Profits} of {Virtual} {Currency} {Scams}},
  url = {http://secon.utulsa.edu/vasek/vasekfc15.pdf},
  booktitle = {Financial {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {44--61},
}
@inproceedings{eyal2015miners,
  author = {Ittay Eyal},
  title = {The miner's dilemma},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1411.7099},
  booktitle = {Security and {Privacy} ({SP}), 2015 {IEEE} {Symposium} on},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {89--103},
}
@inproceedings{soska2015measuring,
  author = {Kyle Soska and Nicolas Christin},
  title = {Measuring the longitudinal evolution of the online anonymous marketplace ecosystem},
  url = {https://www.usenix.org/system/files/conference/usenixsecurity15/sec15-paper-soska.pdf},
  booktitle = {24th {USENIX} {Security} {Symposium} ({USENIX} {Security} 15)},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {33--48},
}
@inproceedings{heilman2015eclipse,
  author = {Ethan Heilman and Alison Kendler and Aviv Zohar and Sharon Goldberg},
  title = {Eclipse {Attacks} on {Bitcoin}'s {Peer}-to-{Peer} {Network}},
  url = {https://www.usenix.org/system/files/conference/usenixsecurity15/sec15-paper-heilman.pdf},
  booktitle = {24th {USENIX} {Security} {Symposium} ({USENIX} {Security} 15)},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {129--144},
}
@inproceedings{andrychowicz2015pow-based,
  author = {Marcin Andrychowicz and Stefan Dziembowski},
  title = {{PoW}-{Based} {Distributed} {Cryptography} with {No} {Trusted} {Setup}},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2014/796.pdf},
  booktitle = {Advances in {Cryptology}{\textendash}{CRYPTO} 2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {379--399},
}
@inproceedings{miller2015nonoutsourceable,
  author = {Andrew Miller and Ahmed Kosba and Jonathan Katz and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Nonoutsourceable {Scratch}-{Off} {Puzzles} to {Discourage} {Bitcoin} {Mining} {Coalitions}},
  url = {https://cs.umd.edu/ amiller/nonoutsourceable_full.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd {ACM} {SIGSAC} {Conference} on {Computer} and {Communications} {Security}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {680--691},
}
@inproceedings{wilson2015pretty,
  author = {Duane Wilson and Giuseppe Ateniese},
  title = {From {Pretty} {Good} to {Great}: {Enhancing} {PGP} {Using} {Bitcoin} and the {Blockchain}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1508.04868},
  booktitle = {Network and {System} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {368--375},
}
@inproceedings{gutoski2015hierarchical,
  author = {Gus Gutoski and Douglas Stebila},
  title = {Hierarchical deterministic {Bitcoin} wallets that tolerate key leakage (short paper)},
  url = {http://fc15.ifca.ai/preproceedings/paper_15.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 19th {International} {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} ({FC} 2015)},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2015},
}
@inproceedings{zohar2015bitcoin,
  author = {Aviv Zohar},
  title = {Bitcoin: under the hood},
  volume = {58},
  url = {http://users.encs.concordia.ca/ clark/biblio/bitcoin/Zohar%202015.pdf},
  booktitle = {Communications of the {ACM}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Issue: 9},
  pages = {104--113},
}
@inproceedings{decker2015making,
  author = {Christian Decker and James Guthrie and Jochen Seidel and Roger Wattenhofer},
  title = {Making {Bitcoin} {Exchanges} {Transparent}},
  url = {http://www.tik.ee.ethz.ch/file/b89cb24ad2fa4e7ef01426d318c9b98b/decker2015making.pdf},
  booktitle = {Computer {Security}{\textendash}{ESORICS} 2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {561--576},
}
@inproceedings{gervais2015tampering,
  author = {Arthur Gervais and Hubert Ritzdorf and Ghassan O Karame and Srdjan Capkun},
  title = {Tampering with the {Delivery} of {Blocks} and {Transactions} in {Bitcoin}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/578.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd {ACM} {SIGSAC} {Conference} on {Computer} and {Communications} {Security}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {692--705},
}
@inproceedings{kumaresan2015how,
  author = {Ranjit Kumaresan and Tal Moran and Iddo Bentov},
  title = {How to {Use} {Bitcoin} to {Play} {Decentralized} {Poker}},
  url = {http://people.csail.mit.edu/ranjit/papers/poker.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd {ACM} {SIGSAC} {Conference} on {Computer} and {Communications} {Security}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {195--206},
}
@inproceedings{pass2015micropayments,
  author = {Rafael Pass and {others}},
  title = {Micropayments for {Decentralized} {Currencies}},
  url = {http://www.initc3.org/files/micropay2.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd {ACM} {SIGSAC} {Conference} on {Computer} and {Communications} {Security}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {207--218},
}
@inproceedings{ruffing2015liar,
  author = {Tim Ruffing and Aniket Kate and Dominique Schr{\"o}der},
  title = {Liar, {Liar}, {Coins} on {Fire}!: {Penalizing} {Equivocation} {By} {Loss} of {Bitcoins}},
  url = {https://crypsys.mmci.uni-saarland.de/projects/PenalizingEquivocation/penalizing.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd {ACM} {SIGSAC} {Conference} on {Computer} and {Communications} {Security}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {219--230},
}
@inproceedings{ali2015zombiecoin,
  author = {Syed Taha Ali and Patrick McCorry and Peter Hyun-Jeen Lee and Feng Hao},
  title = {{ZombieCoin}: powering next-generation botnets with bitcoin},
  url = {http://homepages.cs.ncl.ac.uk/feng.hao/files/zcoin-camera-ready.pdf},
  booktitle = {Financial {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {34--48},
}
@inproceedings{eskandari2015first,
  author = {Shayan Eskandari and David Barrera and Elizabeth Stobert and Jeremy Clark},
  title = {A first look at the usability of bitcoin key management},
  url = {http://users.encs.concordia.ca/ clark/papers/2015_usec_full.pdf},
  booktitle = {Workshop on {Usable} {Security} ({USEC})},
  year = {2015},
}
@inproceedings{dagher2015provisions,
  author = {Gaby G Dagher and Benedikt B{\"u}nz and Joseph Bonneau and Jeremy Clark and Dan Boneh},
  title = {Provisions: {Privacy}-preserving proofs of solvency for {Bitcoin} exchanges},
  url = {http://users.encs.concordia.ca/ clark/papers/2015_ccs.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd {ACM} {SIGSAC} {Conference} on {Computer} and {Communications} {Security}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {720--731},
}
@inproceedings{karame2015misbehavior,
  author = {Ghassan O Karame and Elli Androulaki and Marc Roeschlin and Arthur Gervais and Srdjan {\v C}apkun},
  title = {Misbehavior in {Bitcoin}: {A} {Study} of {Double}-{Spending} and {Accountability}},
  volume = {18},
  url = {http://www.syssec.ethz.ch/content/dam/ethz/special-interest/infk/inst-infsec/system-security-group-dam/research/publications/pub2015/tissec15_karame.pdf},
  booktitle = {{ACM} {Transactions} on {Information} and {System} {Security} ({TISSEC})},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Issue: 1},
  pages = {2},
}
@inproceedings{mcreynolds2015cryptographic,
  author = {Emily McReynolds and Adam Lerner and Will Scott and Franziska Roesner and Tadayoshi Kohno},
  title = {Cryptographic {Currencies} from a {Tech}-{Policy} {Perspective}: {Policy} {Issues} and {Technical} {Directions}},
  url = {http://fc15.ifca.ai/preproceedings/bitcoin/paper_16.pdf},
  booktitle = {Financial {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {94--111},
}
@inproceedings{zyskind2015decentralizing,
  author = {Guy Zyskind and Oz Nathan and Alex'Sandy' Pentland},
  title = {Decentralizing {Privacy}: {Using} {Blockchain} to {Protect} {Personal} {Data}},
  url = {http://web.media.mit.edu/ guyzys/data/ZNP15.pdf},
  booktitle = {Security and {Privacy} {Workshops} ({SPW}), 2015 {IEEE}},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {180--184},
}
@inproceedings{melara2015bringing,
  author = {Marcela S. Melara and Aaron Blankstein and Joseph Bonneau and Edward W. Felten and Michael J. Freedman},
  address = {Washington, D.C.},
  title = {Bringing {Deployable} {Key} {Transparency} to {End} {Users}},
  url = {https://www.usenix.org/system/files/conference/usenixsecurity15/sec15-paper-melara.pdf},
  booktitle = {24th {USENIX} {Security} {Symposium} ({USENIX} {Security} 15)},
  publisher = {USENIX Association},
  month = {August},
  year = {2015},
}
@inproceedings{mann2015two-factor,
  author = {Christopher Mann and Daniel Loebenberger},
  title = {Two-factor authentication for the {Bitcoin} protocol},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2014/629.pdf},
  booktitle = {Security and {Trust} {Management}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {155--171},
}
@inproceedings{kalodner2015empirical,
  author = {Harry Kalodner and Miles Carlsten and Paul Ellenbogen and Joseph Bonneau and Arvind Narayanan},
  title = {An empirical study of {Namecoin} and lessons for decentralized namespace design},
  url = {http://randomwalker.info/publications/namespaces.pdf},
  booktitle = {{WEIS}},
  year = {2015},
}
@inproceedings{tschorsch2016bitcoin,
  author = {Florian Tschorsch and Bj{\"o}rn Scheuermann},
  title = {Bitcoin and {Beyond}: {A} {Technical} {Survey} on {Decentralized} {Digital} {Currencies}},
  volume = {PP},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2015/464.pdf},
  doi = {10.1109/COMST.2016.2535718},
  booktitle = {{IEEE} {Communications} {Surveys} {Tutorials}},
  year = {2016},
  note = {ISSN: 1553-877X Issue: 99},
  pages = {1--1},
}
@inproceedings{bonneau2015sok,
  author = {Joseph Bonneau and Andrew Miller and Jeremy Clark and Arvind Narayanan and Joshua A Kroll and Edward W Felten},
  title = {{SoK}: {Research} {Perspectives} and {Challenges} for {Bitcoin} and {Cryptocurrencies}},
  url = {http://www.ieee-security.org/TC/SP2015/papers-archived/6949a104.pdf},
  booktitle = {{IEEE} {Symposium} on {Security} and {Privacy}},
  year = {2015},
}
@inproceedings{lewenberg2015inclusive,
  author = {Yoad Lewenberg and Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar},
  title = {Inclusive block chain protocols},
  url = {http://www.cs.huji.ac.il/ avivz/pubs/15/inclusive_btc_full.pdf},
  booktitle = {Financial {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {528--547},
}
@inproceedings{garay2015bitcoin,
  author = {Juan Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos},
  title = {The bitcoin backbone protocol: {Analysis} and applications},
  url = {http://courses.cs.washington.edu/courses/cse454/15wi/papers/bitcoin-765.pdf},
  booktitle = {Advances in {Cryptology}-{EUROCRYPT} 2015},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {281--310},
}
@article{yelowitz2015characteristics,
  author = {Aaron Yelowitz and Matthew Wilson},
  title = {Characteristics of {Bitcoin} users: an analysis of {Google} search data},
  volume = {22},
  url = {http://www.yelowitz.com/Yelowitz_Wilson_AEL_2015.pdf},
  number = {13},
  journal = {Applied Economics Letters},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Publisher: Taylor \& Francis},
  pages = {1030--1036},
}
@inproceedings{courtois2014could,
  author = {Nicolas T Courtois and Pinar Emirdag and Daniel A Nagy},
  title = {Could bitcoin transactions be 100x faster?},
  url = {http://www.nicolascourtois.com/bitcoin/POSTER_100x_Secrypt2014_v1.0.pdf},
  booktitle = {Security and {Cryptography} ({SECRYPT}), 2014 11th {International} {Conference} on},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {1--6},
}
@article{groza2014cryptographic,
  author = {Bogdan Groza and Bogdan Warinschi},
  title = {Cryptographic puzzles and dos resilience, revisited},
  volume = {73},
  url = {https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b823/a21ffc69e02d2913d112c8ab733629639577.pdf},
  number = {1},
  journal = {Designs, Codes and Cryptography},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Publisher: Springer},
  pages = {177--207},
}
@inproceedings{johnson2014game-theoretic,
  author = {Benjamin Johnson and Aron Laszka and Jens Grossklags and Marie Vasek and Tyler Moore},
  title = {Game-theoretic analysis of {DDoS} attacks against {Bitcoin} mining pools},
  url = {http://photon.hu/ laszka/papers/johnson2014game.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {72--86},
}
@article{bentov2014proof,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Charles Lee and Alex Mizrahi and Meni Rosenfeld},
  title = {Proof of {Activity}: {Extending} {Bitcoin}'s {Proof} of {Work} via {Proof} of {Stake} [{Extended} {Abstract}] y},
  volume = {42},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2014/452.pdf},
  number = {3},
  journal = {ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Publisher: ACM},
  pages = {34--37},
}
@inproceedings{vasek2014empirical,
  author = {Marie Vasek and Micah Thornton and Tyler Moore},
  title = {Empirical analysis of denial-of-service attacks in the {Bitcoin} ecosystem},
  url = {http://secon.utulsa.edu/vasek/vasekbtc14.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {57--71},
}
@inproceedings{ongaro2014search,
  author = {Diego Ongaro and John Ousterhout},
  title = {In search of an understandable consensus algorithm},
  url = {https://www.usenix.org/system/files/conference/atc14/atc14-paper-ongaro.pdf},
  booktitle = {2014 {USENIX} {Annual} {Technical} {Conference} ({USENIX} {ATC} 14)},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {305--319},
}
@article{ghosh2014torpath,
  author = {Mainak Ghosh and B Ford and M Richardson},
  title = {A {TorPath} to {TorCoin}: {Proofof}-bandwidth altcoins for compensating relays},
  url = {https://petsymposium.org/2014/papers/Ghosh.pdf},
  journal = {HotPETs},
  year = {2014},
}
@inproceedings{decker2014bitcoin,
  author = {Christian Decker and Roger Wattenhofer},
  title = {Bitcoin transaction malleability and {MtGox}},
  url = {http://www.tik.ee.ethz.ch/file/7e4a7f3f2991784786037285f4876f5c/malleability.pdf},
  booktitle = {Computer {Security}-{ESORICS} 2014},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {313--326},
}
@inproceedings{andrychowicz2014secure,
  author = {Marcin Andrychowicz and Stefan Dziembowski and Daniel Malinowski and Lukasz Mazurek},
  title = {Secure multiparty computations on bitcoin},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2013/784.pdf},
  booktitle = {Security and {Privacy} ({SP}), 2014 {IEEE} {Symposium} on},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {443--458},
}
@inproceedings{bentov2014how,
  author = {Iddo Bentov and Ranjit Kumaresan},
  title = {How to use bitcoin to design fair protocols},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2014/129.pdf},
  booktitle = {Advances in {Cryptology}{\textendash}{CRYPTO} 2014},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {421--439},
}
@inproceedings{van_den_hooff2014versum,
  author = {Jelle Hooff and M Frans Kaashoek and Nickolai Zeldovich},
  title = {Versum: {Verifiable} computations over large public logs},
  url = {http://people.csail.mit.edu/nickolai/papers/vandenhooff-versum.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2014 {ACM} {SIGSAC} {Conference} on {Computer} and {Communications} {Security}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {1304--1316},
}
@inproceedings{gervais2014is,
  author = {Arthur Gervais and Ghassan Karame and Srdjan Capkun and Vedran Capkun},
  title = {Is {Bitcoin} a decentralized currency?},
  volume = {12},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2013/829.pdf},
  booktitle = {{IEEE} security \& privacy},
  year = {2014},
  note = {Issue: 3},
  pages = {54--60},
}
@inproceedings{andrychowicz2014modeling,
  author = {Marcin Andrychowicz and Stefan Dziembowski and Daniel Malinowski and {\textbackslash}Lukasz Mazurek},
  title = {Modeling bitcoin contracts by timed automata},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1405.1861},
  booktitle = {Formal {Modeling} and {Analysis} of {Timed} {Systems}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {7--22},
}
@inproceedings{kumaresan2014how,
  author = {Ranjit Kumaresan and Iddo Bentov},
  title = {How to use bitcoin to incentivize correct computations},
  url = {http://www.cs.technion.ac.il/ idddo/incentivesBitcoin.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2014 {ACM} {SIGSAC} {Conference} on {Computer} and {Communications} {Security}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {30--41},
}
@inproceedings{gervais2014privacy,
  author = {Arthur Gervais and Srdjan Capkun and Ghassan O Karame and Damian Gruber},
  title = {On the privacy provisions of bloom filters in lightweight bitcoin clients},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2014/763.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 30th {Annual} {Computer} {Security} {Applications} {Conference}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {326--335},
}
@inproceedings{jansen2014onions,
  author = {Rob Jansen and Andrew Miller and Paul Syverson and Bryan Ford},
  title = {From onions to shallots: {Rewarding} {Tor} relays with {TEARS}},
  url = {http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA623492},
  booktitle = {{HotPETs}},
  year = {2014},
}
@inproceedings{bonneau2014mixcoin,
  author = {Joseph Bonneau and Arvind Narayanan and Andrew Miller and Jeremy Clark and Joshua A Kroll and Edward W Felten},
  title = {Mixcoin: {Anonymity} for {Bitcoin} with accountable mixes},
  url = {http://eprint.iacr.org/2014/077.pdf},
  booktitle = {Financial {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {486--504},
}
@book{garg2019efficient,
  author = {Sahil Garg and Kuljeet Kaur and Georges Kaddoum and Fran{\c c}ois Gagnon and Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues},
  title = {An {Efficient} {Blockchain}-based {Hierarchical} {Authentication} {Mechanism} for {Energy} {Trading} in {V2G} {Environment}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.01171.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1904.01171},
}
@book{meneghetti2019survey,
  author = {Alessio Meneghetti and Tommaso Parise and Massimiliano Sala and Daniele Taufer},
  title = {A survey on efficient parallelization of blockchain-based smart contracts},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.00731.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1904.00731},
}
@book{anjana2019achieving,
  author = {Parwat Singh Anjana and Sweta Kumari and Sathya Peri and Archit Somani},
  title = {Achieving {Greater} {Concurrency} in {Execution} of {Smart} {Contracts} using {Object} {Semantics}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.00358.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1904.00358},
}
@article{bessa2019blockchain-based,
  author = {Emanuel E. Bessa and Joberto S. B. Martins},
  title = {A {Blockchain}-based {Educational} {Record} {Repository}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.00315.pdf},
  doi = {10.5281/zenodo.2567524},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1904.00315},
}
@book{dong2019proofware,
  author = {Zhongli Dong and Young Choon Lee and Albert Y. Zomaya},
  title = {Proofware: {Proof} of {Useful} {Work} {Blockchain} {Consensus} {Protocol} for {Decentralized} {Applications}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.09276.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1903.09276},
}
@book{zhang2019security,
  author = {Rui Zhang and Rui Xue and Ling Liu},
  title = {Security and {Privacy} on {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.07602.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1903.07602},
}
@book{restuccia2019blockchain,
  author = {Francesco Restuccia and Salvatore D'Oro andSalil S. Kanhere and Tommaso Melodia and Sajal K. Das},
  title = {Blockchain for the {Internet} of {Things}: {Present} and {Future}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.07448.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1903.07448},
}
@book{guo2019multi-authority,
  author = {Hao Guo and Ehsan Meamari and Chien-Chung Shen},
  title = {Multi-{Authority} {Attribute}-{Based} {Access} {Control} with {Smart} {Contract}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.07009.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1903.07009},
}
@book{lin2019evaluation,
  author = {Yu-Jing Lin and Po-Wei Wu and Cheng-Han Hsu and I.-Ping Tu and Shih-wei Liao},
  title = {An {Evaluation} of {Bitcoin} {Address} {Classification} based on {Transaction} {History} {Summarization}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.07994.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1903.07994},
}
@article{delgado-mohatar2019blockchain,
  author = {Oscar Delgado-Mohatar and Julian Fierrez and Ruben Tolosana and Ruben Vera-Rodriguez},
  title = {Blockchain and {Biometrics}: {A} {First} {Look} into {Opportunities} and {Challenges}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.05496.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1903.05496 Published: Blockchain and Applications, 2019 Intl. Congress on},
}
@article{kolokotronis2019blockchain,
  author = {Nicholas Kolokotronis and Konstantinos Limniotis and Stavros Shiaeles and Romain Griffiths},
  title = {Blockchain {Technologies} for {Enhanced} {Security} and {Privacy} in the {Internet} of {Things}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.04794.pdf},
  doi = {10.1109/MCE.2019.2892221},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1903.04794 Published: IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, 2019},
}
@book{jalalzai2019proteus,
  author = {Mohammad M. Jalalzai and Costas Busch and Golden Richard III},
  title = {Proteus: {A} {Scalable} {BFT} {Consesus} {Protocol} for {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.04134.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1903.04134},
}
@book{hardjono2019verifiable,
  author = {Thomas Hardjono and Alex Pentland},
  title = {Verifiable {Anonymous} {Identities} and {Access} {Control} in {Permissioned} {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.04584.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1903.04584},
}
@book{leonardos2019weighted,
  author = {Stefanos Leonardos and Daniel Reijsbergen and Georgios Piliouras},
  title = {Weighted {Voting} on the {Blockchain}: {Improving} {Consensus} in {Proof} of {Stake} {Protocols}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.04213.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1903.04213},
}
@book{xiong2019anonymous,
  author = {Jie Xiong and Qi Wang},
  title = {Anonymous {Auction} {Protocol} {Based} on {Time}-{Released} {Encryption} atop {Consortium} {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.03285.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1903.03285},
}
@book{kwon2019bitcoin,
  author = {Yujin Kwon and Hyoungshick Kim and Jinwoo Shin and Yongdae Kim},
  title = {Bitcoin vs. {Bitcoin} {Cash}: {Coexistence} or {Downfall} of {Bitcoin} {Cash}?},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.11064.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1902.11064},
}
@book{amoussou-guenou2019rationals,
  author = {Yackolley Amoussou-Guenou and Bruno Biais and Maria Potop-Butucaru and Sara Tucci-Piergiovanni},
  title = {Rationals vs {Byzantines} in {Consensus}-based {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.07895.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1902.07895},
}
@book{wang2019measurement,
  author = {Canhui Wang and Xiaowen Chu and Qin Yang},
  title = {Measurement and {Analysis} of the {Bitcoin} {Networks}: {A} {View} from {Mining} {Pools}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.07549.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1902.07549},
}
@book{robinson2019anonymous,
  author = {Peter Robinson and John Brainard},
  title = {Anonymous {State} {Pinning} for {Private} {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.02752.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1903.02752},
}
@inproceedings{fraga-lamas2019review,
  author = {Paula Fraga-Lamas and Tiago M Fern{\'a}ndez-Caram{\'e}s},
  title = {A {Review} on {Blockchain} {Technologies} for an {Advanced} and {Cyber}-{Resilient} {Automotive} {Industry}},
  volume = {7},
  url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/iel7/6287639/6514899/08626103.pdf},
  booktitle = {{IEEE} {Access}},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2019},
  pages = {17578--17598},
}
@book{chatterjee2019probabilistic,
  author = {Krishnendu Chatterjee and Amir Kafshdar Goharshady and Arash Pourdamghani},
  title = {Probabilistic {Smart} {Contracts}: {Secure} {Randomness} on the {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.07986.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1902.07986},
}
@book{perez2019smart,
  author = {Daniel Perez and Benjamin Livshits},
  title = {Smart {Contract} {Vulnerabilities}: {Does} {Anyone} {Care}?},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.06710.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1902.06710},
}
@book{li2019scalable,
  author = {Chao Li and Balaji Palanisamy and Runhua Xu},
  title = {Scalable and {Privacy}-preserving {Design} of {On}/{Off}-chain {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.06359.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1902.06359},
}
@book{feng2019precise,
  author = {Yu Feng and Emina Torlak and Rastislav Bodik},
  title = {Precise {Attack} {Synthesis} for {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.06067.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1902.06067},
}
@book{li2019decentralized,
  author = {Chao Li and Balaji Palanisamy},
  title = {Decentralized {Privacy}-preserving {Timed} {Execution} in {Blockchain}-based {Smart} {Contract} {Platforms}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.05613.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1902.05613},
}
@book{torres2019art,
  author = {Christof Ferreira Torres and Mathis Steichen},
  title = {The {Art} of {The} {Scam}: {Demystifying} {Honeypots} in {Ethereum} {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.06976.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1902.06976},
}
@book{li2019decentralized-1,
  author = {Chao Li and Balaji Palanisamy},
  title = {Decentralized {Release} of {Self}-emerging {Data} using {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.05623.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1902.05623},
}
@book{patsonakis2019practicality,
  author = {Christos Patsonakis and Katerina Samari and Aggelos Kiayias and Mema Roussopoulos},
  title = {On the {Practicality} of {Smart} {Contract} {PKI}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.00878.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1902.00878},
}
@book{wu2019empirical,
  author = {Kaidong Wu},
  title = {An {Empirical} {Study} of {Blockchain}-based {Decentralized} {Applications}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.04969.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1902.04969},
}
@book{westerkamp2019verifiable,
  author = {Martin Westerkamp},
  title = {Verifiable {Smart} {Contract} {Portability}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.03868.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1902.03868},
}
@book{meneghetti2019two-tier,
  author = {Alessio Meneghetti and Armanda Ottaviano Quintavalle and Massimiliano Sala and Alessandro Tomasi},
  title = {Two-tier blockchain timestamped notarization with incremental security},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.03136.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1902.03136},
}
@article{rouhani2019physical,
  author = {Sara Rouhani and Vahid Pourheidari and Ralph Deters},
  title = {Physical {Access} {Control} {Management} {System} {Based} on {Permissioned} {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1901.09873.pdf},
  doi = {10.1109/Cybermatics_2018.2018.00198},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1901.09873},
}
@book{paillisse2019distributed,
  author = {Jordi Paillisse and Jordi Subira and Albert Lopez and Alberto Rodriguez-Natal and Vina Ermagan and Fabio Maino and Albert Cabellos},
  title = {Distributed {Access} {Control} with {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1901.03568.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1901.03568},
}
@article{deuber2019redactable,
  author = {Dominic Deuber and Bernardo Magri and Sri Aravinda Krishnan Thyagarajan},
  title = {Redactable {Blockchain} in the {Permissionless} {Setting}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1901.03206.pdf},
  doi = {10.1109/SP.2019.00039},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1901.03206},
}
@book{saraph2019empirical,
  author = {Vikram Saraph and Maurice Herlihy},
  title = {An {Empirical} {Study} of {Speculative} {Concurrency} in {Ethereum} {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1901.01376.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1901.01376},
}
@book{seres2019topological,
  author = {Istv{\'a}n Andr{\'a}s Seres and L{\'a}szl{\'o} Guly{\'a}s and D{\'a}niel A. Nagy and P{\'e}ter Burcsi},
  title = {Topological {Analysis} of {Bitcoin}'s {Lightning} {Network}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1901.04972.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1901.04972},
}
@book{mavridou2019verisolid,
  author = {Anastasia Mavridou and Aron Laszka and Emmanouela Stachtiari and Abhishek Dubey},
  title = {{VeriSolid}: {Correct}-by-{Design} {Smart} {Contracts} for {Ethereum}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1901.01292.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1901.01292},
}
@inproceedings{pontiveros2019sluggish,
  author = {Beltr{\'a}n Borja Fiz Pontiveros and Christof Ferreira Torres and Radu State},
  title = {Sluggish {Mining}: {Profiting} from the {Verifier}'s {Dilemma}},
  url = {https://fc19.ifca.ai/wtsc/SluggishMining.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: WTSC'19: 3rd Workshop on Trusted Smart Contracts},
}
@inproceedings{jourdan2018characterizing,
  author = {Marc Jourdan and Sebastien Blandin and Laura Wynter and Pralhad Deshpande},
  title = {Characterizing entities in the bitcoin blockchain},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1810.11956.pdf},
  booktitle = {2018 {IEEE} {International} {Conference} on {Data} {Mining} {Workshops} ({ICDMW})},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2018},
  pages = {55--62},
}
@inproceedings{sergey2018temporal,
  author = {Ilya Sergey and Amrit Kumar and Aquinas Hobor},
  title = {Temporal {Properties} of {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://ilyasergey.net/papers/temporal-isola18.pdf},
  booktitle = {Leveraging {Applications} of {Formal} {Methods}, {Verification} and {Validation}. {Industrial} {Practice} - 8th {International} {Symposium}, {ISoLA} 2018, {Limassol}, {Cyprus}, {November} 5-9, 2018, {Proceedings}, {Part} {IV}},
  year = {2018},
  pages = {323--338},
}
@inproceedings{eskandari2019sok,
  author = {Shayan Eskandari and Seyedehmahsa Moosavi and Jeremy Clark},
  title = {{SoK}: {Transparent} {Dishonesty}: front-running attacks on {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1902.05164.pdf},
  booktitle = {{arXiv} preprint {arXiv}:1902.05164},
  year = {2019},
}
@inproceedings{stifter2019echoes,
  author = {Nicholas Stifter and Philipp Schindler and Aljosha Judmayer and Alexei Zamyatin and Andreas Kern and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {Echoes of the {Past}: {Recovering} {Blockchain} {Metrics} {From} {Merged} {Mining}},
  url = {https://fc19.ifca.ai/preproceedings/41-preproceedings.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 23nd {International} {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} ({FC})},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2019},
}
@inproceedings{tsabary2018gap,
  author = {Itay Tsabary and Ittay Eyal},
  title = {The gap game},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1805.05288.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2018 {ACM} {SIGSAC} {Conference} on {Computer} and {Communications} {Security}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2018},
  pages = {713--728},
}
@book{kolluri2018exploiting,
  author = {Aashish Kolluri and Ivica Nikolic and Ilya Sergey and Aquinas Hobor and Prateek Saxena},
  title = {Exploiting {The} {Laws} of {Order} in {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1810.11605.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1810.11605},
}
@inproceedings{schindler2019distributed,
  author = {Philipp Schindler and Aljosha Judmayer and Nicholas Stifter and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {Distributed {Key} {Generation} with {Ethereum} {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PhilippSchindler/ethdkg/master/paper/Distributed%20Key%20Generation%20with%20Ethereum%20Smart%20Contracts.pdf},
  booktitle = {First {Cryptocurrency} {Implementers}' {Workshop} ({CIW}'19), {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} 2019 ({FC}). {Springer}},
  year = {2019},
}
@inproceedings{manshaei2018game-theoretic,
  author = {Mohammad Hossein Manshaei and Murtuza Jadliwala and Anindya Maiti and Mahdi Fooladgar},
  title = {A game-theoretic analysis of shard-based permissionless blockchains},
  volume = {6},
  url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/ielx7/6287639/8274985/08558531.pdf},
  booktitle = {{IEEE} {Access}},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2018},
  pages = {78100--78112},
}
@book{zamyatin2018xclaim,
  author = {Alexei Zamyatin and Dominik Harz and Joshua Lind and Panayiotis Panayiotou and Arthur Gervais and William J. Knottenbelt},
  title = {{XCLAIM}: {Trustless}, {Interoperable} {Cryptocurrency}-{Backed} {Assets}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/643.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/643},
}
@book{li2018detecting,
  author = {Ao Li and Fan Long},
  title = {Detecting {Standard} {Violation} {Errors} in {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1812.07702.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1812.07702},
}
@book{crain2018evaluating,
  author = {Tyler Crain and Christopher Natoli and Vincent Gramoli},
  title = {Evaluating the {Red} {Belly} {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1812.11747.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1812.11747},
}
@book{fullmer2018analysis,
  author = {Daniel Fullmer and A. S. Morse},
  title = {Analysis of {Difficulty} {Control} in {Bitcoin} and {Proof}-of-{Work} {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1812.10792.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1812.10792},
}
@inproceedings{nikolic2018finding,
  author = {Ivica Nikoli{\'c} and Aashish Kolluri and Ilya Sergey and Prateek Saxena and Aquinas Hobor},
  title = {Finding the greedy, prodigal, and suicidal contracts at scale},
  url = {https://ilyasergey.net/papers/maian-acsac18.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 34th {Annual} {Computer} {Security} {Applications} {Conference}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2018},
  pages = {653--663},
}
@book{garay2018sok,
  author = {Juan Garay and Aggelos Kiayias},
  title = {{SoK}: {A} {Consensus} {Taxonomy} in the {Blockchain} {Era}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/754.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/754},
}
@article{hinteregger2018empirical,
  author = {Abraham Hinteregger and Bernhard Haslhofer},
  title = {An {Empirical} {Analysis} of {Monero} {Cross}-{Chain} {Traceability}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1812.02808.pdf},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1812.02808},
  year = {2018},
}
@book{rodler2018sereum,
  author = {Michael Rodler and Wenting Li and Ghassan O. Karame and Lucas Davi},
  title = {Sereum: {Protecting} {Existing} {Smart} {Contracts} {Against} {Re}-{Entrancy} {Attacks}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1812.05934.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1812.05934},
}
@inproceedings{moser2018empirical,
  author = {Malte M{\"o}ser and Kyle Soska and Ethan Heilman and Kevin Lee and Henry Heffan and Shashvat Srivastava and Kyle Hogan and Jason Hennessey and Andrew Miller and Arvind Narayanan and {others}},
  title = {An empirical analysis of traceability in the monero blockchain},
  volume = {2018},
  url = {https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/popets.2018.2018.issue-3/popets-2018-0025/popets-2018-0025.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings on {Privacy} {Enhancing} {Technologies}},
  publisher = {De Gruyter Open},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Issue: 3},
  pages = {143--163},
}
@inproceedings{grundmann2018exploiting,
  author = {Matthias Grundmann and Till Neudecker and Hannes Hartenstein},
  title = {Exploiting {Transaction} {Accumulation} and {Double} {Spends} for {Topology} {Inference} in {Bitcoin}},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final10.pdf},
  booktitle = {5th {Workshop} on {Bitcoin} and {Blockchain} {Research}, {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} 18 ({FC}). {Springer}},
  year = {2018},
}
@inproceedings{delgado-segura2018analysis,
  author = {Sergi Delgado-Segura and Cristina P{\'e}rez-Sola and Guillermo Navarro-Arribas and Jordi Herrera-Joancomart{\i}},
  title = {Analysis of the {Bitcoin} {UTXO} set},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final6.pdf},
  booktitle = {5th {Workshop} on {Bitcoin} and {Blockchain} {Research}, {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} 18 ({FC}). {Springer}},
  year = {2018},
}
@inproceedings{ullrich2018proof-of-blackouts,
  author = {Johanna Ullrich and Nicholas Stifter and Aljosha Judmayer and Adrian Dabrowski and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {Proof-of-{Blackouts}? {How} {Proof}-of-{Work} {Cryptocurrencies} {Could} {Affect} {Power} {Grids}},
  url = {https://sqi.at/resources/RAID2018.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Symposium} on {Research} in {Attacks}, {Intrusions}, and {Defenses}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2018},
  pages = {184--203},
}
@inproceedings{judmayer2018pitchforks,
  author = {Aljosha Judmayer and Nicholas Stifter and Philipp Schindler and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {Pitchforks in {Cryptocurrencies}: {Enforcing} rule changes through offensive forking- and consensus techniques ({Short} {Paper})},
  url = {https://www.sba-research.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/judmayer2018pitchfork_2018-09-05.pdf},
  booktitle = {{CBT}'18: {Proceedings} of the {International} {Workshop} on {Cryptocurrencies} and {Blockchain} {Technology}},
  month = {September},
  year = {2018},
}
@inproceedings{anderson2018bitcoin,
  author = {Ross Anderson and Ilia Shumailov and Mansoor Ahmed and Alessandro Rietmann},
  title = {Bitcoin {Redux}},
  url = {https://weis2018.econinfosec.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2018/05/WEIS_2018_paper_38.pdf},
  booktitle = {17th {Annual} {Workshop} on the {Economics} of {Information} {Security}},
  year = {2018},
  note = {event-place: Innsbruck, Austria},
}
@inproceedings{bonneau2018hostile,
  author = {Joseph Bonneau},
  title = {Hostile blockchain takeovers (short paper)},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final17.pdf},
  booktitle = {5th {Workshop} on {Bitcoin} and {Blockchain} {Research}, {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} 18 ({FC}). {Springer}},
  year = {2018},
}
@inproceedings{azouvi2018egalitarian,
  author = {Sarah Azouvi and Mary Maller and Sarah Meiklejohn},
  title = {Egalitarian {Society} or {Benevolent} {Dictatorship}: {The} {State} of {Cryptocurrency} {Governance}},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final13.pdf},
  booktitle = {5th {Workshop} on {Bitcoin} and {Blockchain} {Research}, {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} 18 ({FC}). {Springer}},
  year = {2018},
}
@inproceedings{chepurnoy2018systematic,
  author = {Alexander Chepurnoy and Vasily Kharin and Dmitry Meshkov},
  title = {A {Systematic} {Approach} {To} {Cryptocurrency} {Fees}},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final18.pdf},
  booktitle = {5th {Workshop} on {Bitcoin} and {Blockchain} {Research}, {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} 18 ({FC}). {Springer}},
  year = {2018},
}
@inproceedings{bowe2018multi-party,
  author = {Sean Bowe and Ariel Gabizon and Matthew D Green},
  title = {A multi-party protocol for constructing the public parameters of the {Pinocchio} zk-{SNARK}},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-full1.pdf},
  booktitle = {5th {Workshop} on {Bitcoin} and {Blockchain} {Research}, {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} 18 ({FC}). {Springer}},
  year = {2018},
}
@inproceedings{mccorry2018smart,
  author = {Patrick McCorry and Alexander Hicks and Sarah Meiklejohn},
  title = {Smart {Contracts} for {Bribing} {Miners}},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final14.pdf},
  booktitle = {5th {Workshop} on {Bitcoin} and {Blockchain} {Research}, {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} 18 ({FC}). {Springer}},
  year = {2018},
}
@inproceedings{mavridou2018designing,
  author = {Anastasia Mavridou and Aron Laszka},
  title = {Designing {Secure} {Ethereum} {Smart} {Contracts}: {A} {Finite} {State} {Machine} {Based} {Approach}},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/preproceedings/101.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} ({FC}). {Springer}},
  year = {2018},
}
@inproceedings{david2018kaleidoscope,
  author = {Bernardo David and Rafael Dowsley and Mario Larangeira},
  title = {Kaleidoscope: {An} {Efficient} {Poker} {Protocol} with {Payment} {Distribution} and {Penalty} {Enforcement}},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/preproceedings/19.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} ({FC}). {Springer}},
  year = {2018},
}
@inproceedings{vasek2018analyzing,
  author = {Marie Vasek and Tyler Moore},
  title = {Analyzing the {Bitcoin} {Ponzi} {Scheme} {Ecosystem}},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final11.pdf},
  booktitle = {5th {Workshop} on {Bitcoin} and {Blockchain} {Research}, {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} 18 ({FC}). {Springer}},
  year = {2018},
}
@inproceedings{zhang2018paralysis,
  author = {Fan Zhang and Philip Daian and Iddo Bentov and Ari Juels},
  title = {Paralysis {Proofs}: {Safe} {Access}-{Structure} {Updates} for {Cryptocurrencies} and {More}},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/bitcoin/papers/bitcoin18-final20.pdf},
  booktitle = {5th {Workshop} on {Bitcoin} and {Blockchain} {Research}, {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} 18 ({FC}). {Springer}},
  year = {2018},
}
@inproceedings{atzei2018formal,
  author = {Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Stefano Lande and Roberto Zunino},
  title = {A formal model of {Bitcoin} transactions},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/preproceedings/92.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} ({FC}). {Springer}},
  year = {2018},
}
@inproceedings{zhang2018anonymous,
  author = {Huang Zhang and Fangguo Zhang and Haibo Tian and Man Ho Au},
  title = {Anonymous {Post}-{Quantum} {Cryptocash}},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/preproceedings/16.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} ({FC}). {Springer}},
  year = {2018},
}
@inproceedings{velner2017smart,
  author = {Yaron Velner and Jason Teutsch and Loi Luu},
  title = {Smart contracts make {Bitcoin} mining pools vulnerable},
  booktitle = {International {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {298--316},
}
@inproceedings{park2018spacemint,
  author = {Sunoo Park and Alber Kwon and Georg Fuchbauer and Peter Gazi and J{\"o}el Alwen and Krzysztof Pietrzak},
  title = {{SpaceMint}: {A} {Cryptocurrency} {Based} on {Proofs} of {Space}},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/preproceedings/78.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} ({FC}). {Springer}},
  year = {2018},
}
@inproceedings{matzutt2018quantitative,
  author = {Roman Matzutt and Jens Hiller and Martin Henze and Jan Henrik Ziegeldorf and Dirk M{\"u}llmann and Oliver Hohlfeld and Klaus Wehrle},
  title = {A {Quantitative} {Analysis} of the {Impact} of {Arbitrary} {Blockchain} {Content} on {Bitcoin}},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/preproceedings/6.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} ({FC}). {Springer}},
  year = {2018},
}
@inproceedings{huang2018short,
  author = {Danny Yuxing Huang and Kirill Levchenko and Alex C Snoeren},
  title = {Short {Paper}: {Estimating} {Profitability} of {Alternative} {Cryptocurrencies}},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/preproceedings/12.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} ({FC}). {Springer}},
  year = {2018},
}
@inproceedings{gencer2018decentralization,
  author = {Adem Efe Gencer and Soumya Basu and Ittay Eyal and Robbert Renesse and Emin G{\"u}n Sirer},
  title = {Decentralization in {Bitcoin} and {Ethereum} {Networks}},
  url = {http://fc18.ifca.ai/preproceedings/75.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd {International} {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} ({FC}). {Springer}},
  year = {2018},
}
@inproceedings{golomb2018ciota,
  author = {Tomer Golomb and Yisroel Mirsky and Yuval Elovici},
  title = {{CIoTA}: {Collaborative} {IoT} {Anomaly} {Detection} via {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1803.03807.pdf},
  booktitle = {Workshop on {Decentralized} {IoT} {Security} and {Standards} ({DISS})},
  year = {2018},
}
@inproceedings{p_irlea2018mechanising,
  author = {George P{\textasciicircum} irlea and Ilya Sergey},
  series = {{CPP} 2018},
  title = {Mechanising {Blockchain} {Consensus}},
  url = {http://ilyasergey.net/papers/toychain-cpp18.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 7th {ACM} {SIGPLAN} {International} {Conference} on {Certified} {Programs} and {Proofs}},
  year = {2018},
  pages = {78--90},
}
@inproceedings{liao2017incentivizing,
  author = {Kevin Liao and Jonathan Katz},
  title = {Incentivizing blockchain forks via whale transactions},
  url = {http://www.cs.umd.edu/ jkatz/papers/whale-txs.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {264--279},
}
@inproceedings{ermilov2017automatic,
  author = {D. Ermilov and M. Panov and Y. Yanovich},
  title = {Automatic {Bitcoin} {Address} {Clustering}},
  url = {http://bitfury.com/content/5-white-papers-research/clustering_whitepaper.pdf},
  doi = {10.1109/ICMLA.2017.0-118},
  booktitle = {2017 16th {IEEE} {International} {Conference} on {Machine} {Learning} and {Applications} ({ICMLA})},
  month = {December},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {461--466},
}
@inproceedings{abraham2017blockchain,
  author = {Ittai Abraham and Dahlia Malkhi and {others}},
  title = {The {Blockchain} {Consensus} {Layer} and {BFT}},
  volume = {3},
  url = {http://bulletin.eatcs.org/index.php/beatcs/article/download/506/495.pdf},
  booktitle = {Bulletin of {EATCS}},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Issue: 123},
}
@inproceedings{oconnor2017simplicity,
  author = {Russell O'Connor},
  title = {Simplicity: {A} {New} {Language} for {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1711.03028.pdf},
  doi = {10.1145/3139337.3139340},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2017 {Workshop} on {Programming} {Languages} and {Analysis} for {Security}. {ACM}, {New} {York}, {NY}, {USA}},
  year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{unz2017proofs-of-delay,
  author = {Benedikt B{\textbackslash}" unz and Steven Goldfeder and Joseph Bonneau},
  title = {Proofs-of-delay and randomness beacons in {Ethereum}},
  booktitle = {{IEEE} {Security} \& {Privacy} on the {Blockchain} ({IEEE} {S}\&{B})},
  year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{narayanan2017bitcoins,
  author = {Arvind Narayanan and Jeremy Clark},
  address = {New York, NY, USA},
  title = {Bitcoin's {Academic} {Pedigree}},
  volume = {15},
  url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3134434.3136559},
  doi = {10.1145/3134434.3136559},
  booktitle = {Queue},
  publisher = {ACM},
  month = {August},
  year = {2017},
  note = {ISSN: 1542-7730 Issue: 4},
  pages = {20:20--20:49},
}
@inproceedings{juels2016ring,
  author = {Ari Juels and Ahmed Kosba and Elaine Shi},
  title = {The ring of {Gyges}: {Investigating} the future of criminal smart contracts},
  url = {http://www.arijuels.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Gyges.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2016 {ACM} {SIGSAC} {Conference} on {Computer} and {Communications} {Security}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2016},
  pages = {283--295},
}
@inproceedings{delgado-segura2017fair,
  author = {Sergi Delgado-Segura and Cristina P{\'e}rez-Sol{\`a} and Guillermo Navarro-Arribas and Jordi Herrera-Joancomart{\'i}},
  title = {A fair protocol for data trading based on {Bitcoin} transactions},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/1018.pdf},
  booktitle = {Future {Generation} {Computer} {Systems}},
  publisher = {Elsevier},
  year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{frowis2017code,
  author = {Michael Fr{\"o}wis and Rainer B{\"o}hme},
  title = {In {Code} {We} {Trust}?},
  url = {http://informationsecurity.uibk.ac.at/pdfs/FB2017-Ethereum-CallGraph-CBT.pdf},
  booktitle = {Data {Privacy} {Management}, {Cryptocurrencies} and {Blockchain} {Technology}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {357--372},
}
@article{neiger1994distributed,
  author = {Gil Neiger},
  title = {Distributed consensus revisited},
  volume = {49},
  url = {https://smartech.gatech.edu/bitstream/handle/1853/6776/GIT-CC-93-45.pdf},
  number = {4},
  journal = {Information processing letters},
  year = {1994},
  note = {Publisher: Elsevier},
  pages = {195--201},
}
@inproceedings{xu2017taxonomy,
  author = {Xiwei Xu and Ingo Weber and Mark Staples and Liming Zhu and Jan Bosch and Len Bass and Cesare Pautasso and Paul Rimba},
  title = {A {Taxonomy} of {Blockchain}-{Based} {Systems} for {Architecture} {Design}},
  url = {http://design.inf.usi.ch/sites/default/files/biblio/icsa2017-blockchain.pdf},
  booktitle = {Software {Architecture} ({ICSA}), 2017 {IEEE} {International} {Conference} on},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {243--252},
}
@inproceedings{eberhardt2017or,
  author = {Jacob Eberhardt and Stefan Tai},
  title = {On or {Off} the {Blockchain}? {Insights} on {Off}-{Chaining} {Computation} and {Data}},
  url = {http://www.ise.tu-berlin.de/fileadmin/fg308/publications/2017/2017-eberhardt-tai-offchaining-patterns.pdf},
  booktitle = {European {Conference} on {Service}-{Oriented} and {Cloud} {Computing}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {3--15},
}
@inproceedings{grumbach2017distributed,
  author = {St{\textbackslash}' ephane Grumbach and Robert Riemann},
  title = {Distributed {Random} {Process} for a {Large}-{Scale} {Peer}-to-{Peer} {Lottery}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1709.05122.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proc. of 17th {IFIP} {Distributed} {Applications} and {Interoperable} {Systems}, {Jun} 2017, {Neuch{\^a}tel}, {Switzerland}. {Springer}, 10320, pp.34-48, 2017, {LNCS} - {Lecture} {Notes} in {Computer} {Science}},
  month = {September},
  year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{moreno-sanchez2017pathshuffle,
  author = {Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Tim Ruffing and Aniket Kate},
  title = {{PathShuffle}: {Credit} {Mixing} and {Anonymous} {Payments} for {Ripple}},
  volume = {1},
  url = {https://petsymposium.org/2017/papers/issue3/paper21-2017-3-source.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings on {Privacy} {Enhancing} {Technologies}},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {20},
}
@inproceedings{troncoso2017systematizing,
  author = {Carmela Troncoso and George Danezis and Marios Isaakidis and Harry Halpin},
  title = {Systematizing {Decentralization} and {Privacy}: {Lessons} from 15 years of research and deployments},
  url = {https://petsymposium.org/2017/papers/issue4/paper87-2017-4-source.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings on {Privacy} {Enhancing} {Technologies}},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {307--329},
}
@inproceedings{halpern2017knowledge-based,
  author = {Joseph Y. Halpern and Rafael Pass},
  title = {A {Knowledge}-{Based} {Analysis} of the {Blockchain} {Protocol}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1707.08751.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings {Sixteenth} {Conference} on {Theoretical} {Aspects} of {Rationality} and {Knowledge}, {TARK} 2017, {Liverpool}, {UK}, 24-26 {July} 2017.},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {324--335},
}
@inproceedings{mccorry2017atomically,
  author = {Patrick McCorry and Ethan Heilman and Andrew Miller},
  title = {Atomically {Trading} with {Roger}: {Gambling} on the success of a hardfork},
  url = {http://homepages.cs.ncl.ac.uk/patrick.mc-corry/atomically-trading-roger.pdf},
  booktitle = {{CBT}'17: {Proceedings} of the {International} {Workshop} on {Cryptocurrencies} and {Blockchain} {Technology}},
  month = {September},
  year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{rohrer2017towards,
  author = {Elias Rohrer and Jann-Frederik La{\ss} and Florian Tschorsch},
  title = {Towards a {Concurrent} and {Distributed} {Route} {Selection} for {Payment} {Channel} {Networks}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.02419.pdf},
  booktitle = {{CBT}'17: {Proceedings} of the {International} {Workshop} on {Cryptocurrencies} and {Blockchain} {Technology}},
  month = {September},
  year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{zhang2017publish,
  author = {Ren Zhang and Bart Preneel},
  title = {Publish or {Perish}: {A} {Backward}-{Compatible} {Defense} against {Selfish} {Mining} in {Bitcoin}},
  url = {https://securewww.esat.kuleuven.be/cosic/publications/article-2746.pdf},
  booktitle = {Cryptographers' {Track} at the {RSA} {Conference}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {277--292},
}
@inproceedings{judmayer2017merged,
  author = {Aljosha Judmayer and Alexei Zamyatin and Nicholas Stifter and Artemios G. Voyiatzis and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {Merged {Mining}: {Curse} or {Cure}?},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/791.pdf},
  booktitle = {{CBT}'17: {Proceedings} of the {International} {Workshop} on {Cryptocurrencies} and {Blockchain} {Technology}},
  month = {September},
  year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{gipp2017cryptsubmit,
  author = {Bela Gipp and Corinna Breitinger and Norman Meuschke and Joeran Beel},
  title = {{CryptSubmit}: {Introducing} {Securely} {Timestamped} {Manuscript} {Submission} and {Peer} {Review} {Feedback} using the {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://www.gipp.com/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/gipp2017b.pdf},
  booktitle = {{JVDL}},
  year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{kothapalli2017smartcast,
  author = {Abhiram Kothapalli and Andrew Miller and Nikita Borisov},
  title = {{SmartCast}: {An} {Incentive} {Compatible} {Consensus} {Protocol} {Using} {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {http://fc17.ifca.ai/wtsc/SmartCast%20-%20An%20Incentive%20Compatible%20Consensus%20Protocol%20Using%20Smart%20Contracts.pdf},
  booktitle = {Financial {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  month = {April},
  year = {2017},
}
@book{zhao2019analysis,
  author = {Jun Zhao},
  title = {An {Analysis} of {Blockchain} {Consistency} in {Asynchronous} {Networks}: {Deriving} a {Neat} {Bound}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.06587.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1909.06587},
}
@book{neisse2019toward,
  author = {Ricardo Neisse and Jos{\'e} L. Hern{\'a}ndez-Ramos and Sara N. Matheu and Gianmarco Baldini and Antonio Skarmeta},
  title = {Toward a {Blockchain}-based {Platform} to {Manage} {Cybersecurity} {Certification} of {IoT} devices},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.07039.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1909.07039},
}
@book{kokoris-kogias2019bootstrapping,
  author = {Eleftherios Kokoris-Kogias and Alexander Spiegelman and Dahlia Malkhi and Ittai Abraham},
  title = {Bootstrapping {Consensus} {Without} {Trusted} {Setup}: {Fully} {Asynchronous} {Distributed} {Key} {Generation}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1015.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1015},
}
@book{zakhary2019transactional,
  author = {Victor Zakhary and Divyakant Agrawal and Amr El Abbadi},
  title = {Transactional {Smart} {Contracts} in {Blockchain} {Systems}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.06494.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1909.06494},
}
@book{pinzon2019random,
  author = {Carlos Pinz{\'o}n and Camilo Rocha and Jorge Finke},
  title = {A {Random} {Network} {Model} for the {Analysis} of {Blockchain} {Designs} with {Communication} {Delay}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.06435.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1909.06435},
}
@book{li2019puncturable,
  author = {Xinyu Li and Jing Xu and Xiong Fan and Yuchen Wang and Zhenfeng Zhang},
  title = {Puncturable {Signatures} and {Applications} in {Proof}-of-{Stake} {Blockchain} {Protocol}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.03955.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1909.03955},
}
@book{coblenz2019obsidian,
  author = {Michael Coblenz and Reed Oei and Tyler Etzel and Paulette Koronkevich and Miles Baker and Yannick Bloem and Brad A. Myers and Joshua Sunshine and Jonathan Aldrich},
  title = {Obsidian: {Typestate} and {Assets} for {Safer} {Blockchain} {Programming}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.03367.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1909.03523},
}
@book{zhang2019onionchain,
  author = {Yue Zhang and Jian Weng and Jiasi Weng and Ming Li and Weiqi Luo},
  title = {Onionchain: {Towards} {Balancing} {Privacy} and {Traceability} of {Blockchain}-{Based} {Applications}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.03367.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1909.03367},
}
@book{le2019tale,
  author = {Duc V. Le and Lizzy Tengana Hurtado and Adil Ahmad and Mohsen Minaei and Byoungyoung Lee and Aniket Kate},
  title = {A {Tale} of {Two} {Trees}: {One} {Writes}, and {Other} {Reads}. {Optimized} {Oblivious} {Accesses} to {Large}-{Scale} {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.01531.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1909.01531},
}
@book{ferretti2019ethereum,
  author = {Stefano Ferretti and Gabriele D'Angelo},
  title = {On the {Ethereum} {Blockchain} {Structure}: a {Complex} {Networks} {Theory} {Perspective}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.11808.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  doi = {10.1002/cpe.5493},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1908.11808},
}
@book{hartel2019empirical,
  author = {Pieter Hartel and Ivan Homoliak and Dani{\"e}l Reijsbergen},
  title = {An {Empirical} {Study} into the {Success} of {Listed} {Smart} {Contracts} in {Ethereum}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.11597.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1908.11597},
}
@book{blum2017linear,
  author = {Erica Blum and Aggelos Kiayias and Cristopher Moore and Saad Quader and Alexander Russell},
  title = {Linear {Consistency} for {Proof}-of-{Stake} {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/241},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/241},
}
@book{hassan2019blockchain,
  author = {Naveed UL Hassan and Chau Yuen and Dusit Niyato},
  title = {Blockchain {Technologies} for {Smart} {Energy} {Systems}: {Fundamentals}, {Challenges} and {Solutions}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.02914.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1909.02914},
}
@book{fidelman2019generic,
  author = {Zuphit Fidelman},
  title = {A {Generic} {Sharding} {Scheme} for {Blockchain} {Protocols}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.01162.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1909.01162},
}
@book{baudet2019state,
  author = {Mathieu Baudet and Avery Ching and Andrey Chursin and George Danezis and Fran{\c c}ois Garillot and Zekun Li and Dahlia Malkhi and Oded Naor and Dmitri Perelman and Alberto Sonnino},
  title = {State {Machine} {Replication} in the {Libra} {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://developers.libra.org/docs/assets/papers/libra-consensus-state-machine-replication-in-the-libra-blockchain.pdf},
  year = {2019},
}
@book{natoli2019deconstructing,
  author = {Christopher Natoli and Jiangshan Yu and Vincent Gramoli and Paulo Esteves-Verissimo},
  title = {Deconstructing {Blockchains}: {A} {Comprehensive} {Survey} on {Consensus}, {Membership} and {Structure}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.08316.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1908.08316},
}
@article{rouhani2019blockchain,
  author = {Sara Rouhani and Ralph Deters},
  title = {Blockchain based access control systems: {State} of the art and challenges},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.08503.pdf},
  doi = {10.1145/3350546.3352561},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1908.08503},
}
@book{gao2019smartembed,
  author = {Zhipeng Gao and Vinoj Jayasundara and Lingxiao Jiang and Xin Xia and David Lo and John Grundy},
  title = {{SmartEmbed}: {A} {Tool} for {Clone} and {Bug} {Detection} in {Smart} {Contracts} through {Structural} {Code} {Embedding}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.08615.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1908.08615},
}
@book{cecchetti2018pies,
  author = {Ethan Cecchetti and Ben Fisch and Ian Miers and Ari Juels},
  title = {{PIEs}: {Public} {Incompressible} {Encodings} for {Decentralized} {Storage}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/684.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/684},
}
@inproceedings{boneh1997efficient,
  author = {Dan Boneh and Matthew Franklin},
  title = {Efficient generation of shared {RSA} keys},
  url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/BFb0052253.pdf},
  booktitle = {Annual {International} {Cryptology} {Conference}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {1997},
  pages = {425--439},
}
@book{praitheeshan2019security,
  author = {Purathani Praitheeshan and Lei Pan and Jiangshan Yu and Joseph Liu and Robin Doss},
  title = {Security {Analysis} {Methods} on {Ethereum} {Smart} {Contract} {Vulnerabilities}: {A} {Survey}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.08605.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1908.08605},
}
@inproceedings{schindler2020hydrand,
  author = {Philipp Schindler and Aljosha Judmayer and Nicholas Stifter and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {{HydRand}: {Practical} {Continuous} {Distributed} {Randomness}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/319.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of {IEEE} {Symposium} on {Security} and {Privacy} ({IEEE} {S}\&{P})},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2020},
}
@book{ganji2019blockchain-enabled,
  author = {Fatemeh Ganji and Shahin Tajik and Domenic Forte and Jean-Pierre Seifert},
  title = {Blockchain-enabled {Cryptographically}-secure {Hardware} {Obfuscation}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/928.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/928},
}
@book{achenbach2019your,
  author = {Dirk Achenbach and Roland Gr{\"o}ll and Timon Hackenjos and Alexander Koch and Bernhard L{\"o}we and Jeremias Mechler and J{\"o}rn M{\"u}ller-Quade and Jochen Rill},
  title = {Your {Money} or {Your} {Life}{\textemdash}{Modeling} and {Analyzing} the {Security} of {Electronic} {Payment} in the {UC} {Framework}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/924.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/924},
}
@book{alper2019ouroboros,
  author = {Handan Kilin{\c c} Alper},
  title = {Ouroboros {Clepsydra}: {Ouroboros} {Praos} in the {Universally} {Composable} {Relative} {Time} {Model}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/942.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/942},
}
@inproceedings{tran2020stealthier,
  author = {Muoi Tran and Inho Choi and Gi Jun Moon and Anh V. Vu and Min Suk Kang},
  title = {A {Stealthier} {Partitioning} {Attack} against {Bitcoin} {Peer}-to-{Peer} {Network}},
  url = {https://erebus-attack.comp.nus.edu.sg/erebus-attack.pdf},
  booktitle = {To appear in {Proceedings} of {IEEE} {Symposium} on {Security} and {Privacy} ({IEEE} {S}\&{P})},
  year = {2020},
}
@book{bagaria2018deconstructing,
  author = {Vivek Bagaria and Sreeram Kannan and David Tse and Giulia Fanti and Pramod Viswanath},
  title = {Deconstructing the {Blockchain} to {Approach} {Physical} {Limits}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/992.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/992},
}
@inproceedings{choudhuri2017fairness,
  author = {Arka Rai Choudhuri and Matthew Green and Abhishek Jain and Gabriel Kaptchuk and Ian Miers},
  title = {Fairness in an unfair world: {Fair} multiparty computation from public bulletin boards},
  url = {http://delivery.acm.org/10.1145/3140000/3134092/p719-choudhuri.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2017 {ACM} {SIGSAC} {Conference} on {Computer} and {Communications} {Security}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {719--728},
}
@book{li2019auditable,
  author = {Rujia Li and David Galindo and Qi Wang},
  title = {Auditable {Credential} {Anonymity} {Revocation} {Based} on {Privacy}-{Preserving} {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.02443.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1908.02443},
}
@book{weber2019anti-money,
  author = {Mark Weber and Giacomo Domeniconi and Jie Chen and Daniel Karl I. Weidele and Claudio Bellei and Tom Robinson and Charles E. Leiserson},
  title = {Anti-{Money} {Laundering} in {Bitcoin}: {Experimenting} with {Graph} {Convolutional} {Networks} for {Financial} {Forensics}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.02591.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1908.02591},
}
@book{lopez2019privacy-aware,
  author = {David Lopez and Bilal Farooq},
  title = {Privacy-{Aware} {Distributed} {Mobility} {Choice} {Modelling} over {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.03446.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1908.03446},
}
@book{havelange2019luce,
  author = {Nadine Havelange and Michel Dumontier and Birgit Wouters and Jona Linde and David Townend and Arno Riedl and Visara Urovi},
  title = {{LUCE}: {A} {Blockchain} {Solution} for monitoring data {License} {accoUntability} and {CompliancE}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.02287.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1908.02287},
}
@book{wu2019mutation,
  author = {Haoran Wu and Xingya Wang and Jiehui Xu and Weiqin Zou and Lingming Zhang and Zhenyu Chen},
  title = {Mutation {Testing} for {Ethereum} {Smart} {Contract}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.03707.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1908.03707},
}
@book{teutsch2019retrofitting,
  author = {Jason Teutsch and Michael Straka and Dan Boneh},
  title = {Retrofitting a two-way peg between blockchains},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.03999.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1908.03999},
}
@book{han2019optionality,
  author = {Runchao Han and Haoyu Lin and Jiangshan Yu},
  title = {On the optionality and fairness of {Atomic} {Swaps}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/896.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/896},
}
@inproceedings{romiti2019deep,
  author = {Matteo Romiti and Aljosha Judmayer and Alexei Zamyatin and Bernhard Haslhofer},
  title = {A {Deep} {Dive} into {Bitcoin} {Mining} {Pools}: {An} {Empirical} {Analysis} of {Mining} {Shares}},
  url = {https://weis2019.econinfosec.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/6/2019/05/WEIS_2019_paper_30.pdf},
  booktitle = {The 2019 {Workshop} on the {Economics} of {Information} {Security}},
  year = {2019},
}
@book{stifter2019avoiding,
  author = {Nicholas Stifter and Matthias Eckhart and Bernhard Brenner and Edgar Weippl},
  title = {Avoiding {Risky} {Designs} {When} {Using} {Blockchain} {Technologies} in {Cyber}-{Physical} {Systems}},
  url = {https://www.sba-research.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/stifter_etfa_wip_2019.pdf},
  month = {September},
  year = {2019},
}
@inproceedings{boneh2003aggregate,
  author = {Dan Boneh and Craig Gentry and Ben Lynn and Hovav Shacham},
  title = {Aggregate and verifiably encrypted signatures from bilinear maps},
  booktitle = {International {Conference} on the {Theory} and {Applications} of {Cryptographic} {Techniques}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {416--432},
}
@inproceedings{chaum1992wallet,
  author = {David Chaum and Torben Pryds Pedersen},
  title = {Wallet databases with observers},
  booktitle = {Annual {International} {Cryptology} {Conference}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {1992},
  pages = {89--105},
}
@article{cramer1997secure,
  author = {Ronald Cramer and Rosario Gennaro and Berry Schoenmakers},
  title = {A secure and optimally efficient multi-authority election scheme},
  volume = {8},
  number = {5},
  journal = {European transactions on Telecommunications},
  year = {1997},
  note = {Publisher: Wiley Online Library},
  pages = {481--490},
}
@inproceedings{boneh2001short,
  author = {Dan Boneh and Ben Lynn and Hovav Shacham},
  title = {Short signatures from the {Weil} pairing},
  booktitle = {International {Conference} on the {Theory} and {Application} of {Cryptology} and {Information} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2001},
  pages = {514--532},
}
@article{camenisch1997proof,
  author = {Jan Camenisch and Markus Stadler},
  title = {Proof systems for general statements about discrete logarithms},
  volume = {260},
  journal = {Technical report/Dept. of Computer Science, ETH Z{\"u}rich},
  year = {1997},
  note = {Publisher: ETH Zurich},
}
@article{kate2012distributed,
  author = {Aniket Kate and Yizhou Huang and Ian Goldberg},
  title = {Distributed {Key} {Generation} in the {Wild}.},
  volume = {2012},
  journal = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
  year = {2012},
  note = {Publisher: Citeseer},
  pages = {377},
}
@inproceedings{kate2009distributed,
  author = {Aniket Kate and Ian Goldberg},
  title = {Distributed key generation for the internet},
  booktitle = {2009 29th {IEEE} {International} {Conference} on {Distributed} {Computing} {Systems}},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {119--128},
}
@inproceedings{canetti1999adaptive,
  author = {Ran Canetti and Rosario Gennaro and Stanis{\textbackslash}law Jarecki and Hugo Krawczyk and Tal Rabin},
  title = {Adaptive security for threshold cryptosystems},
  booktitle = {Annual {International} {Cryptology} {Conference}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {98--116},
}
@inproceedings{pedersen1991threshold,
  author = {Torben Pryds Pedersen},
  title = {A threshold cryptosystem without a trusted party},
  booktitle = {Workshop on the {Theory} and {Application} of of {Cryptographic} {Techniques}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {522--526},
}
@inproceedings{feldman1987practical,
  author = {Paul Feldman},
  title = {A {Practical} {Scheme} for {Non}-interactive {Verifiable} {Secret} {Sharing}},
  booktitle = {Foundations of {Computer} {Science}, 1987., 28th {Annual} {Symposium} on},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {1987},
  pages = {427--438},
}
@inproceedings{pedersen1991non-interactive,
  author = {Torben Pryds Pedersen},
  title = {Non-interactive and information-theoretic secure verifiable secret sharing},
  booktitle = {Annual {International} {Cryptology} {Conference}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {129--140},
}
@article{elgamal1985public,
  author = {Taher ElGamal},
  title = {A public key cryptosystem and a signature scheme based on discrete logarithms},
  volume = {31},
  number = {4},
  journal = {IEEE transactions on information theory},
  year = {1985},
  note = {Publisher: IEEE},
  pages = {469--472},
}
@article{castro2002practical,
  author = {Miguel Castro and Barbara Liskov},
  title = {Practical {Byzantine} fault tolerance and proactive recovery},
  volume = {20},
  number = {4},
  journal = {ACM Transactions on Computer Systems (TOCS)},
  year = {2002},
  note = {Publisher: ACM},
  pages = {398--461},
}
@article{rivest1996time-lock,
  author = {Ronald L Rivest and Adi Shamir and David A Wagner},
  title = {Time-lock puzzles and timed-release crypto},
  year = {1996},
  note = {Publisher: Massachusetts Institute of Technology},
}
@article{rabin1983transaction,
  author = {Michael O Rabin},
  title = {Transaction protection by beacons},
  volume = {27},
  number = {2},
  journal = {Journal of Computer and System Sciences},
  year = {1983},
  note = {Publisher: Elsevier},
  pages = {256--267},
}
@book{kokoris-kogias2018calypso,
  author = {Eleftherios Kokoris-Kogias and Enis Ceyhun Alp and Sandra Deepthy Siby and Nicolas Gailly and Linus Gasser and Philipp Jovanovic and Ewa Syta and Bryan Ford},
  title = {{CALYPSO}: {Auditable} {Sharing} of {Private} {Data} over {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/209},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/209},
}
@article{gennaro2003revisiting,
  author = {Rosario Gennaro and Stanislaw Jarecki and Hugo Krawczyk and Tal Rabin},
  title = {Revisiting the distributed key generation for discrete-log based cryptosystems},
  journal = {RSA Security'03},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {89--104},
}
@inproceedings{paquet-clouston2019ransomware,
  author = {Masarah Paquet-Clouston and Bernhard Haslhofer and Benoit Dupont},
  title = {Ransomware payments in the bitcoin ecosystem},
  volume = {5},
  url = {https://academic.oup.com/cybersecurity/article-pdf/doi/10.1093/cybsec/tyz003/28638629/tyz003.pdf},
  booktitle = {Journal of {Cybersecurity}},
  publisher = {Oxford University Press},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Issue: 1},
  pages = {tyz003},
}
@inproceedings{zhang2019lay,
  author = {Ren Zhang and Bart Preneel},
  title = {Lay down the common metrics: {Evaluating} proof-of-work consensus protocols' security},
  url = {https://www.esat.kuleuven.be/cosic/publications/article-3005.pdf},
  booktitle = {2019 {IEEE} {Symposium} on {Security} and {Privacy} ({SP}). {IEEE}},
  year = {2019},
}
@article{neji2016distributed,
  author = {Wafa Neji and Kaouther Blibech and Narjes Ben Rajeb},
  title = {Distributed key generation protocol with a new complaint management strategy},
  volume = {9},
  number = {17},
  journal = {Security and communication networks},
  year = {2016},
  note = {Publisher: Wiley Online Library},
  pages = {4585--4595},
}
@inproceedings{gennaro2003secure,
  author = {Rosario Gennaro and Stanislaw Jarecki and Hugo Krawczyk and Tal Rabin},
  title = {Secure applications of pedersen's distributed key generation protocol},
  booktitle = {Cryptographers' {Track} at the {RSA} {Conference}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {373--390},
}
@inproceedings{gennaro1999secure,
  author = {Rosario Gennaro and Stanis{\textbackslash}law Jarecki and Hugo Krawczyk and Tal Rabin},
  title = {Secure distributed key generation for discrete-log based cryptosystems},
  booktitle = {International {Conference} on the {Theory} and {Applications} of {Cryptographic} {Techniques}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {295--310},
}
@article{blakley1979safeguarding,
  author = {George Robert Blakley},
  title = {Safeguarding cryptographic keys},
  volume = {48},
  journal = {Proc. of the National Computer Conference},
  year = {1979},
  pages = {313--317},
}
@book{breitner2019biased,
  author = {Joachim Breitner and Nadia Heninger},
  title = {Biased {Nonce} {Sense}: {Lattice} {Attacks} against {Weak} {ECDSA} {Signatures} in {Cryptocurrencies}.},
  volume = {2019},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/023.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Publication Title: IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive},
}
@book{paquet-clouston2019spams,
  author = {Masarah Paquet-Clouston and Matteo Romiti and Bernhard Haslhofer and Thomas Charvat},
  title = {Spams meet {Cryptocurrencies}: {Sextortion} in the {Bitcoin} {Ecosystem}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.01051.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1908.01051},
}
@book{lesavre2019taxonomic,
  author = {Loic Lesavre and Priam Varin and Peter Mell and Michael Davidson and James Shook},
  title = {A {Taxonomic} {Approach} to {Understanding} {Emerging} {Blockchain} {Identity} {Management} {Systems}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.00929.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  doi = {10.6028/NIST.CSWP.07092019-draft},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1908.00929},
}
@book{botta2019rush,
  author = {Vincenzo Botta and Daniele Friolo and Daniele Venturi and Ivan Visconti},
  title = {The {Rush} {Dilemma}: {Attacking} and {Repairing} {Smart} {Contracts} on {Forking} {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/891.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/891},
}
@book{lu2019honeybadgermpc,
  author = {Donghang Lu and Thomas Yurek and Samarth Kulshreshtha and Rahul Govind and Rahul Mahadev and Aniket Kate and Andrew Miller},
  title = {{HoneyBadgerMPC} and {AsynchroMix}: {Practical} {AsynchronousMPC} and its {Application} to {Anonymous} {Communication}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/883.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/883},
}
@book{cohen2019round,
  author = {Ran Cohen and Iftach Haitner and Nikolaos Makriyannis and Matan Orland and Alex Samorodnitsky},
  title = {On the {Round} {Complexity} of {Randomized} {Byzantine} {Agreement}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/868.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/868},
}
@book{chan2019round,
  author = {T.-H. Hubert Chan and Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Round {Complexity} of {Byzantine} {Agreement}, {Revisited}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/886.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/886},
}
@book{zhou2019blockchain-based,
  author = {Yuyang Zhou and Yuanfeng Guan and Zhiwei Zhang and Fagen Li},
  title = {A {Blockchain}-{Based} {Access} {Control} {Scheme} for {Smart} {Grids}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/880.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/880},
}
@book{badertscher2019ouroboros,
  author = {Christian Badertscher and Peter Ga{\v z}i and Aggelos Kiayias and Alexander Russell and Vassilis Zikas},
  title = {Ouroboros {Chronos}: {Permissionless} {Clock} {Synchronization} via {Proof}-of-{Stake}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/838.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/838},
}
@book{wang2019another,
  author = {Yongge Wang},
  title = {Another {Look} at {Byzantine} {Fault} {Tolerance}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/864.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/864},
}
@article{ehmke2019properties,
  author = {Christopher Ehmke and Florian Blum and Volker Gruhn},
  title = {Properties of {Decentralized} {Consensus} {Technology} {\textendash} {Why} not every {Blockchain} is a {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.09289.pdf},
  doi = {10.13140/RG.2.2.35506.45765},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.09289},
}
@book{wust2019bitcontracts,
  author = {Karl W{\"u}st and Loris Diana and Kari Kostiainen and Ghassan Karame and Sinisa Matetic and Srdjan Capkun},
  title = {Bitcontracts: {Adding} {Expressive} {Smart} {Contracts} to {Legacy} {Cryptocurrencies}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/857.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/857},
}
@book{hartel2019truffle,
  author = {Pieter Hartel and Mark van Staalduinen},
  title = {Truffle tests for free {\textendash} {Replaying} {Ethereum} smart contracts for transparency},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.09208.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.09208},
}
@book{junis2019revisit,
  author = {Fengkie Junis and Faisal Malik Widya Prasetya and Farouq Ibrahim Lubay and Anny Kartika Sari},
  title = {A {Revisit} on {Blockchain}-based {Smart} {Contract} {Technology}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.09199.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.09199},
}
@book{turesson2019privacy-preserving,
  author = {Hjalmar Turesson and Alexandra Roatis and Marek Laskowski and Henry Kim},
  title = {Privacy-{Preserving} {Blockchain} {Mining}: {Sybil}-resistance by {Proof}-of-{Useful}-{Work}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.08744.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.08744},
}
@book{politou2019blockchain,
  author = {Eugenia Politou and Fran Casino and Efthimios Alepis and Constantinos Patsakis},
  title = {Blockchain {Mutability}: {Challenges} and {Proposed} {Solutions}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.07099.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.07099},
}
@book{agbele2019biometric,
  author = {Tobechukwu Agbele and Bing Xu and Richard Jiang},
  title = {Biometric {Blockchain}: {A} {Better} {Solution} for the {Security} and {Trust} of {Food} {Logistics}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.10589.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.10589},
}
@book{annenkov2019towards,
  author = {Danil Annenkov and Bas Spitters},
  title = {Towards a {Smart} {Contract} {Verification} {Framework} in {Coq}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.10674.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.10674},
}
@article{dyson2019challenges,
  author = {Simon Dyson and William J. Buchanan and Liam Bell},
  title = {The {Challenges} of {Investigating} {Cryptocurrencies} and {Blockchain} {Related} {Crime}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.12221.pdf},
  doi = {10.31585/jbba-1-2-(8)2018},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.12221 Published: The Journal of The British Blockchain Association, 1(2), 5779, 2018},
}
@book{li2019analysis,
  author = {Jing Li and Dongning Guo},
  title = {On {Analysis} of the {Bitcoin} and {Prism} {Backbone} {Protocols}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.05016.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.05016},
}
@inproceedings{nowostawski2019evaluating,
  author = {Mariusz Nowostawski and Jardar T{\o}n},
  title = {Evaluating {Methods} for the {Identification} of {Off}-{Chain} {Transactions} in the {Lightning} {Network}},
  volume = {9},
  url = {https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3417/9/12/2519/pdf},
  booktitle = {Applied {Sciences}},
  publisher = {Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Issue: 12},
  pages = {2519},
}
@book{richter2019crisis,
  author = {Mirco Richter},
  title = {Crisis: {Probabilistically} {Self} {Organizing} {Total} {Order} in {Unstructured} {P2P} {Networks}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/816.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/816},
}
@article{miraz2019lapps,
  author = {Mahdi H. Miraz and David C. Donald},
  title = {{LApps}: {Technological}, {Legal} and {Market} {Potentials} of {Blockchain} {Lightning} {Network} {Applications}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.11946.pdf},
  doi = {10.1145/3325917.3325942},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1906.11946},
}
@article{wang2019rhythm,
  author = {Tengfei Wang and Shuyi Zhang and Xiao Wu and Wei Cai},
  title = {Rhythm {Dungeon}: {A} {Blockchain}-based {Music} {Roguelike} {Game}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.00042.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.00042 Published: 2019 Foundation of Digital Games Demos (FDG 2019 DEMO), San Luis Obispo, California, USA, August 26-30, 2019},
}
@book{hercog2019taint,
  author = {Uro{\v s} Hercog and Andra{\v z} Pov{\v s}e},
  title = {Taint analysis of the {Bitcoin} network},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.01538.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.01538},
}
@book{manuskin2019ostraka,
  author = {Alex Manuskin and Michael Mirkin and Ittay Eyal},
  title = {Ostraka: {Secure} {Blockchain} {Scaling} by {Node} {Sharding}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.03331.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.03331},
}
@book{chao2019fair,
  author = {Tzu-Wei Chao and Hao Chung and Po-Chun Kuo},
  title = {Fair {Byzantine} {Agreements} for {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.03437.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.03437},
}
@book{ranchal-pedrosa2019platypus,
  author = {Alejandro Ranchal-Pedrosa and Vincent Gramoli},
  title = {Platypus: a {Partially} {Synchronous} {Offchain} {Protocol} for {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.03730.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.03730},
}
@book{shrey2019dipetrans,
  author = {Baheti Shrey and Anjana Parwat Singh and Peri Sathya and Simmhan Yogesh},
  title = {{DiPETrans}: {A} {Framework} for {Distributed} {Parallel} {Execution} of {Transactions} of {Blocks} in {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.11721.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1906.11721},
}
@book{kadhe2019sef,
  author = {Swanand Kadhe and Jichan Chung and Kannan Ramchandran},
  title = {{SeF}: {A} {Secure} {Fountain} {Architecture} for {Slashing} {Storage} {Costs} in {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1906.12140.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1906.12140},
}
@book{singhal2019metaanalysis,
  author = {Parth Singhal and Siddharth Masih},
  title = {{MetaAnalysis} of {Methods} for {Scaling} {Blockchain} {Technology} for {Automotive} {Uses}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.02602.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.02602},
}
@book{bu2019hyperpubsub,
  author = {Gewu Bu and Thanh Son Lam Nguyen and Maria Potop-Butucaru and Kim Thai},
  title = {{HyperPubSub}: {Blockchain} based {Publish}/{Subscribe}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.03627.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.03627},
}
@book{mossberg2019manticore,
  author = {Mark Mossberg and Felipe Manzano and Eric Hennenfent and Alex Groce and Gustavo Grieco and Josselin Feist and Trent Brunson and Artem Dinaburg},
  title = {Manticore: {A} {User}-{Friendly} {Symbolic} {Execution} {Framework} for {Binaries} and {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.03890.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.03890},
}
@book{zhauniarovich2019characterizing,
  author = {Yury Zhauniarovich and Yazan Boshmaf and Husam Al Jawaheri and Mashael Al Sabah},
  title = {Characterizing {Bitcoin} donations to open source software on {GitHub}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.04002.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.04002},
}
@book{aydar2019private,
  author = {Mehmet Aydar and Salih Cemil Cetin and Serkan Ayvaz and Betul Aygun},
  title = {Private key encryption and recovery in blockchain},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.04156.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.04156},
}
@book{weiss2019annotary,
  author = {Konrad Weiss and Julian Sch{\"u}tte},
  title = {Annotary: {A} {Concolic} {Execution} {System} for {Developing} {Secure} {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.03868.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.03868},
}
@book{fotiou2019secure,
  author = {Nikos Fotiou and Iakovos Pittaras and Vasilios A. Siris and Spyros Voulgaris and George C. Polyzos},
  title = {Secure {IoT} access at scale using blockchains and smart contracts},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.03904.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.03904},
}
@book{hajdu2019solc-verify,
  author = {{\'A}kos Hajdu and Dejan Jovanovi{\'c}},
  title = {solc-verify: {A} {Modular} {Verifier} for {Solidity} {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1907.04262.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1907.04262},
}
@book{mazumdar2019design,
  author = {Subhra Mazumdar and Sushmita Ruj},
  title = {Design of {Anonymous} {Endorsement} {System} in {Hyperledger} {Fabric}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/753.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/753},
}
@book{han2019sucker,
  author = {Runchao Han and Zhimei Sui and Jiangshan Yu and Joseph Liu and Shiping Chen},
  title = {Sucker punch makes you richer: {Rethinking} {Proof}-of-{Work} security model},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/752.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/752},
}
@inproceedings{alistarh2010how,
  author = {Dan Alistarh and Seth Gilbert and Rachid Guerraoui and Morteza Zadimoghaddam},
  address = {Berlin, Heidelberg},
  series = {Lecture {Notes} in {Computer} {Science}},
  title = {How {Efficient} {Can} {Gossip} {Be}? ({On} the {Cost} of {Resilient} {Information} {Exchange})},
  isbn = {978-3-642-14162-1},
  shorttitle = {How {Efficient} {Can} {Gossip} {Be}?},
  doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-14162-1_10},
  abstract = {Gossip, also known as epidemic dissemination, is becoming an increasingly popular technique in distributed systems. Yet, it has remained a partially open question: how robust are such protocols? We consider a natural extension of the random phone-call model (introduced by Karp et al. [1]), and we analyze two different notions of robustness: the ability to tolerate adaptive failures, and the ability to tolerate oblivious failures.For adaptive failures, we present a new gossip protocol, TrickleGossip, which achieves near-optimal O(n log3 n) message complexity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first epidemic-style protocol that can tolerate adaptive failures. We also show a direct relation between resilience and message complexity, demonstrating that gossip protocols which tolerate a large number of adaptive failures need to use a super-linear number of messages with high probability.For oblivious failures, we present a new gossip protocol, CoordinatedGossip, that achieves optimal O(n) message complexity. This protocol makes novel use of the universe reduction technique to limit the message complexity.},
  language = {en},
  booktitle = {Automata, {Languages} and {Programming}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {115--126},
}
@inproceedings{correia2010asynchronous,
  author = {Miguel Correia and Giuliana S Veronese and Lau Cheuk Lung},
  title = {Asynchronous {Byzantine} consensus with 2f+1 processes},
  url = {http://www.navigators.di.fc.ul.pt/archive/papers/consensus2f11.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2010 {ACM} symposium on applied computing},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {475--480},
}
@inproceedings{mostefaoui2014signature-free,
  author = {Achour Mostefaoui and Hamouma Moumen and Michel Raynal},
  title = {Signature-free asynchronous {Byzantine} consensus with ??{\textless}$^{n}${\textfractionsolidus}3 and ??(??{\texttwosuperior}) messages},
  url = {https://hal.inria.fr/file/index/docid/944816/filename/RR-2016-Consensus-optimal-V5.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2014 {ACM} symposium on {Principles} of distributed computing},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2014},
  pages = {2--9},
}
@book{fanti2019barracuda,
  author = {Giulia Fanti and Jiantao Jiao and Ashok Makkuva and Sewoong Oh and Ranvir Rana and Pramod Viswanath},
  title = {Barracuda: {The} {Power} of l-polling in {Proof}-of-{Stake} {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.08719.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1909.08719},
}
@book{teutsch2017scalable,
  author = {Jason Teutsch and Christian Reitwie{\ss}ner},
  title = {A scalable verification solution for blockchains},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.04756.pdf},
  month = {March},
  year = {2017},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1908.04756},
}
@book{aoki2019simblock,
  author = {Yusuke Aoki and Kai Otsuki and Takeshi Kaneko and Ryohei Banno and Kazuyuki Shudo},
  title = {{SimBlock}: {A} {Blockchain} {Network} {Simulator}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1901.09777.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1901.09777},
}
@inproceedings{miller2015shadow-bitcoin,
  author = {Andrew Miller and Rob Jansen},
  title = {Shadow-{Bitcoin}: scalable simulation via direct execution of multi-threaded applications},
  url = {https://www.usenix.org/system/files/conference/cset15/cset15-miller.pdf},
  booktitle = {8th {Workshop} on {Cyber} {Security} {Experimentation} and {Test} ({CSET} 15)},
  year = {2015},
}
@book{mohanty2019pufchain,
  author = {Saraju P. Mohanty and Venkata P. Yanambaka and Elias Kougianos and Deepak Puthal},
  title = {{PUFchain}: {Hardware}-{Assisted} {Blockchain} for {Sustainable} {Simultaneous} {Device} and {Data} {Security} in the {Internet} of {Everything} ({IoE})},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.06494.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1909.06496},
}
@book{faria2019blocksim,
  author = {Carlos Faria and Miguel Correia},
  title = {{BlockSim}: {Blockchain} {Simulator}},
  url = {https://www.carlosfaria.com/papers/blocksim-blockchain-simulator.pdf},
  year = {2019},
}
@book{chitra2019agent-based,
  author = {Tarun Chitra and Monica Quaintance and Stuart Haber and Will Martino},
  title = {Agent-{Based} {Simulations} of {Blockchain} protocols illustrated via {Kadena}'s {Chainweb}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.12924.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: arXiv:1904.12924},
}
@book{rosa2019agent-based,
  author = {Edoardo Rosa and Gabriele D'Angelo and Stefano Ferretti},
  title = {Agent-based {Simulation} of {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1908.11811.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1908.11811},
}
@book{duong20172-hop,
  author = {Tuyet Duong and Lei Fan and Hong-Sheng Zhou},
  title = {2-hop {Blockchain}: {Combining} {Proof}-of-{Work} and {Proof}-of-{Stake} {Securely}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/716.pdf},
  month = {April},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2016/716},
}
@inproceedings{zamyatin2018wild,
  author = {Alexei Zamyatin and Nicholas Stifter and Aljosha Judmayer and Philipp Schindler and Edgar Weippl and William J. Knottebelt},
  title = {A {Wild} {Velvet} {Fork} {Appears}! {Inclusive} {Blockchain} {Protocol} {Changes} in {Practice}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/087.pdf},
  booktitle = {5th {Workshop} on {Bitcoin} and {Blockchain} {Research}, {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security} 18 ({FC}). {Springer}},
  year = {2018},
  note = {(Short Paper)},
}
@article{torres2020aegis,
  author = {Christof Ferreira Torres and Mathis Baden and Robert Norvill and Beltran Borja Fiz Pontiveros and Hugo Jonker and Sjouke Mauw},
  title = {{\AE}{GIS}: {Shielding} {Vulnerable} {Smart} {Contracts} {Against} {Attacks}},
  shorttitle = {{\AE}{GIS}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2003.05987},
  abstract = {In recent years, smart contracts have suffered major exploits, costing millions of dollars. Unlike traditional programs, smart contracts are deployed on a blockchain. As such, they cannot be modified once deployed. Though various tools have been proposed to detect vulnerable smart contracts, the majority fails to protect vulnerable contracts that have already been deployed on the blockchain. Only very few solutions have been proposed so far to tackle the issue of post-deployment. However, these solutions suffer from low precision and are not generic enough to prevent any type of attack. In this work, we introduce \{{\textbackslash}AE\}GIS, a dynamic analysis tool that protects smart contracts from being exploited during runtime. Its capability of detecting new vulnerabilities can easily be extended through so-called attack patterns. These patterns are written in a domain-specific language that is tailored to the execution model of Ethereum smart contracts. The language enables the description of malicious control and data flows. In addition, we propose a novel mechanism to streamline and speed up the process of managing attack patterns. Patterns are voted upon and stored via a smart contract, thus leveraging the benefits of tamper-resistance and transparency provided by the blockchain. We compare \{{\textbackslash}AE\}GIS to current state-of-the-art tools and demonstrate that our solution achieves higher precision in detecting attacks. Finally, we perform a large-scale analysis on the first 4.5 million blocks of the Ethereum blockchain, thereby confirming the occurrences of well reported and yet unreported attacks in the wild.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2003.05987 [cs]},
  month = {March},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2003.05987},
}
@article{bortnikov2009brahms,
  author = {Edward Bortnikov and Maxim Gurevich and Idit Keidar and Gabriel Kliot and Alexander Shraer},
  title = {Brahms: {Byzantine} resilient random membership sampling},
  volume = {53},
  shorttitle = {Brahms},
  number = {13},
  journal = {Computer Networks},
  year = {2009},
  note = {Publisher: Elsevier},
  pages = {2340--2359},
}
@article{bairdnodatehashgraph,
  author = {Leemon Baird and Atul Luykx},
  title = {The {Hashgraph} {Protocol}: {Efficient} {Asynchronous} {BFT} for {High}-{Throughput} {Distributed} {Ledgers}},
  shorttitle = {The {Hashgraph} {Protocol}},
}
@techreport{aumayr2020bitcoin-compatible,
  author = {Lukas Aumayr and Oguzhan Ersoy and Andreas Erwig and Sebastian Faust and Kristina Host{\'a}kov{\'a} and Matteo Maffei and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Siavash Riahi},
  title = {Bitcoin-{Compatible} {Virtual} {Channels}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/554},
  abstract = {Current permissionless cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin suffer from a limited transaction rate and slow confirmation time, which hinders their large scale adoption. Payment channels are one of the most promising solutions to address these problems, as they allow two end-points of the channel to perform arbitrarily many payments in a peer-to-peer fashion while uploading only two transactions on the blockchain. This concept has been generalized into payment-channel networks where a path of payment channels is used to settle the payment between two users that might not share a channel between them. However, this approach requires the active involvement of each user in the path, making the system less reliable (they might be offline), more expensive (they charge fees per payment) and slower (intermediaries need to be actively involved in the payment). To mitigate this issue, recent work has introduced the concept of virtual channels, which involve intermediaries only in the initial creation of a bridge between payer and payee, who can later on independently perform arbitrarily many off-chain transactions. Unfortunately, existing constructions are only available for Ethereum, as they rely on its account model and Turing-complete scripting language. The realization of virtual channels in other blockchain technologies with limited scripting capabilities, like Bitcoin, was considered so far an open challenge.},
  number = {554},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{benhamouda2020can,
  author = {Fabrice Benhamouda and Craig Gentry and Sergey Gorbunov and Shai Halevi and Hugo Krawczyk and Chengyu Lin and Tal Rabin and Leonid Reyzin},
  title = {Can a {Blockchain} {Keep} a {Secret}?},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/464},
  abstract = {Blockchains are gaining traction and acceptance, not just for cryptocurrencies but increasingly as a general-purpose architecture for distributed computing. In this work we seek solutions that allow a blockchain to act as a trusted long-term repository of secret information: Our goal is to deposit a secret with the blockchain and specify how to use it (e.g., the conditions under which it is released), and have the blockchain keep this information secret and use it only in the requested manner (e.g., only release it once the conditions are met). This simple functionality would be an enabler for many powerful applications, including signing statements on behalf of the blockchain, using blockchain as the control plane for a storage system, performing decentralized program-obfuscation-as-a-service, and many more. We present a scalable solution for implementing this functionality on a public proof-of-stake blockchain, in the presence of a mobile adversary controlling a small minority of the stake, using proactive secret sharing techniques. The main challenge is that, on the one hand, scalability requires that we use small committees to represent the entire stake, but, on the other hand, a mobile adversary may be able to corrupt the entire committee if it is small. For this reason, prior proactive secret sharing solutions are either non-scalable or insecure in our setting. We solve this issue using "player replaceability", where the committee is anonymous until after it performs its actions, as in the Algorand blockchain. (Algorand uses player replaceability to defend against DDoS attacks.) Our main technical contribution is a system that allows sharing and re-sharing of secrets among the members of small dynamic committees, without knowing who they are until after they perform their actions. Our solution handles a fully mobile adversary corrupting less than 25\% of the stake at any time, and is scalable in terms of both the number of parties on the blockchain and the number of time intervals.},
  number = {464},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{aare2020ritva,
  author = {Henri Aare and Peter Vitols},
  title = {The {Ritva} {Blockchain}: {Enabling} {Confidential} {Transactions} at {Scale}},
  shorttitle = {The {Ritva} {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/642},
  abstract = {The distributed ledger technology has been widely hailed as the break- through technology. It has realised a great number of application scenarios, and improved workflow of many domains. Nonetheless, there remain a few major concerns in adopting and deploying the distributed ledger technology at scale. In this white paper, we tackle two of them, namely the throughput scalability and confidentiality protection for transactions. We learn from the existing body of research, and build a scale-out blockchain plat- form that champions privacy called RVChain. RVChain takes advantage of trusted execution environment to offer confidentiality protection for transactions, and scale the throughput of the network in proportion with the number of network participants by supporting parallel shadow chains.},
  number = {642},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{aumayr2020generalized,
  author = {Lukas Aumayr and Oguzhan Ersoy and Andreas Erwig and Sebastian Faust and Kristina Hostakova and Matteo Maffei and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Siavash Riahi},
  title = {Generalized {Bitcoin}-{Compatible} {Channels}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/476},
  abstract = {The widespread adoption of decentralized cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin or Ethereum, is currently hindered by their inherently limited transaction rate. One of the most prominent proposals to tackle this scalability issue are payment channels which allow mutually distrusted parties to exchange an arbitrary number of payments in the form of off-chain authenticated messages while posting only a limited number of transactions onto the blockchain. Specifically, two transactions suffice, unless a dispute between these parties occurs, in which case more on-chain transactions are required to restore the correct balance. Unfortunately, popular constructions, such as the Lightning network for Bitcoin, suffer from heavy communication complexity both off-chain and on-chain in case of dispute. Concretely, the communication overhead grows exponentially and linearly, respectively, in the number of applications that run in the channel. In this work, we introduce and formalize the notion of generalized channels for Bitcoin-like cryptocurrencies. Generalized channels significantly extend the concept of payment channels so as to perform off-chain any operation supported by the underlying blockchain. Besides the gain in expressiveness, generalized channels outperform state-of-the-art payment channel constructions in efficiency, reducing the communication complexity and the on-chain footprint in case of disputes to linear and constant, respectively. We provide a cryptographic instantiation of generalized channels that is compatible with Bitcoin, leveraging adaptor signatures -- a cryptographic primitive already used in the cryptocurrency literature but formalized as a standalone primitive in this work for the first time. We formally prove the security of our construction in the Universal Composability framework. Furthermore, we conduct an experimental evaluation, demonstrating the expressiveness and performance of generalized channels when used as building blocks for popular off-chain applications, such as channel splitting and payment-channel networks.},
  number = {476},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{bagad2020confidentiality,
  author = {Suyash Bagad and Saravanan Vijayakumaran},
  title = {On the {Confidentiality} of {Amounts} in {Grin}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/723},
  abstract = {Pedersen commitments have been adopted by several cryptocurrencies for hiding transaction amounts. While Pedersen commitments are perfectly hiding in isolation, the cryptocurrency transaction rules can reveal relationships between the amounts hidden in the commitments involved in the transaction. Such relationships can be combined with the public coin creation schedule to provide upper bounds on the number of coins in a commitment. In this paper, we consider the Grin cryptocurrency and derive upper bounds on the number of coins which can be present in regular transaction outputs. In a March 2020 snapshot of the Grin blockchain, we find that out of the 110,149 unspent regular transaction outputs 983 of them have less than 1800 grin (number of coins typically minted in half an hour) stored in them. On the other hand, 95\% of the unspent regular transaction outputs in the snapshot have an upper bound which is at least 90\% of the total Grin supply at their respective block heights. We conclude that while our method does not violate the confidentiality of the amounts in most of the outputs on the Grin blockchain, the amounts in some outputs can be estimated to be in a narrow range.},
  number = {723},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{baldimtsi2020anonymous,
  author = {Foteini Baldimtsi and Varun Madathil and Alessandra Scafuro and Linfeng Zhou},
  title = {Anonymous {Lottery} in the {Proof}-of-{Stake} {Setting}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/533},
  abstract = {When Proof-of-Stake (PoS) underlies a consensus protocol, parties who are eligible to participate in the protocol are selected via a public selection function that depends on the stake they own. Identity and stake of the selected parties must then be disclosed in order to allow verification of their eligibility, and this can raise privacy concerns. In this paper, we present a modular approach for addressing the identity leaks of selection functions, decoupling the problem of implementing an anonymous selection of the participants, from the problem of implementing others task, e.g. consensus. We present an ideal functionality for anonymous selection that can be more easily composed with other protocols. We then show an instantiation of our anonymous selection functionality based on the selection function of Algorand.},
  number = {533},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{bonneau2020coda,
  author = {Joseph Bonneau and Izaak Meckler and Vanishree Rao and Evan Shapiro},
  title = {Coda: {Decentralized} {Cryptocurrency} at {Scale}},
  shorttitle = {Coda},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/352},
  abstract = {We introduce the notion of a succinct blockchain, a replicated state machine in which each state transition (block) can be efficiently verified in constant time regardless of the number of prior transitions in the system. Traditional blockchains require verification time linear in the number of transitions. We show how to construct a succinct blockchain using recursively composed succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge (SNARKs). Finally, we instantiate this construction to implement Coda, a payment system (cryptocurrency) using a succinct blockchain. Coda offers payment functionality similar to Bitcoin, with a dramatically faster verification time of 200ms making it practical for lightweight clients and mobile devices to perform full verification of the system{\textquoteright}s history.},
  number = {352},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{chen2020towards,
  author = {Xinkai Chen and Ming Li and Anjia Yang},
  title = {Towards {Interpreting} {Smart} {Contract} against {Contract} {Fraud}: {A} {Practical} and {Automatic} {Realization}},
  shorttitle = {Towards {Interpreting} {Smart} {Contract} against {Contract} {Fraud}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/574},
  abstract = {Contract fraud is a big nuisance in our society. People are scammed largely because of vague language used in contracts, which can cause misunderstandings. Therefore, people will seek professional help to review over ambiguous terms, especially, when signing a big contract, for example, leasing or buying property. With the advent of Ethereum blockchain, a new type of contract, named smart contract, is emerging nowadays, enabling people to describe a complicated logic as an automatically executable computer program. However, due to the lack of the computer background and software development experience, many people have difficulty in understanding blockchain-based smart contracts, which is adverse to the popularization of Ethereum. It has resulted in a new wave of contract fraud caused by smart contracts, which are self-executing and self-enforcing but also hard to understand by people. To fill this huge gap, we propose an approach to enable people without computer background to understand and operate Ethereum smart contracts. In doing so, smart contract fraud can be deterred if people have a better understanding of contract terms. Particularly, we investigate the general rules of the smart contract code, and build a novel tool named SMTranslator to automatically generate readable document. SMTranslator first translates smart contracts into standard structured files and identifies the core statement of each function in smart contracts. By exploiting the custom natural language generation, we generate the documents for smart contracts that can provide correct and understandable descriptions. We collect numerous contracts in Ethereum and select a number of typical contracts to conduct the experiments. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our approach.},
  number = {574},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{chepurnoy2020zerojoin,
  author = {Alexander Chepurnoy and Amitabh Saxena},
  title = {{ZeroJoin}: {Combining} {ZeroCoin} and {CoinJoin}},
  shorttitle = {{ZeroJoin}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/560},
  abstract = {We present ZeroJoin, a practical privacy-enhancing protocol for blockchain transactions. ZeroJoin can be considered a combination of ZeroCoin and CoinJoin. It borrows ideas from both but attempts to overcome some of their drawbacks. Like ZeroCoin, our protocol uses zero-knowledge proofs and a pool of participants. However, unlike ZeroCoin, our proofs are very efficient, and our pool size is not monotonically increasing. Thus, our protocol overcomes the two major drawbacks of ZeroCoin. Our approach can also be considered a non-interactive variant of CoinJoin, where the interaction is replaced by a public transaction on the blockchain. The security of ZeroJoin is based on the Decision Diffie-Hellman (DDH) assumption. We also present ErgoMix, a practical implementation of ZeroJoin on top of Ergo, a smart contract platform based on Sigma protocols. While ZeroJoin contains the key ideas, it leaves open the practical issue of handling fees. The key contribution of ErgoMix is a novel approach to handle fee in ZeroJoin.},
  number = {560},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{dziembowski2020lower,
  author = {Stefan Dziembowski and Grzegorz Fabia{\'n}ski and Sebastian Faust and Siavash Riahi},
  title = {Lower {Bounds} for {Off}-{Chain} {Protocols}: {Exploring} the {Limits} of {Plasma}},
  shorttitle = {Lower {Bounds} for {Off}-{Chain} {Protocols}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/175},
  abstract = {Most of blockchains do not scale well, i.e., they cannot process quickly large amounts of transactions. Moreover, using blockchains can be expensive in real life, since blockchain operations cost fees. One of the remedies for these problem are {\textbackslash}emph\{off-chain\} (or: {\textbackslash}emph\{Layer-2\}) protocols where the massive bulk of transactions is kept outside of the main blockchain. In the optimistic case, off-chain protocols drastically improve scalability, since typically the users only need to communicate with the blockchain when they enter, or when they exit the system. In the pessimistic case when parties are malicious a ``smart contract'' running on the underlying blockchain guarantees that no coins are stolen. In this work we initiate the study of the inherent limitations of off-chain protocols. Concretely, we investigate the so-called {\textbackslash}emph\{Plasma\} systems (also called ``commit chains''), and show that malicious parties can always launch an attack that forces the honest parties to communicate large amounts of data to the blockchain. More concretely: the adversary can always (a) either force the honest parties to communicate a lot with the blockchain, even though they did not intend to (this is traditionally called {\textbackslash}emph\{mass exit\}); or (b) an honest party that wants to leave the system needs to quickly communicate large amounts of data to the blockchain. What makes these attacks particularly hard to handle in real life (and also making our result stronger) is that these attacks do not have so-called {\textbackslash}emph\{uniquely attributable faults\}, i.e.{\textasciitilde}the smart contract cannot determine which party is malicious, and hence cannot force it to pay the fees for the blockchain interaction. An important implication of our result is that the benefits of two of the most prominent Plasma types, called {\textbackslash}emph\{Plasma Cash\} and {\textbackslash}emph\{Fungible Plasma\}, cannot be achieved simultaneously. Our results apply to every Plasma system, and cannot be circumvent by introducing additional cryptographic assumptions.},
  number = {175},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{dziembowski2020non,
  author = {Stefan Dziembowski and Pawe{\l } K{\k e}dzior},
  title = {Non {Atomic} {Payment} {Splitting} in {Channel} {Networks}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/166},
  abstract = {{\textbackslash}emph\{Off-chain channel networks\} are one of the most promising technologies for dealing with blockchain scalability and delayed finality issues. Parties that are connected within such networks can send coins to each other without interacting with the blockchain. Moreover, these payments can be ``routed'' over the network. Thanks to this, even the parties that do not have a channel in common can perform payments between each other with the help of intermediaries. In this paper, we introduce a new notion that we call {\textbackslash}emph\{Non-Atomic Payment Splitting (NAPS) protocols\} that allow the intermediaries in the network to split the payments recursively into several sub-payments in such a way that the payment can be successful ``partially'' (i.e.{\textasciitilde}not all the requested amount may be transferred). This is in contrast with the existing splitting techniques that are ``atomic'' in the sense that they did not allow such partial payments (we compare the ``atomic'' and ``non-atomic'' approach in the paper). We define NAPS formally, and then present a protocol, that we call ``EthNA'', that satisfies this definition. EthNA is based on very simple and efficient cryptographic tools, and in particular does not use any expensive cryptographic primitives. We implement a simple variant of EthNA in Solidity and provide some benchmarks. We also report on some experiments with routing using EthNA.},
  number = {166},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{fitzi2020ledger,
  author = {Matthias Fitzi and Peter Gazi and Aggelos Kiayias and Alexander Russell},
  title = {Ledger {Combiners} for {Fast} {Settlement}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/675},
  abstract = {Blockchain protocols based on variations of the longest-chain rule--whether following the proof-of-work paradigm or one of its alternatives--suffer from a fundamental latency barrier. This arises from the need to collect a sufficient number of blocks on top of a transaction-bearing block to guarantee the transaction's stability while limiting the rate at which blocks can be created in order to prevent security-threatening forks. Operationally, our construction shows how to view any family of blockchains as a unified, virtual ledger without requiring any coordination among the chains or any new protocol metadata. Users of the system have the option to inject a transaction into a single constituent blockchain or--if they desire accelerated settlement--all of the constituent blockchains. Our presentation and proofs introduce a new formalism for reasoning about blockchains, the dynamic ledger, and articulate our constructions as transformations of dynamic ledgers that amplify security. We additionally illustrate the versatility of this formalism by presenting a class of robust-combiner constructions for blockchains that can protect against complete adversarial control of a minority of a family of blockchains.},
  number = {675},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@article{gao2020checking,
  author = {Zhipeng Gao and Lingxiao Jiang and Xin Xia and David Lo and John Grundy},
  title = {Checking {Smart} {Contracts} with {Structural} {Code} {Embedding}},
  issn = {0098-5589, 1939-3520, 2326-3881},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2001.07125},
  doi = {10.1109/TSE.2020.2971482},
  abstract = {Smart contracts have been increasingly used together with blockchains to automate financial and business transactions. However, many bugs and vulnerabilities have been identified in many contracts which raises serious concerns about smart contract security, not to mention that the blockchain systems on which the smart contracts are built can be buggy. Thus, there is a significant need to better maintain smart contract code and ensure its high reliability. In this paper, we propose an automated approach to learn characteristics of smart contracts in Solidity, which is useful for clone detection, bug detection and contract validation on smart contracts. Our new approach is based on word embeddings and vector space comparison. We parse smart contract code into word streams with code structural information, convert code elements (e.g., statements, functions) into numerical vectors that are supposed to encode the code syntax and semantics, and compare the similarities among the vectors encoding code and known bugs, to identify potential issues. We have implemented the approach in a prototype, named SmartEmbed. Results show that our tool can effectively identify many repetitive instances of Solidity code, where the clone ratio is around 90{\textbackslash}\%. Code clones such as type-III or even type-IV semantic clones can also be detected accurately. Our tool can identify more than 1000 clone related bugs based on our bug databases efficiently and accurately. Our tool can also help to efficiently validate any given smart contract against a known set of bugs, which can help to improve the users' confidence in the reliability of the contract. The anonymous replication packages can be accessed at: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1kauLT3y2IiHPkUlVx4FSTda-dVAyL4za/view?usp=sharing, and evaluated it with more than 22,000 smart contracts collected from the Ethereum blockchain.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2001.07125},
  pages = {1--1},
}
@techreport{burdges2020overview,
  author = {Jeff Burdges and Alfonso Cevallos and Peter Czaban and Rob Habermeier and Syed Hosseini and Fabio Lama and Handan Kilinc Alper and Ximin Luo and Fatemeh Shirazi and Alistair Stewart and Gavin Wood},
  title = {Overview of {Polkadot} and its {Design} {Considerations}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/641},
  abstract = {In this paper we describe the design components of the heterogenous multi-chain protocol Polkadot and explain how these components help Polkadot address some of the existing shortcomings of blockchain technologies. At present, a vast number of blockchain projects have been introduced and employed with various features that are not necessarily designed to work with each other. This makes it difficult for users to utilise a large number of applications on different blockchain projects. Moreover, with the increase in number of projects the security that each one is providing individually becomes weaker. Polkadot aims to provide a scalable and interoperable framework for multiple chains with pooled security that is achieved by the collection of components described in this paper.},
  number = {641},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{chan2020blockchain,
  author = {T.-H. Hubert Chan and Naomi Ephraim and Antonio Marcedone and Andrew Morgan and Rafael Pass and Elaine Shi},
  title = {Blockchain with {Varying} {Number} of {Players}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/677},
  abstract = {Nakamoto's famous blockchain protocol enables achieving consensus in a so-called permissionless setting--anyone can join (or leave) the protocol execution, and the protocol instructions do not depend on the identities of the players. His ingenious protocol prevents ``sybil attacks'' (where an adversary spawns any number of new players) by relying on computational puzzles (a.k.a. ``moderately hard functions'') introduced by Dwork and Naor (Crypto'92). Recent work by Garay et al (EuroCrypt'15) and Pass et al. (EuroCrypt'17) demonstrate that this protocol provably achieves consistency and liveness assuming a) honest players control a majority of the computational power in the network, b) the puzzle-difficulty is appropriately set as a function of the maximum network message delay and the total computational power of the network, and c) the computational puzzle is modeled as a random oracle. These works, however, leave open the question of how to set the puzzle difficulty in a setting where the computational power in the network is changing. Nakamoto's protocol indeed also includes a description of a difficutly update procedure. A recent work by Garay et al. (Crypto'17) indeed shows a variant of this difficulty adjustment procedure can be used to get a sound protocol as long as the computational power does not change too fast --- however, under two restrictions: 1) their analysis assumes that the attacker cannot delays network messages, and 2) the changes in computational power in the network changes are statically set (i.e., cannot be adaptively selected by the adversary). In this work, we show the same result but without these two restrictions, demonstrating the soundness of a (slightly different) difficulty update procedure, assuming only that the computational power in the network does not change too fast (as a function of the maximum network message delays); as an additional contribution, our analysis yields a tight bound on the ``chain quality'' of the protocol.},
  number = {677},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{dembo2020everything,
  author = {Amir Dembo and Sreeram Kannan and Ertem Nusret Tas and David Tse and Pramod Viswanath and Xuechao Wang and Ofer Zeitouni},
  title = {Everything is a {Race} and {Nakamoto} {Always} {Wins}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/601},
  abstract = {Nakamoto invented the longest chain protocol, and claimed its security by analyzing the private double-spend attack, a race between the adversary and the honest nodes to grow a longer chain. But is it the worst attack? We answer the question in the affirmative for three classes of longest chain protocols, designed for different consensus models: 1) Nakamoto's original Proof-of-Work protocol; 2) Ouroboros and SnowWhite Proof-of-Stake protocols; 3) Chia Proof-of-Space protocol. As a consequence, exact characterization of the maximum tolerable adversary power is obtained for each protocol as a function of the average block time normalized by the network delay. The security analysis of these protocols is performed in a unified manner by a novel method of reducing all attacks to a race between the adversary and the honest nodes.},
  number = {601},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{garay2020full,
  author = {Juan Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos},
  title = {Full {Analysis} of {Nakamoto} {Consensus} in {Bounded}-{Delay} {Networks}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/277},
  abstract = {Nakamoto consensus, arguably the most exciting development in distributed computing in the last few years, is in a sense a recasting of the traditional state-machine-replication problem in an unauthenticated setting, where furthermore parties come and go without warning. The protocol relies on a cryptographic primitive known as proof of work (PoW) which is used to throttle message passing with the PoW difficulty level being adjusted appropriately throughout the course of the protocol execution. While the original formulation was only accompanied by rudimentary analysis, significant and steady progress has been made in abstracting out the protocol{\textquoteright}s properties and providing a formal analysis under various restrictions, starting with the work by Garay, Kiayias and Leonardos [Eurocrypt {\textquoteright}15], for a simplified version of the protocol which excluded PoW difficulty adjustment and assumed a fixed number of parties as well as synchronous communication rounds. These assumptions have since been somewhat relaxed, first by Pass, Seeman and Shelat [Eurocrypt {\textquoteright}17] who also focused on the simplified version of the protocol but on the bounded-delay model of communication, and by Garay, Kiayias and Leonardos [Crypto {\textquoteright}17] who looked into the full protocol including the PoW difficulty adjustment mechanism with a variable number of parties but assuming synchronous communication and a predetermined schedule of participation. Despite the above progress, the full analysis of the protocol in the more realistic setting of bounded delays and dynamic participation has remained elusive. This paper{\textquoteright}s main result is the proof that Nakamoto{\textquoteright}s protocol achieves, under suitable conditions, consistency and liveness in bounded-delay networks with adaptive (as opposed to predetermined) dynamic participation assuming, as before, that the majority of the computational power favors the honest parties. While our techniques draw from previous analyses, our objective is significantly more challenging, demanding the introduction of new techniques and insights in order to realize it.},
  number = {277},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{gazi2020tight,
  author = {Peter Ga{\v z}i and Aggelos Kiayias and Alexander Russell},
  title = {Tight {Consistency} {Bounds} for {Bitcoin}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/661},
  abstract = {We establish the optimal security threshold for the Bitcoin protocol in terms of adversarial hashing power, honest hashing power, and network delays. Specifically, we prove that the protocol is secure if whereis the expected number of honest proof-of-work successes in unit time,is the expected number of adversarial successes, and no message is delayed by more thantime units. In this regime, the protocol guarantees consistency and liveness with exponentially decaying failure probabilities. Outside this region, the simple private chain attack prevents consensus. Our analysis immediately applies to any Nakamoto-style proof-of-work protocol; we also present the adaptations needed to apply it in the proof-of-stake setting, establishing a similar threshold there.},
  number = {661},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{hartman2020bitfund,
  author = {Darrow R. Hartman},
  title = {{BitFund}: {A} {Benevolent} {Blockchain} {Funding} {Network}},
  shorttitle = {{BitFund}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/579},
  abstract = {A decentralized funding system that supports companies of online products through mining cryptocurrencies and which renders mining pools benign. Working in tandem with blockchain cryptocurrencies, the system utilizes a user{\textquoteright}s computing power to mine cryptocurrencies and future blockchain technologies. The system mines cryptocurrencies through a machine{\textquoteright}s hardware during periods of low usage from the user. The blockchain payments received from the mining will be divvied between the services the user accesses via a percentage of use. A layer of blockchain technology is added to authenticate companies of online products and confirm the wallets of these companies. Each block contains the online service wallet{\textquoteright}s public key for approved cryptocurrencies, a form of communication, and a DNS to confirm transmissions to the correct online service. After widespread adoption, disputes of DNS registration will result in the oldest block being the legitimate owner. Online services registered would be responsible for updating the blockchain. As the decentralized network of machines grows, the threat of manipulation through the 51\% attack decreases as large mining pools lose the percentage of mining they have.},
  number = {579},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{kamp2020leveraging,
  author = {Simon Holmgaard Kamp and Bernardo Magri and Christian Matt and Jesper Buus Nielsen and S{\o}ren Eller Thomsen and Daniel Tschudi},
  title = {Leveraging {Weight} {Functions} for {Optimistic} {Responsiveness} in {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/328},
  abstract = {Existing Nakamoto-style blockchains (NSBs) rely on some sort of synchrony assumption to offer any type of safety guarantees. A basic requirement is that when a party produces a new block, then all previously produced blocks should be known to that party, as otherwise the new block might not append the current head of the chain, creating a fork. In practice, however, the network delay for parties to receive messages is not a known constant, but rather varies over time. The consequence is that the parameters of the blockchain need to be set such that the time between the generation of two blocks is typically larger than the network delay (e.g.,minutes in Bitcoin) to guarantee security even under bad network conditions. This results in lost efficiency for two reasons: (1) Since blocks are produced less often, there is low throughput. Furthermore, (2) blocks can only be considered final, and thus the transactions inside confirmed, once they are extended by sufficiently many other blocks, which incurs a waiting time that is a multiple of 10 minutes. This is true even if the actual network delay is onlysecond, meaning that NSBs are slow even under good network conditions. We show how the Bitcoin protocol can be adjusted such that we preserve Bitcoin's security guarantees in the worst case, and in addition, our protocol can produce blocks arbitrarily fast and achieve optimistic responsiveness. The latter means that in periods without corruption, the confirmation time only depends on the (unknown) actual network delay instead of the known upper bound. Technically, we propose an approach where blocks are treated differently in the ``longest chain rule''. The crucial parameter of our protocol is a weight function assigning different weight to blocks according to their hash value. We present a framework for analyzing different weight functions, in which we prove all statements at the appropriate level of abstraction. This allows us to quickly derive protocol guarantees for different weight functions. We exemplify the usefulness of our framework by capturing the classical Bitcoin protocol as well as exponentially growing functions as special cases, where the latter provide the above mentioned guarantees, including optimistic responsiveness.},
  number = {328},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{karakostas2020account,
  author = {Dimitris Karakostas and Aggelos Kiayias and Mario Larangeira},
  title = {Account {Management} in {Proof} of {Stake} {Ledgers}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/525},
  abstract = {Blockchain protocols based on Proof-of-Stake (PoS) depend {\textemdash} by nature {\textemdash} on the active participation of stakeholders. If users are offline and abstain from the PoS consensus mechanism, the system{\textquoteright}s security is at risk, so it is imperative to explore ways to both maximize the level of participation and minimize the effects of non-participation. One such option is stake representation, such that users can delegate their participation rights and, in the process, form "stake pools". The core idea is that stake pool operators always participate on behalf of regular users, while the users retain the ownership of their assets. Our work provides a formal PoS wallet construction that enables delegation and stake pool formation. While investigating the construction of addresses in this setting, we distil and explore address malleability, a security property that captures the ability of an attacker to manipulate the delegation information associated with an address. Our analysis consists of identifying multiple levels of malleability, which are taken into account in our paper{\textquoteright}s core result. We then introduce the first ideal functionality of a PoS wallet{\textquoteright}s core which captures the PoS wallet{\textquoteright}s capabilities and is realized as a secure protocol based on standard cryptographic primitives. Finally, we cover how to use the wallet core in conjunction with a PoS ledger, as well as investigate how delegation and stake pools affect a PoS system{\textquoteright}s security.},
  number = {525},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{kelkar2020order-fairness,
  author = {Mahimna Kelkar and Fan Zhang and Steven Goldfeder and Ari Juels},
  title = {Order-{Fairness} for {Byzantine} {Consensus}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/269},
  abstract = {Decades of research in both cryptography and distributed systems has extensively studied the problem of state machine replication, also known as Byzantine consensus. A consensus protocol must satisfy two properties: consistency and liveness. These properties ensure that honest participating nodes agree on the same log and dictate when fresh transactions get added. They fail, however, to ensure against adversarial manipulation of the actual ordering of transactions in the log. Indeed, in leader-based protocols (almost all protocols used today), malicious leaders can directly choose the final transaction ordering. To rectify this problem, we propose a third consensus property: transaction order-fairness. We initiate the first formal investigation of order-fairness and explain its fundamental importance. We provide several natural definitions for order-fairness and analyze the assumptions necessary to realize them. We also propose a new class of consensus protocols called Aequitas. Aequitas protocols are the first to achieve order-fairness in addition to consistency and liveness. They can be realized in a black-box way using existing broadcast and agreement primitives (or indeed using any consensus protocol), and work in both synchronous and asynchronous network models.},
  number = {269},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{kerber2020kachina,
  author = {Thomas Kerber and Aggelos Kiayias and Markulf Kohlweiss},
  title = {Kachina - {Foundations} of {Private} {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/543},
  abstract = {Smart contracts present a uniform approach for deploying distributed computation and have become a popular means to develop security critical applications. A major barrier to adoption for many applications is the public nature of existing systems, such as Ethereum. Several systems satisfying various definitions of privacy and requiring various trust assumptions have been proposed; however, none achieved the universality and uniformity that Ethereum achieved for non-private contracts: One unified method to construct most contracts. We provide a unified security model for private smart contracts which is based on the Universal Composition (UC) model and propose a novel core protocol, Kachina, for deploying privacy-preserving smart contracts, which encompasses previous systems. We demonstrate the Kachina method of smart contract development, using it to construct a contract that implements privacy-preserving payments, along the lines of Zerocash, which is provably secure in the UC setting and facilitates concurrency.},
  number = {543},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{goyal2020storing,
  author = {Vipul Goyal and Abhiram Kothapalli and Elisaweta Masserova and Bryan Parno and Yifan Song},
  title = {Storing and {Retrieving} {Secrets} on a {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/504},
  abstract = {Multiple protocols implementing exciting cryptographic functionalities using blockchains such as time-lock encryption, one-time programs and fair multi-party computation assume the existence of a cryptographic primitive called extractable witness encryption. Unfortunately, there are no known efficient constructions (or even constructions based on any well studied assumptions) of extractable witness encryption. In this work, we propose a protocol that uses a blockchain itself to provide a functionality that is effectively the same as extractable witness encryption. By making small adjustments to the blockchain code, it is possible to easily implement applications that rely on extractable witness encryption and existed only as theoretical designs until now. There is also potential for new applications. As a key building block, our protocol uses a new and highly efficient batched dynamic proactive secret sharing scheme which may be of independent interest. We provide a proof-of-concept implementation of the extractable witness encryption construction and the underlying dynamic proactive secret sharing protocol.},
  number = {504},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{harz2020promise,
  author = {Dominik Harz and Lewis Gudgeon and Rami Khalil and Alexei Zamyatin},
  title = {Promise: {Leveraging} {Future} {Gains} for {Collateral} {Reduction}},
  shorttitle = {Promise},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/532},
  abstract = {Collateral employed in cryptoeconomic protocols protects against the misbehavior of economically rational agents, compensating honest users for damages and punishing misbehaving parties. The introduction of collateral, however, carries three disadvantages: (i) requiring agents to lock up a substantial amount of collateral can be an entry barrier, limiting the set of candidates to wealthy agents; (ii) affected agents incur ongoing opportunity costs as the collateral cannot be utilized elsewhere; and (iii) users wishing to interact with an agent on a frequent basis (e.g., with a service provider to facilitate second-layer payments), have to ensure the correctness of each interaction individually instead of subscribing to a service period in which interactions are secured by the underlying collateral. We present Promise, a subscription mechanism to decrease the initial capital requirements of economically rational service providers in cryptoeconomic protocols. The mechanism leverages future income (such as service fees) prepaid by users to reduce the collateral actively locked up by service providers, while sustaining secure operation of the protocol. Promise is applicable in the context of multiple service providers competing for users. We provide a model for evaluating its effectiveness and argue its security. Demonstrating Promise's applicability, we discuss how Promise can be integrated into a cross-chain interoperability protocol, XCLAIM, and a second-layer scaling protocol, NOCUST. Last, we present an implementation of the protocol on Ethereum showing that all functions of the protocol can be implemented in constant time complexity and Promise only adds USD 0.05 for a setup per user and service provider and USD 0.01 per service delivery during the subscription period.},
  number = {532},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{jivanyan2020hierarchical,
  author = {Aram Jivanyan and Tigran Mamikonyan},
  title = {Hierarchical {One}-out-of-{Many} {Proofs} {With} {Applications} to {Blockchain} {Privacy} and {Ring} {Signatures}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/430},
  abstract = {The one-out-of-many proof is a cryptographic zero-knowledge construction enabling the prover to demonstrate knowledge of a secret element among the given public list of cryptographic commitments opening to zero. This method is relying on standard Decisional Diffie-Hellman security assumptions and can result in efficient accountable ring signature schemes [4] and proofs of set memberships [5] with a signature size smaller than all existing alternative schemes relying on standard assumptions. This construction also serves as a fundamental building block for numerous recent blockchain privacy protocols including Anonymous Zether, Zerocoin, Lelantus, Lelantus-MW, Triptych and Triptych-2. One-out-of-many proofs require O(logN)-sized communication and can be implemented in O(N) time for the verifier and O(NlogN) time for the prover. In this work, we introduce a new method of instantiating one-out-of-many proofs which reduces the proof generation time by an order of magnitude. In certain practical applications our method also helps to fasten the verification process of multiple simultaneously generated proofs. Our approach still results in shorter proofs comprised of only a logarithmic number of commitments and does not compromise the highly efficient batch verification properties endemic to the original construction. We believe this work can also foster further research towards building more efficient one-out-of-many proofs which are extremely useful constructions in the blockchain privacy space and beyond.},
  number = {430},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{karakostas2020securing,
  author = {Dimitris Karakostas and Aggelos Kiayias},
  title = {Securing {Proof}-of-{Work} {Ledgers} via {Checkpointing}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/173},
  abstract = {Distributed ledgers based on the Proof-of-Work (PoW) paradigm are typically most vulnerable when mining participation is low. During these periods an attacker can mount devastating attacks, such as double spending or censorship of transactions. Checkpointing has been proposed as a mechanism to mitigate such 51\% attacks. The core idea is to employ an external set of parties that securely run an assisting service which guarantees the ledger's properties and can be relied upon at times when the invested hashing power is low. We realize the assisting service in two ways, via checkpointing and timestamping, and show that a ledger, which employs either, is secure with high probability, even in the presence of an adversarial mining majority. We put forth the first rigorous study of checkpointing as a mechanism to protect PoW ledgers from 51\% attacks. Notably, our design is the first to offer both consistency and liveness guarantees, even under adversarial mining majorities. Our liveness analysis also identifies a previously undocumented attack, namely front-running, which enables Denial-of-Service against existing checkpointed ledger systems. We showcase the liveness guarantees of our mechanism by evaluating the checkpointed version of Ethereum Classic, a blockchain which recently suffered a 51\% attack, and build a federated distributed checkpointing service, which provides high assurance with low performance requirements. Finally, we prove the security of our timestamping mechanism, build a fully decentralized timestamping solution, by utilizing a secure distributed ledger, and evaluate its performance on the existing Bitcoin and Ethereum systems.},
  number = {173},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{kleinrock2020porpos-hybrid,
  author = {Leonard Kleinrock and Rafail Ostrovsky and Vassilis Zikas},
  title = {A {PoR}/{PoS}-{Hybrid} {Blockchain}: {Proof} of {Reputation} with {Nakamoto} {Fallback}},
  shorttitle = {A {PoR}/{PoS}-{Hybrid} {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/381},
  abstract = {Reputation is a major component of trustworthy systems. In this work, we describe how to leverage reputation to establish a highly scalable and efficient blockchain. In order to avoid potential safety concerns stemming from the subjective and volatile nature of reputation, we propose a proof-of-reputation/proof-of-stake-hybrid (in short, PoR/PoS-hybrid) blockchain design. Although proof-of-stake and proof-of-reputation have been separately studied, to our knowledge, our proposal is the first cryptographically secure design of proof-of-reputation-based (in short PoR-based) blockchains; and it is the first blockchain that fortifies its PoR-based security by optimized Nakamoto-style consensus. This results in a ledger protocol which is provably secure if the reputation system is accurate, and preserves its basic safety properties even if it is not, as long as the majority of the stake in the system remains in honest hands. Our results put emphasis on reputation fairness as a key feature of any reputation-based lottery. We devise a definition of reputation fairness that ensures fair participation while giving chances to newly joining parties to participate and potentially build a reputation. We also describe a concrete lottery in the random oracle model which achieves this definition of fairness. Our treatment of reputation-fairness can be of independent interest.},
  number = {381},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{mao2020lotmint,
  author = {Wenbo MAO and Wenxiang WANG},
  title = {{LotMint}: {Blockchain} {Returning} to {Decentralization} with {Decentralized} {Clock}},
  shorttitle = {{LotMint}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/673},
  abstract = {We present LotMint, a permissionless blockchain, with a purposely low set bar for Proof-of-Work (PoW) difficulty. Our objective is for personal computers, cloud virtual machines or containers, even mobile devices, and hopefully future IoT devices, to become the main, widely distributed, collectively much securer, fairer, more reliable and economically sustainable mining workforce for blockchains. An immediate question arises: how to prevent the permissionless network from being flooded of block dissemination traffic by a massive number of profit enthusiastic miners? We propose a novel notion of \{{\textbackslash}em Decentralized Clock/Time\} (DC/DT) as global and logical clock/time which can be agreed upon as a consensus. Our construction of DC/DT practically uses distributed private clocks of the participation nodes. With DC/DT, a node upon creating or hearing a block can know how luckily short or unluckily long time for the block to have been mined and/or traveled through the network. They can ``time throttle'' a potentially large number of unluckily mined/travelled blocks. The luckier blocks passing through the time throttle are treated as time-tie forks with a volume being ``throttle diameter'' adjustably controlled not to congest the network. With the number of time-tie forks being manageable, it is then easy to break-tie elect a winner, or even to orderly queue a plural number of winners for a ``multi-core'' utilization of resource. We provide succinct and evident analyses of necessary properties for the LotMint blockchain including: decentralization, energy saving, safety, liveness, robustness, fairness, anti-denial-of-service, anti-sybil, anti-censorship, scaled-up transaction processing throughput and sped-up payment confirmation time.},
  number = {673},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{kerber2020mining,
  author = {Thomas Kerber and Aggelos Kiayias and Markulf Kohlweiss},
  title = {Mining for {Privacy}: {How} to {Bootstrap} a {Snarky} {Blockchain}},
  shorttitle = {Mining for {Privacy}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/401},
  abstract = {Non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs, and more specifically succinct non-interactive zero-knowledge arguments (zk-SNARKS), have been proven to be the {\textquotedblleft}swiss army knife{\textquotedblright} of the blockchain and distributed ledger space, with a variety of applications in privacy, interoperability and scalability. Many commonly used SNARK systems rely on a structured reference string, the secure generation of which turns out to be their Achilles heel: If the randomness used for the generation is known, the soundness of the proof system can be broken with devastating consequences for the underlying blockchain system that utilises them. In this work we describe and analyze, for the first time, a blockchain mechanism that produces a secure SRS with the characteristic that security is shown for the exact same conditions under which the blockchain protocol is proven to be secure. Our mechanism makes use of the recent discovery of updateable structure reference strings to perform this secure generation in a fully distributed manner. In this way, the SRS emanates from the normal operation of the blockchain protocol itself without the need of additional security assumptions or off-chain computation and/or verification. We provide concrete guidelines for the parameterisation of this system which allows for the completion of a secure setup in a reasonable period of time. We also provide an incentive scheme that, when paired with the update mechanism, properly incentivises participants into contributing to secure reference string generation.},
  number = {401},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{lafourcade2020about,
  author = {Pascal Lafourcade and Marius Lombard-Platet},
  title = {About {Blockchain} {Interoperability}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/643},
  abstract = {A blockchain is designed to be a self-sufficient decentralised ledger: a peer verifying the validity of past transactions only needs to download the blockchain (the ledger) and nothing else. However, it might be of interest to make two different blockchains interoperable, i.e., to allow one to transmit information from one blockchain to another blockchain. In this paper, we give a formalisation of this problem, and we prove that blockchain interoperability is impossible according to the classical definition of a blockchain. Under a weaker definition of blockchain, we demonstrate that two blockchains are interoperable is equivalent to creating a `2-in-1' blockchain containing both ledgers, thus limiting the theoretical interest of making interoperable blockchains in the first place. We also observe that all practical existing interoperable blockchain frameworks work indeed by exchanging already created tokens between two blockchains and not by offering the possibility to transfer tokens from one blockchain to another one, which implies a modification of the balance of total created tokens on both blockchains. It confirms that having interoperability is only possible by creating a `2-in-1' blockchain containing both ledgers.},
  number = {643},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{lee2020replicated,
  author = {Jonathan Lee and Kirill Nikitin and Srinath Setty},
  title = {Replicated state machines without replicated execution},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/195},
  abstract = {This paper introduces a new approach to reduce end-to-end costs in large-scale replicated systems built under a Byzantine fault model. Specifically, our approach transforms a given replicated state machine (RSM) to another RSM where nodes incur lower costs by delegating state machine execution: an untrusted prover produces succinct cryptographic proofs of correct state transitions along with state changes, which nodes in the transformed RSM verify and apply respectively.},
  number = {195},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{leto2020attacking,
  author = {Duke Leto and The Hush Developers},
  title = {Attacking {Zcash} {For} {Fun} {And} {Profit}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/627},
  abstract = {This paper will outline, for the first time, exactly how the ITM Attack (a linkability attack against shielded transactions) works against Zcash Protocol and how Hush is the first cryptocoin with a defensive mitigation against it, called {\textquotedblright}Sietch {\textquotedblright}. Sietch is already running live in production and undergoing rounds of improvement from expert feedback. This is not an academic paper about pipedreams. It describes production code and networks. We begin with a literature review of all known metadata attack methods that can be used against Zcash Protocol blockchains. This includes their estimated attack costs and threat model. This paper then describes the {\textquotedblright}ITM Attack{\textquotedblright} which is a specific instance of a new class of metadata attacks against blockchains which the author describes as Metaverse Metadata Attacks . The paper then explains Sietch in detail, which was a response to these new attacks. We hope this new knowledge and theory helps cryptocoins increase their defenses against very well-funded adversaries including nation states and chain analysis companies. A few other new privacy issues and metadata attacks against Zcash Protocol coins will also be enumerated for the first time publicly. The ideas in this paper apply to all cryptocoins which utilize transaction graphs, which is to say just about all known coins. Specifically, the Metaverse Metadata class of attacks is applicable to all Bitcoin source code forks (including Dash, Verge, Zerocoin and their forks), CryptoNote Protocol coins (Monero and friends) and MimbleWimble Protocol (Grin, Beam, etc) coins but these will not be addressed here other than a high-level description of how to apply these methods to those chains. In privacy zdust we trust. If dust can attack us, dust can protect us. {\textendash} Sietch Mottos},
  number = {627},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{liu2020hyperservice,
  author = {Zhuotao Liu and Yangxi Xiang and Jian Shi and Peng Gao and Haoyu Wang and Xusheng Xiao and Bihan Wen and Yih-Chun Hu},
  title = {{HyperService}: {Interoperability} and {Programmability} {Across} {Heterogeneous} {Blockchains}},
  shorttitle = {{HyperService}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/578},
  abstract = {Blockchain interoperability, which allows state transitions across different blockchain networks, is critical functionality to facilitate major blockchain adoption. Existing interoperability protocols mostly focus on atomic token exchange between blockchains. However, as blockchains have been upgraded from passive distributed ledgers into programmable state machines (thanks to smart contracts), the scope of blockchain interoperability goes beyond just token exchange. In this paper, we present HyperService, the first platform that delivers interoperability and programmability across heterogeneous blockchains. HyperService is powered by two innovative designs: (i) a developer-facing programming framework that allows developers to build cross-chain applications in a unified programming model; and (ii) a secure blockchain-facing cryptography protocol that provably realizes those applications on blockchains. We implement a prototype of HyperService in approximately 35,000 lines of code to demonstrate its practicality. Our experiment results show that (i) HyperService imposes reasonable latency, in order of seconds, on the end-to-end execution of cross-chain applications; (ii) the HyperService platform is scalable to continuously incorporate additional production blockchains},
  number = {578},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{lone2020reputation,
  author = {Auqib Hamid Lone and Roohie Naaz},
  title = {Reputation {Driven} {Dynamic} {Access} {Control} {Framework} for {IoT} atop {PoA} {Ethereum} {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/566},
  abstract = {Security and Scalability are two major challenges that IoT is currently facing. Access control to critical IoT infrastructure is considered as top security challenge that IoT faces. Data generated by IoT devices may be driving many hard real time systems, thus it is of utmost importance to guarantee integrity and authenticity of the data and resources at the first place itself. Due to heterogeneous and constrained nature of IoT devices, traditional IoT security frameworks are not able to deliver scalable, efficient and manageable mechanisms to meet the requirements of IoT devices. On the other hand Blockchain technology has shown great potential to bridge the missing gap towards building a truly decentralized, trustworthy, secure and scalable environment for IoT. Allowing access to IoT resources and data managed through Blockchain will provide an additional security layer backed by the strongest cryptographic algorithms available. In this work we present a reputation driven dynamic access control framework for small scale IoT applications based on Proof of Authority Blockchain, we name it as Rep-ACM. In RepACM framework we build two major services, one for Reputation building (for better IoT device behaviour regulations) and other for Misbehaviour detection (for detecting any Misbehaviour on object resource usage). Both of these services work in coordination with other services of proposed framework to determine who can access what and under what conditions access should be granted. For Proof of Concept (PoC) we created private Ethereum network consisting of two Raspberry Pi single board computers, one desktop computer and a laptop as nodes. We configured Ethereum protocol to use Istanbul Byzantine Fault Tolerance (IBFT) as Proof of Authority (PoA) consensus mechanism for performance optimization in constrained environment. We deployed our model on private network for feasibility and performance analysis.},
  number = {566},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{loveless2020optimal,
  author = {Andrew Loveless and Ronald Dreslinski and Baris Kasikci},
  title = {Optimal and {Error}-{Free} {Multi}-{Valued} {Byzantine} {Consensus} {Through} {Parallel} {Execution}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/322},
  abstract = {Multi-valued Byzantine Consensus (BC), in whichprocesses must reach agreement on a single-bit value, is an essential primitive in the design of distributed cryptographic protocols and fault-tolerant distributed systems. One of the most desirable traits for a multi-valued BC protocol is to be error-free. In other words, have zero probability of producing incorrect results.},
  number = {322},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{lu2020bank,
  author = {Zhichun Lu and Runchao Han and Jiangshan Yu},
  title = {Bank run {Payment} {Channel} {Networks}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/456},
  abstract = {Payment Channel Networks (PCNs) have been a promising approach to scale blockchains. However, PCNs lack liquidity, as large-amount or multi-hop payments may fail. Payment griefing is one of the identified attacks on PCNs{\textquoteright} liquidity, where the payee withholds the preimage in Hash Time Locked Contract. Before this payment expires, coins involved in this payment cannot be used in other payments. We introduce Bankrun attack, which exploits payment griefing to bank run PCNs. Bankrun in finance means numerous clients withdraw their money from a bank, which makes the bank insolvent and even bankrupted. In our Bankrun attack, the attacker generates sybil nodes, establishes channels with hubs in the network, makes payments between his nodes and griefs them simultaneously. If the adversary has sufficient coins, he can lock a high percentage of coins in the PCN, so that the PCN may no longer handle normal payments. We introduce a framework for launching Bankrun attacks, and develop three strategies with a focus on minimising the cost, draining important channels, and locking most amount of coins, respectively. We evaluate the effectiveness of Bankrun attacks on Bitcoin{\textquoteright}s Lightning Network, the first and most well-known PCN. Our evaluation results show that, using channels with 1.5\% richest nodes, the attacker can lock 83\% of the capacity in the entire network. With connections to these nodes, an adversary with 13\% (77 BTC) of coins in the network can lock up to 45\% (267 BTC) of coins in the entire network until time out (e.g. for an entire day); reduces the success rate of payments by 23.8\%62.7\%; increases fee of payments by 3.5\%14.0\%; and increases average attempts of payments by 26.4\%113.7\%, where payments range from 100,000 to 1,900,000 satoshi (7135 USD).},
  number = {456},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{momose2020hybrid-bft,
  author = {Atsuki Momose and Jason Paul Cruz and Yuichi Kaji},
  title = {Hybrid-{BFT}: {Optimistically} {Responsive} {Synchronous} {Consensus} with {Optimal} {Latency} or {Resilience}},
  shorttitle = {Hybrid-{BFT}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/406},
  abstract = {The breakthrough of blockchain in many decentralized cryptocurrencies has reactivated studies on consensus under network synchrony, which has better security than a consensus under network asynchrony but has been considered to be impractical and only theoretical so far. One of the biggest concerns is the speed of transaction processing. To solve this concern, transactions can be processed responsively, i.e., without reliance on synchrony. Another approach is to minimize reliance on synchrony to achieve optimal synchronous latency. In this paper, we consider answering the question {\textquotedblright}Can we achieve both responsiveness and optimal synchronous latency?{\textquotedblright}. To do this, we first show some theoretical possibilities and impossibilities in achieving both responsiveness and optimal synchronous latency, and then we present a practical blockchain or state machine replication protocol we call Hybrid-BFT. Hybrid-BFT can process transactions responsively under normal situation, i.e., small number of faults, while it can achieve optimal synchronous latency even under worst situation. Furthermore, Hybrid-BFT achieves responsive leader change, making it completely free from synchronous delay under normal situation.},
  number = {406},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{noether2020arcturus,
  author = {Sarang Noether},
  title = {Arcturus: efficient proofs for confidential transactions},
  shorttitle = {Arcturus},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/312},
  abstract = {Confidential transactions are used in distributed digital assets to demonstrate the balance of values hidden in commitments, while retaining signer ambiguity. Previous work describes a signer-ambiguous proof of knowledge of the opening of commitments to zero at the same index across multiple public commitment sets and the evaluation of a verifiable random function used as a linking tag, and uses this to build a linkable ring signature called Triptych that can be used as a building block for a confidential transaction model. In this work, we extend Triptych to build Arcturus, a proving system that proves knowledge of openings of multiple commitments to zero within a single set, correct construction of a verifiable random function evaluated at each opening, and value balance across a separate list of commitments within a single proof. While soundness depends on a novel dual discrete-logarithm hardness assumption, we use data from the Monero blockchain to show that Arcturus can be used in a confidential transaction model to provide faster total batch verification time than other state-of-the-art constructions without a trusted setup.},
  number = {312},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{tikhomirov2020quantitative,
  author = {Sergei Tikhomirov and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Matteo Maffei},
  title = {A {Quantitative} {Analysis} of {Security}, {Anonymity} and {Scalability} for the {Lightning} {Network}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/303},
  abstract = {Payment channel networks have been introduced to mitigate the scalability issues inherent to permissionless decentralized cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. Launched in 2018, the Lightning Network (LN) has been gaining popularity and consists today of more than 5000 nodes and 30000 payment channels that jointly hold 895 bitcoins (7.6M USD as of February 2020). This adoption has motivated research from both academia and industry. Payment channels suffer from security vulnerabilities, such as the wormhole attack, anonymity issues, and scalability limitations related to the upper bound on the number of concurrent payments per channel, which have been pointed out by the scientific community but never quantitatively analyzed. In this work, we first analyze the proneness of the LN to the wormhole attack and attacks against anonymity. We observe that an adversary needs to control only 2\% of LN nodes to learn sensitive payment information (e.g., sender, receiver and payment amount) or to carry out the wormhole attack. Second, we study the management of concurrent payments in the LN and quantify its negative effect on scalability. We observe that for micropayments, the forwarding capability of up to 50\% of channels is restricted to a value smaller than the overall channel capacity. This phenomenon not only hinders scalability but also opens the door for DoS attacks: We estimate that a network-wide DoS attack costs within 1.5M USD, while isolating the biggest community from the rest of the network costs only 225k USD. Our findings should prompt the LN community to consider the security, privacy and scalability issues of the network studied in this work when educating users about path selection algorithms, as well as to adopt multi-hop payment protocols that provide stronger security, privacy and scalability guarantees.},
  number = {303},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{westerkamp2020zkrelay,
  author = {Martin Westerkamp and Jacob Eberhardt},
  title = {{zkRelay}: {Facilitating} {Sidechains} using {zkSNARK}-based {Chain}-{Relays}},
  shorttitle = {{zkRelay}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/433},
  abstract = {We facilitate trusted cross-blockchain state proofs by implementing a chain-relay that validates block headers from proof-of-work blockchains. While current approaches require proof sizes linear to the amount of blocks the state was built on, trusted intermediaries, or economic assumptions, we propose the utilization of off-chain computations through zkSNARKs to provide a cryptographically secure and highly scalable sidechain mechanism. Multiple block headers are included in batches and verified off-chain, while preserving light client support. Only the validity of the off-chain computation is verified on-chain, creating a sidechain mechanism that requires constant verification costs and releases the target ledger from processing and storing every single block header of the source blockchain. We provide a prototypical implementation that facilitates the verification of 504 Bitcoin headers in a single proof on Ethereum using the ZoKrates framework. Hereby, the verification costs are reduced by a factor of 187 compared to current approaches such as BTC Relay.},
  number = {433},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{midas2020bsc,
  author = {Hiro Midas},
  title = {{BSC}: {A} {Bitcoin} {Smart} {Contract} {Implementation}},
  shorttitle = {{BSC}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/343},
  abstract = {We propose BSC, a Bitcoin Smart Contract implementation. It integrates the functionality of smart contracts into the Bitcoin system, giving developers the ability to build decentralized applications on Bitcoin. BSC will require a new hard fork, on which Bitcoin holders can use their existing funds directly. BSC combines the unlimited creative space of smart contracts and the vast network effect of Bitcoin, which will bring even more possibilities to the cryptocurrency world.},
  number = {343},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{shyshatsky2020jaxnet,
  author = {Iurii Shyshatsky and Vinod Manoharan and Taras Emelyanenko and Lucas Leger},
  title = {{JaxNet}: {Scalable} {Blockchain} {Network}},
  shorttitle = {{JaxNet}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/511},
  abstract = {Today{\textquoteright}s world is organized based on merit and value. A single global currency that{\textquoteright}s decentralized is needed for a global economy. Bitcoin is a partial solution to this need, however it suffers from scalability problems which prevent it from being mass-adopted. Also, the deflationary nature of bitcoin motivates people to hoard and speculate on them instead of using them for day to day transactions. We propose a scalable, decentralized cryptocurrency that is based on Proof of Work. The solution involves having parallel chains in a closed network using a mechanism which rewards miners proportional to their effort in maintaining the network. The proposed design introduces a novel approach for solving scalability problem in blockchain network based on merged mining.},
  number = {511},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{spadafora2020coercion-resistant,
  author = {Chiara Spadafora and Riccardo Longo and Massimiliano Sala},
  title = {Coercion-{Resistant} {Blockchain}-{Based} {E}-{Voting} {Protocol}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/674},
  abstract = {Coercion resistance is one of the most important features of a secure voting procedure. Because of the properties such as transparency, decentralization, and non-repudiation, blockchain is a fundamental technology of great interest in its own right, and it also has large potential when integrated into many other areas. Here we propose a decentralized e-voting protocol that is coercion-resistant and vote-selling resistant, while being also completely transparent and not receipt-free. We prove the security of the protocol under the standard DDH assumption.},
  number = {674},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{tang2020bracing,
  author = {Shuyang Tang and Qingzhao Zhang and Zhengfeng Gao and Jilai Zheng and Dawu Gu},
  title = {Bracing {A} {Transaction} {DAG} with {A} {Backbone} {Chain}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/472},
  abstract = {Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) is becoming an intriguing direction for distributed ledger structure due to its great potential in improving the scalability of distributed ledger systems. Among existing DAG-based ledgers, one promising category is transaction DAG, namely, treating each transaction as a graph vertex. In this paper, we propose Haootia, a novel two-layer framework of consensus, with a ledger in the form of a transaction DAG built on top of a delicately designed PoW-based backbone chain. By elaborately devising the principle of transaction linearizations, we achieve a secure and scalable DAG-based consensus. By implementing Haootia, we conclude that, with a rotating committee of size 46 and a confirmation latency around 20 seconds, Haootia achieves a throughput around 7500 TPS which is overwhelming compared with all formally analyzed DAG-based consensus schemes to date and all existing non-DAG-based ones to our knowledge.},
  number = {472},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{terner2020permissionless,
  author = {Benjamin Terner},
  title = {Permissionless {Consensus} in the {Resource} {Model}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/355},
  abstract = {Nakamoto{\textquoteright}s Bitcoin protocol inspired interest in the permissionless regime of distributed computing, in which participants may join and leave an internet-scale protocol execution at will, without needing to register with any authority. The permissionless regime poses challenges to the classical techniques used for consensus protocols, in which participants attempt to agree on a function of their inputs. Crucially, classical consensus techniques require honest participants to remain online and active, and to know an upperbound on the number of participants. Bitcoin addresses this issue by requiring Proof of Work in order to send a message in protocol, and other Bitcoin-inspired works have developed Proof of X variants to remediate the shortcomings of Proof of Work. We propose an abstraction for Proof of X called resources, inspired by how many variants are used in practice. We then show that given few additional assumptions, resources are sufficient to achieve consensus in the permissionless regime. In particular, with appropriate assumptions about resources, it is not necessary to know a bound on the network delay, participants do not need clocks, and participants can join and leave the execution arbitrarily. The core idea is to shift focus from the proportion of honest parties in an execution to the proportion of messages sent by honest parties. We formally model consensus protocols in the permissionless regime, and show how to parameterize a permissionless execution using only the long-term proportion of resources acquired by honest participants and an upperbound on the rate at which resources enter the system, relative to the maximum network delay (without needing to know the network delay). Along the way, we provide a generalized definition of blockchains which we call graph consensus. We present a protocol in the permissionless regime that achieves graph consensus, even when resources enter the system at high rates, but the required honest majority increases with the rate. We show how the protocol can be modified slightly to achieve one-bit consensus. Finally, we show that for every graph consensus protocol that outputs a majority of honest vertices there exists a one-bit consensus protocol.},
  number = {355},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{wan2020expected,
  author = {Jun Wan and Hanshen Xiao and Elaine Shi and Srinivas Devadas},
  title = {Expected {Constant} {Round} {Byzantine} {Broadcast} under {Dishonest} {Majority}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/590},
  abstract = {Byzantine Broadcast (BB) is a central question in distributed systems, and an important challenge is to understand its round complexity. Under the honest majority setting, it is long known that there exist randomized protocols that can achieve BB in expected constant rounds, regardless of the number of nodes. However, whether we can match the expected constant round complexity in the corrupt majority setting --- or more precisely, when--- remains unknown, wheredenotes the number of corrupt nodes.},
  number = {590},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{zaccagni2020proof,
  author = {Zachary Zaccagni and Ram Dantu},
  title = {Proof of {Review} ({PoR}): {A} {New} {Consensus} {Protocol} for {Deriving} {Trustworthiness} of {Reputation} {Through} {Reviews}},
  shorttitle = {Proof of {Review} ({PoR})},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/475},
  abstract = {This paper provides a theoretical background for a new consensus model called Proof of Review (PoR), which extends Algorand{\textquoteright}s blockchain consensus model and reproduces the human mechanism for analyzing reviews through analysis and reputation. Our protocol derives the trustworthiness of a participant{\textquoteright}s reputation through a consensus of these reviews. In this new protocol, we combined concepts from proof of stake and proof of reputation to ensure a blockchain system comes to consensus on an honest (non-malicious) congruent review. Additionally, we formally prove this protocol provides further security by using a reputation-based stake instead of token-based, using theorems and proofs. We introduce new concepts in using reputation as a stake, where reputation must be earned and can never be purchased, spent, or traded. The stake is calculated based on the reputation -- not tokens -- of a user in the system proportional to the total reputation in the system at the beginning of each round. A round is a set of steps that conclude in a block being added to the blockchain. We also introduce blacklisting as a decisive action where, after a vote, an honest user will blacklist a leader (the participant elected with their proposed block) or reviewer for some egregious maliciousness, preventing further participation. Five steps are defined that overlay Algorand{\textquoteright}s steps: (1) Evaluation of reviews; (2) Selection of the round{\textquoteright}s leader and their associated block containing reviews; (3) Re-evaluation of reviews; (4) Block of reviews agreement (block decision); (5) Block addition to the ledger and reputation adjustment. At every step, verifiers are selected randomly for evaluating the reviews and are anonymous to each other. We provided properties related to reputation and formally proved (Honest Leader, Blacklisting Liveliness and Correctness, Evaluation of the Evaluator{\textquoteright}s Confidence, Gradual Gain, and Swift Loss of Reputation). Finally, we discuss several types of attacks that are common for Proof of Stake and Reputation systems, and how our Proof of Review model (in extending Algorand) addresses those attacks. Furthermore, PoR mitigates several kinds of fake reviews (e.g. spam, trolling, etc.) through analysis. Preliminary experimental results show that payment transactions have similar completion times, regardless of the stake being tokens or reputation, the mechanism for adjusting reputation reflects expected behavior, and the accuracy of the review evaluation (using sentimental analysis) is substantiated for the dataset given. With this new model, we let the technology evaluate a review and secure it on a blockchain using a reputation-based stake. Proof of Review also provides third party access to reviewer{\textquoteright}s reputation along with their respective evaluated reviews, a functionality that could benefit numerous industries including retail, academia, hospitality, corporate, and more. Applications could expedite and validate many different types of processes that rely on a form of review and the analysis of that review.},
  number = {475},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{zamyatin2020txchain,
  author = {Alexei Zamyatin and Zeta Avarikioti and Daniel Perez and William J. Knottenbelt},
  title = {{TxChain}: {Efficient} {Cryptocurrency} {Light} {Clients} via {Contingent} {Transaction} {Aggregation}},
  shorttitle = {{TxChain}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/580},
  abstract = {Cryptocurrency light- or simplified payment verification (SPV) clients allow nodes with limited resources to efficiently verify execution of payments. Instead of downloading the entire blockchain, only block headers and selected transactions are stored. Still, the storage and bandwidth cost, linear in blockchain size, remain non-negligible, especially for smart contracts and mobile devices: as of April 2020, these amount to 50 MB in Bitcoin and 5 GB in Ethereum. Recently, two improved sublinear light clients were proposed: to validate the blockchain, NIPoPoWs and FlyClient only download a polylogarithmic number of block headers, sampled at random. The actual verification of payments, however, remains costly: for each verified transaction, the corresponding block must too be downloaded. This yields NIPoPoWs and FlyClient only effective under low transaction volumes.},
  number = {580},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@article{thyagarajan2020reparo,
  author = {Sri Aravinda Krishnan Thyagarajan and Adithya Bhat and Bernardo Magri and Daniel Tschudi and Aniket Kate},
  title = {Reparo: {Publicly} {Verifiable} {Layer} to {Repair} {Blockchains}},
  shorttitle = {Reparo},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2001.00486},
  abstract = {Although blockchains aim for immutability as their core feature, several instances have exposed the harms with perfect immutability. The permanence of illicit content inserted in Bitcoin poses a challenge to law enforcement agencies like Interpol, and millions of dollars are lost in buggy smart contracts in Ethereum. A line of research then spawned on Redactable blockchains with the aim of solving the problem of redacting illicit contents from both permissioned and permissionless blockchains. However, all the existing proposals follow the build-new-chain approach for redactions, and cannot be integrated with existing systems like Bitcoin and Ethereum. We present Reparo, a generic protocol that acts as a publicly verifiable layer on top of any blockchain to perform repairs, ranging from fixing buggy contracts to removing illicit contents from the chain. Reparo facilitates additional functionalities for blockchains while maintaining the same provable security guarantee; thus, Reparo can be integrated with existing blockchains and start performing repairs on the pre-existent data. Any system user may propose a repair and a deliberation process ensues resulting in a decision that complies with the repair policy of the chain and is publicly verifiable. Our Reparo layer can be easily tailored to different consensus requirements, does not require heavy cryptographic machinery and can, therefore, be efficiently instantiated in any permission-ed or -less setting. We demonstrate it by giving efficient instantiations of Reparo on top of Ethereum (with PoS and PoW), Bitcoin, and Cardano. Moreover, we evaluate Reparo with Ethereum mainnet and show that the cost of fixing several prominent smart contract bugs is almost negligible. For instance, the cost of repairing the prominent Parity Multisig wallet bug with Reparo is as low as 0.000000018\% of the Ethers that can be retrieved after the fix.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2001.00486 [cs]},
  month = {January},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2001.00486},
}
@article{zhao2020permissioned,
  author = {Dongfang Zhao},
  title = {Permissioned {Blockchain} {Revisited}: {A} {Byzantine} {Game}-{Theoretical} {Perspective}},
  shorttitle = {Permissioned {Blockchain} {Revisited}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2001.03822},
  abstract = {Despite the popularity and practical applicability of blockchains, there is very limited work on the theoretical foundation of blockchains: The lack of rigorous theory and analysis behind the curtain of blockchains has severely staggered its broader applications. This paper attempts to lay out a theoretical foundation for a specific type of blockchains---the ones requiring basic authenticity from the participants, also called {\textbackslash}textit\{permissioned blockchain\}. We formulate permissioned blockchain systems and operations into a game-theoretical problem by incorporating constraints implied by the wisdom from distributed computing and Byzantine systems. We show that in a noncooperative blockchain game (NBG), a Nash equilibrium can be efficiently found in a closed-form even though the game involves more than two players. Somewhat surprisingly, the simulation results of the Nash equilibrium implies that the game can reach a stable status regardless of the number of Byzantine nodes and trustworthy players. We then study a harder problem where players are allowed to form coalitions: the coalitional blockchain game (CBG). We show that although the Shapley value for a CBG can be expressed in a more succinct form, its core is empty.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2001.03822 [cs]},
  month = {January},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2001.03822},
}
@article{grigoriev2020rsa,
  author = {Dima Grigoriev and Vladimir Shpilrain},
  title = {{RSA} and redactable blockchains},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2001.10783},
  abstract = {A blockchain is redactable if a private key holder (e.g. a central authority) can change any single block without violating integrity of the whole blockchain, but no other party can do that. In this paper, we offer a simple method of constructing redactable blockchains inspired by the ideas underlying the well-known RSA encryption scheme. Notably, our method can be used in conjunction with any reasonable hash function that is used to build a blockchain. Public immutability of a blockchain in our construction is based on the computational hardness of the RSA problem and not on properties of the underlying hash function. Corruption resistance is based on the computational hardness of the discrete logarithm problem.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2001.10783 [cs]},
  month = {January},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2001.10783},
}
@article{antonino2020formalising,
  author = {Pedro Antonino and A. W. Roscoe},
  title = {Formalising and verifying smart contracts with {Solidifier}: a bounded model checker for {Solidity}},
  shorttitle = {Formalising and verifying smart contracts with {Solidifier}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2002.02710},
  abstract = {The exploitation of smart-contract vulnerabilities can have catastrophic consequences such as the loss of millions of pounds worth of crypto assets. Formal verification can be a useful tool in identifying vulnerabilities and proving that they have been fixed. In this paper, we present a formalisation of Solidity and the Ethereum blockchain using the Solid language and its blockchain; a Solid program is obtained by explicating/desugaring a Solidity program. We make some abstractions that over-approximate the way in which Solidity/Ethereum behave. Based on this formalisation, we create Solidifier: a bounded model checker for Solidity. It translates Solid into Boogie, an intermediate verification language, that is later verified using Corral, a bounded model checker for Boogie. Unlike much of the work in this area, we do not try to find specific behavioural/code patterns that might lead to vulnerabilities. Instead, we provide a tool to find errors/bad states, i.e. program states that do not conform with the intent of the developer. Such a bad state, be it a vulnerability or not, might be reached through the execution of specific known code patterns or through behaviours that have not been anticipated.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2002.02710 [cs]},
  month = {February},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2002.02710},
}
@techreport{ye2020alt-coin,
  author = {Claire Ye and Chinedu Ojukwu and Anthony Hsu and Ruiqi Hu},
  title = {Alt-{Coin} {Traceability}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/593},
  abstract = {Many alt-coins developed in recent years make strong privacy guarantees, claiming to be virtually untraceable. This paper explores the extent to which these claims are true after the first appraisals were made about these coins. In particular, we will investigate Monero (XMR) and Zcash (ZEC), competitors in the private cryptocurrency space. We will test how traceable these currencies are after the most recent security updates, and how they hold up against their claims. We run some traceability experiments based on previously published papers for each coin. Results show that, introducing strict security and anonymity requirements into the cryptocurrency ecosystem makes the coin effectively untraceable, as shown by Monero. On the other hand, Zcash still hesitates to introduce changes that alter user behavior. Despite its strong cryptographic features, transactions are overall more traceable.},
  number = {593},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{yu2020blockchain,
  author = {Gary Yu},
  title = {Blockchain {Stealth} {Address} {Schemes}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/548},
  abstract = {In a blockchain system, address is an essential primitive which is used in transaction. The, which has an underlying address info of two public keys (), was developed by Monero blockchain in 2013, in which a one-time public key is used as the transaction destination, to protect the recipient privacy. At almost same time,scheme was proposed asfor Bitcoin, which makes it possible to share an() between sender and receiver, whereis a public key andis a 256-bits chain code, and only receiver knows the corresponding private key of this. With thescheme, the sender may derive the child public keywith the child numberby him/herself, without needing to request a new address for each payment from the receiver, make each transaction have a different destination key for privacy. This paper introduces an improved stealth address scheme which has an underlying address data of, whereis a child number and. The sender gets the receiver{\textquoteright}s address info, generates a random secret numberand calculate a Pedersen commitmentwhere, then the sender may use this commitmentoras the destination key for the output and packs thesomewhere into the transaction. This improved stealth address scheme makes it possible to manage multiple stealth addresses in one wallet, therefore the user is able to share different addresses for different senders.},
  number = {548},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@techreport{zappala2020game,
  author = {Paolo Zappal{\`a} and Marianna Belotti and Maria Potop-Butucaru and Stefano Secci},
  title = {Game theoretical framework for analyzing {Blockchains} {Robustness}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/626},
  abstract = {Blockchains systems evolve in complex environments that mix classical patterns of faults (e.g crash faults, transient faults, Byzantine faults, churn) with selfish, rational or irrational behaviors typical to economical systems. In this paper we propose a game theoretical framework in order to formally characterize the robustness of blockchains systems in terms of resilience to rational deviations and immunity to Byzantine behaviors. Our framework includes necessary and sufficient conditions for checking the immunity and resilience of games and a new technique for composing games that preserves the robustness of individual games. We prove the practical interest of our formal framework by characterizing the robustness of three different protocols popular in blockchain systems: a HTLC-based payment scheme (a.k.a. Lightning Network), a side-chain protocol and a cross-chain swap protocol.},
  number = {626},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  year = {2020},
}
@article{astefanoaei2020tenderbake,
  author = {L{\u a}cr{\u a}mioara A{\c s}tefanoaei and Pierre Chambart and Antonella Del Pozzo and Edward Tate and Sara Tucci and Eugen Z{\u a}linescu},
  title = {Tenderbake -- {Classical} {BFT} {Style} {Consensus} for {Public} {Blockchains}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2001.11965},
  abstract = {Our work has been originally motivated by Tezos, a public blockchain which focuses on software correctness and which enables formal reasoning and verification. To further strengthen the resilience of Tezos, which now depends on a consensus protocol delivering only probabilistic finality, we propose a consensus protocol that brings deterministic finality. Our solution is backward compatible with the current liquid proof-of-stake system underlying Tezos. The main contributions of this paper are the following: (i) a formal specification of the Dynamic Repeated Consensus (DRC) problem, an adaptation of the repeated consensus problem to dynamic committees, (ii) Tenderbake, a solution to the DRC problem in a Byzantine and partially synchronous system model. In contrast to recent proposals, Tenderbake works with bounded message buffers. This feature represents a countermeasure to spamming and prevents runtime memory errors. For these reasons we think that Tenderbake is suitable for blockchains aiming to guarantee deterministic finality in a public setting.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2001.11965 [cs]},
  month = {February},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2001.11965},
}
@article{ferdous2020blockchain,
  author = {Md Sadek Ferdous and Mohammad Jabed Morshed Chowdhury and Mohammad A. Hoque and Alan Colman},
  title = {Blockchain {Consensus} {Algorithms}: {A} {Survey}},
  shorttitle = {Blockchain {Consensus} {Algorithms}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2001.07091},
  abstract = {In recent years, blockchain technology has received unparalleled attention from academia, industry, and governments all around the world. It is considered a technological breakthrough anticipated to disrupt several application domains. This has resulted in a plethora of blockchain systems for various purposes. However, many of these blockchain systems suffer from serious shortcomings related to their performance and security, which need to be addressed before any wide-scale adoption can be achieved. A crucial component of any blockchain system is its underlying consensus algorithm, which in many ways, determines its performance and security. Therefore, to address the limitations of different blockchain systems, several existing as well novel consensus algorithms have been introduced. A systematic analysis of these algorithms will help to understand how and why any particular blockchain performs the way it functions. However, the existing studies of consensus algorithms are not comprehensive. Those studies have incomplete discussions on the properties of the algorithms and fail to analyse several major blockchain consensus algorithms in terms of their scopes. This article fills this gap by analysing a wide range of consensus algorithms using a comprehensive taxonomy of properties and by examining the implications of different issues still prevalent in consensus algorithms in detail. The result of the analysis is presented in tabular formats, which provides a visual illustration of these algorithms in a meaningful way. We have also analysed more than hundred top crypto-currencies belonging to different categories of consensus algorithms to understand their properties and to implicate different trends in these crypto-currencies. Finally, we have presented a decision tree of algorithms to be used as a tool to test the suitability of consensus algorithms under different criteria.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2001.07091 [cs]},
  month = {February},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2001.07091},
}
@article{alsahan2020local,
  author = {Lina Alsahan and Noureddine Lasla and Mohamed Abdallah},
  title = {Local {Bitcoin} {Network} {Simulator} for {Performance} {Evaluation} using {Lightweight} {Virtualization}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2002.01243},
  abstract = {This paper presents a new blockchain network simulator that uses bitcoin's original reference implementation as its main application. The proposed simulator leverages the use of lightweight virtualization technology to build a fine tuned local testing network. To enable fast simulation of a large scale network without disabling mining service, the simulator can adjust the bitcoin mining difficulty level to below the default minimum value. In order to assess the performance of blockchain under different network conditions, the simulator allows to define different network topologies, and integrates Linux kernel traffic control (tc) tool to apply distinct delay or packet loss on the network nodes. Moreover, to validate the efficiency of our simulator we conduct a set of experiments and study the impact of the computation power and network delay on the network's consistency in terms of number of forks and mining revenues. The impact of applying different mining difficulty levels is also studied and the block time as well as fork occurrences are evaluated. Furthermore, a comprehensive survey and taxonomy of existing blockchain simulators are provided along with a discussion justifying the need of new simulator. As part of our contribution, we have made the simulator available on Github (https://github.com/noureddinel/core-bitcoin-net-simulator) for the community to use and improve it.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2002.01243 [cs]},
  month = {February},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2002.01243},
}
@article{matzutt2020how,
  author = {Roman Matzutt and Benedikt Kalde and Jan Pennekamp and Arthur Drichel and Martin Henze and Klaus Wehrle},
  title = {How to {Securely} {Prune} {Bitcoin}'s {Blockchain}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2004.06911},
  abstract = {Bitcoin was the first successful decentralized cryptocurrency and remains the most popular of its kind to this day. Despite the benefits of its blockchain, Bitcoin still faces serious scalability issues, most importantly its ever-increasing blockchain size. While alternative designs introduced schemes to periodically create snapshots and thereafter prune older blocks, already-deployed systems such as Bitcoin are often considered incapable of adopting corresponding approaches. In this work, we revise this popular belief and present CoinPrune, a snapshot-based pruning scheme that is fully compatible with Bitcoin. CoinPrune can be deployed through an opt-in velvet fork, i.e., without impeding the established Bitcoin network. By requiring miners to publicly announce and jointly reaffirm recent snapshots on the blockchain, CoinPrune establishes trust into the snapshots' correctness even in the presence of powerful adversaries. Our evaluation shows that CoinPrune reduces the storage requirements of Bitcoin already by two orders of magnitude today, with further relative savings as the blockchain grows. In our experiments, nodes only have to fetch and process 5 GiB instead of 230 GiB of data when joining the network, reducing the synchronization time on powerful devices from currently 5 h to 46 min, with even more savings for less powerful devices.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2004.06911 [cs]},
  month = {April},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2004.06911},
}
@article{cholvi2020appending,
  author = {Vicent Cholvi and Antonio Fernandez Anta and Chryssis Georgiou and Nicolas Nicolaou and Michel Raynal},
  title = {Appending {Atomically} in {Byzantine} {Distributed} {Ledgers}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2002.11593},
  abstract = {A Distributed Ledger Object (DLO) is a concurrent object that maintains a totally ordered sequence of records, and supports two basic operations: append, which appends a record at the end of the sequence, and get, which returns the sequence of records. In this work we provide a proper formalization of a Byzantine-tolerant Distributed Ledger Object (BDLO), which is a DLO in a distributed system in which processes may deviate arbitrarily from their indented behavior, i.e. they may be Byzantine. Our formal definition is accompanied by algorithms to implement BDLOs by utilizing an underlying Byzantine Atomic Broadcast service. We then utilize the BDLO implementations to solve the Atomic Appends problem against Byzantine processes. The Atomic Appends problem emerges when several clients have records to append, the record of each client has to be appended to a different BDLO, and it must be guaranteed that either all records are appended or none. We present distributed algorithms implementing solutions for the Atomic Appends problem when the clients (which are involved in the appends) and the servers (which maintain the BDLOs) may be Byzantine.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2002.11593 [cs]},
  month = {February},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2002.11593},
}
@article{beniiche2020study,
  author = {Abdeljalil Beniiche},
  title = {A {Study} of {Blockchain} {Oracles}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2004.07140},
  abstract = {The limitation with smart contracts is that they cannot access external data which might be required to control the execution of business logic. Oracles can be used to provide external data to smart contracts. An oracle is an interface that delivers data from external data outside the blockchain to a smart contract. Oracle can deliver different types of data depending on the industry and requirements. In this paper, we will study and describe the widely used blockchain oracles. Then, we elaborate on his potential role, technical architecture, and design patterns. Then, we discuss the human oracle and its role to solving the truth problem by reaching a consensus about a certain inquiry and tasks.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2004.07140 [cs]},
  month = {March},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2004.07140},
}
@article{kiayias2020consistency,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Saad Quader and Alexander Russell},
  title = {Consistency of {Proof}-of-{Stake} {Blockchains} with {Concurrent} {Honest} {Slot} {Leaders}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2001.06403},
  abstract = {We improve the fundamental security threshold of eventual consensus Proof-of-Stake (PoS) blockchain protocols under the longest-chain rule by showing, for the first time, the positive effect of rounds with concurrent honest leaders. Current security analyses reduce consistency to the dynamics of an abstract, round-based block creation process that is determined by three events associated with a round: (i) event \$A\$: at least one adversarial leader, (ii) event \$S\$: a single honest leader, and (iii) event \$M\$: multiple, but honest, leaders. We present an asymptotically optimal consistency analysis assuming that an honest round is more likely than an adversarial round (i.e., \${\textbackslash}Pr[S] + {\textbackslash}Pr[M] {\textgreater} {\textbackslash}Pr[A]\$); this threshold is optimal. This is a first in the literature and can be applied to both the simple synchronous communication as well as communication with bounded delays. In all existing consistency analyses, event \$M\$ is either penalized or treated neutrally. Specifically, the consistency analyses in Ouroboros Praos (Eurocrypt 2018) and Genesis (CCS 2018) assume that \${\textbackslash}Pr[S] - {\textbackslash}Pr[M] {\textgreater} {\textbackslash}Pr[A]\$; the analyses in Sleepy Consensus (Asiacrypt 2017) and Snow White (Fin. Crypto 2019) assume that \${\textbackslash}Pr[S] {\textgreater} {\textbackslash}Pr[A]\$. Moreover, all existing analyses completely break down when \${\textbackslash}Pr[S] {\textless} {\textbackslash}Pr[A]\$. These thresholds determine the critical trade-off between the honest majority, network delays, and consistency error. Our new results can be directly applied to improve the security guarantees of the existing protocols. We also complement these results by analyzing the setting where \$S\$ is rare, even allowing \${\textbackslash}Pr[S] = 0\$, under the added assumption that honest players adopt a consistent chain selection rule.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2001.06403 [cs]},
  month = {April},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2001.06403},
}
@article{saad2020contra-,
  author = {Muhammad Saad and Joongheon Kim and DaeHun Nyang and David Mohaisen},
  title = {Contra-*: {Mechanisms} for {Countering} {Spam} {Attacks} on {Blockchain} {Memory} {Pools}},
  shorttitle = {Contra-*},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2005.04842},
  abstract = {Blockchain-based cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin, have seen on the rise in their popularity and value, making them a target to several forms of Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks, and calling for a better understanding of their attack surface from both security and distributed systems standpoints. In this paper, and in the pursuit of understanding the attack surface of blockchains, we explore a new form of attack that can be carried out on the memory pools (mempools) and mainly targets blockchain-based cryptocurrencies. We study this attack on Bitcoin mempool and explore the attack effects on transactions fee paid by benign users. To counter this attack, this paper further proposes Contra-*:, a set of countermeasures utilizing fee, age, and size (thus, Contra-F, Contra-A, and Contra-S) as prioritization mechanisms. Contra-*: optimize the mempool size and help in countering the effects of DoS attacks due to spam transactions. We evaluate Contra-* by simulations and analyze their effectiveness under various attack conditions.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2005.04842 [cs]},
  month = {May},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2005.04842},
}
@article{nguyen2020sfuzz,
  author = {Tai D. Nguyen and Long H. Pham and Jun Sun and Yun Lin and Quang Tran Minh},
  title = {{sFuzz}: {An} {Efficient} {Adaptive} {Fuzzer} for {Solidity} {Smart} {Contracts}},
  shorttitle = {{sFuzz}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2004.08563},
  abstract = {Smart contracts are Turing-complete programs that execute on the infrastructure of the blockchain, which often manage valuable digital assets. Solidity is one of the most popular programming languages for writing smart contracts on the Ethereum platform. Like traditional programs, smart contracts may contain vulnerabilities. Unlike traditional programs, smart contracts cannot be easily patched once they are deployed. It is thus important that smart contracts are tested thoroughly before deployment. In this work, we present an adaptive fuzzer for smart contracts on the Ethereum platform called sFuzz. Compared to existing Solidity fuzzers, sFuzz combines the strategy in the AFL fuzzer and an efficient lightweight multi-objective adaptive strategy targeting those hard-to-cover branches. sFuzz has been applied to more than 4 thousand smart contracts and the experimental results show that (1) sFuzz is efficient, e.g., two orders of magnitude faster than state-of-the-art tools; (2) sFuzz is effective in achieving high code coverage and discovering vulnerabilities; and (3) the different fuzzing strategies in sFuzz complement each other.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2004.08563 [cs]},
  month = {April},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2004.08563},
}
@article{sigwart2020decentralized,
  author = {Marten Sigwart and Philipp Frauenthaler and Christof Spanring and Stefan Schulte},
  title = {Decentralized {Cross}-{Blockchain} {Asset} {Transfers}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2004.10488},
  abstract = {Today, solutions for cross-blockchain asset transfers are either tailored for specific assets, require certain means of cross-blockchain communication, or neglect finality guarantees that prevent assets from getting lost in transit. In this paper, we present a cross-blockchain asset transfer protocol that supports arbitrary assets, is adaptable to different means of cross-blockchain communication, and adheres to requirements such as finality. The ability to freely transfer assets between blockchains may increase transaction throughput and provide developers with more flexibility by allowing them to design digital assets that leverage the capacities and capabilities of multiple blockchains.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2004.10488 [cs]},
  month = {April},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2004.10488},
}
@article{fynn2020smart,
  author = {Enrique Fynn and Alysson Bessani and Fernando Pedone},
  title = {Smart {Contracts} on the {Move}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2004.05933},
  abstract = {Blockchain systems have received much attention and promise to revolutionize many services. Yet, despite their popularity, current blockchain systems exist in isolation, that is, they cannot share information. While interoperability is crucial for blockchain to reach widespread adoption, it is difficult to achieve due to differences among existing blockchain technologies. This paper presents a technique to allow blockchain interoperability. The core idea is to provide a primitive operation to developers so that contracts and objects can switch from one blockchain to another, without breaking consistency and violating key blockchain properties. To validate our ideas, we implemented our protocol in two popular blockchain clients that use the Ethereum virtual machine. We discuss how to build applications using the proposed protocol and show examples of applications based on real use cases that can move across blockchains. To analyze the system performance we use a real trace from one of the most popular Ethereum applications and replay it in a multi-blockchain environment.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2004.05933 [cs]},
  month = {April},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2004.05933},
}
@article{mamageishvili2020mechanism,
  author = {Akaki Mamageishvili and Jan Christoph Schlegel},
  title = {Mechanism {Design} and {Blockchains}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2005.02390},
  abstract = {Game theory is often used as a tool to analyze decentralized systems and their properties, in particular, blockchains. In this note, we take the opposite view. We argue that blockchains can and should be used to implement economic mechanisms because they can help to overcome problems that occur if trust in the mechanism designer cannot be assumed. Mechanism design deals with the allocation of resources to agents, often by extracting private information from them. Some mechanisms are immune to early information disclosure, while others may heavily depend on it. Some mechanisms have to randomize to achieve fairness and efficiency. Both issues, information disclosure, and randomness require trust in the mechanism designer. If there is no trust, mechanisms can be manipulated. We claim that mechanisms that use randomness or sequential information disclosure are much harder, if not impossible, to audit. Therefore, centralized implementation is often not a good solution. We consider some of the most frequently used mechanisms in practice and identify circumstances under which manipulation is possible. We propose a decentralized implementation of such mechanisms, that can be, in practical terms, realized by blockchain technology. Moreover, we argue in which environments a decentralized implementation of a mechanism brings a significant advantage.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2005.02390 [cs]},
  month = {May},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2005.02390},
}
@article{ghaleb2020how,
  author = {Asem Ghaleb and Karthik Pattabiraman},
  title = {How {Effective} are {Smart} {Contract} {Analysis} {Tools}? {Evaluating} {Smart} {Contract} {Static} {Analysis} {Tools} {Using} {Bug} {Injection}},
  shorttitle = {How {Effective} are {Smart} {Contract} {Analysis} {Tools}?},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2005.11613},
  doi = {10.1145/3395363.3397385},
  abstract = {Security attacks targeting smart contracts have been on the rise, which have led to financial loss and erosion of trust. Therefore, it is important to enable developers to discover security vulnerabilities in smart contracts before deployment. A number of static analysis tools have been developed for finding security bugs in smart contracts. However, despite the numerous bug-finding tools, there is no systematic approach to evaluate the proposed tools and gauge their effectiveness. This paper proposes SolidiFI, an automated and systematic approach for evaluating smart contract static analysis tools. SolidiFI is based on injecting bugs (i.e., code defects) into all potential locations in a smart contract to introduce targeted security vulnerabilities. SolidiFI then checks the generated buggy contract using the static analysis tools, and identifies the bugs that the tools are unable to detect (false-negatives) along with identifying the bugs reported as false-positives. SolidiFI is used to evaluate six widely-used static analysis tools, namely, Oyente, Securify, Mythril, SmartCheck, Manticore and Slither, using a set of 50 contracts injected by 9369 distinct bugs. It finds several instances of bugs that are not detected by the evaluated tools despite their claims of being able to detect such bugs, and all the tools report many false positives},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2005.11613 [cs]},
  month = {May},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2005.11613},
}
@article{reis2020tezla,
  author = {Jo{\~a}o Santos Reis and Paul Crocker and Sim{\~a}o Melo Sousa},
  title = {Tezla, an {Intermediate} {Representation} for {Static} {Analysis} of {Michelson} {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2005.11839},
  abstract = {This paper introduces Tezla, an intermediate representation of Michelson smart contracts that eases the design of static smart contract analysers. This intermediate representation uses a store and preserves the semantics, ow and resource usage of the original smart contract. This enables properties like gas consumption to be statically verified. We provide an automated decompiler of Michelson smart contracts to Tezla. In order to support our claim about the adequacy of Tezla, we develop a static analyser that takes advantage of the Tezla representation of Michelson smart contracts to prove simple but non-trivial properties.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2005.11839 [cs]},
  month = {May},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2005.11839},
}
@article{liu2020design,
  author = {Yue Liu and Qinghua Lu and Hye-Young Paik and Xiwei Xu},
  title = {Design {Patterns} for {Blockchain}-based {Self}-{Sovereign} {Identity}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2005.12112},
  abstract = {Self-sovereign identity is a new identity management paradigm that allows entities to really have the ownership of their identity data and control their use without involving any intermediary. Blockchain is an enabling technology for building self-sovereign identity systems by providing a neutral and trustable storage and computing infrastructure and can be viewed as a component of the systems. Both blockchain and self-sovereign identity are emerging technologies which could present a steep learning curve for architects. We collect and propose 12 design patterns for blockchain-based self-sovereign identity systems to help the architects understand and easily apply the concepts in system design. Based on the lifecycles of three main objects involved in self-sovereign identity, we categorise the patterns into three groups: key management patterns, decentralised identifier management patterns, and credential design patterns. The proposed patterns provide a systematic and holistic guide for architects to design the architecture of blockchain-based self-sovereign identity systems.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2005.12112 [cs]},
  month = {May},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2005.12112},
}
@article{nagele2020blockchain,
  author = {Julian Nagele and Maria A. Schett},
  title = {Blockchain {Superoptimizer}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2005.05912},
  abstract = {In the blockchain-based, distributed computing platform Ethereum, programs called smart contracts are compiled to bytecode and executed on the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). Executing EVM bytecode is subject to monetary fees---a clear optimization target. Our aim is to superoptimize EVM bytecode by encoding the operational semantics of EVM instructions as SMT formulas and leveraging a constraint solver to automatically find cheaper bytecode. We implement this approach in our EVM Bytecode SuperOptimizer ebso and perform two large scale evaluations on real-world data sets.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2005.05912 [cs]},
  month = {May},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2005.05912},
}
@article{chen2020why,
  author = {Jiachi Chen and Xin Xia and David Lo and John Grundy},
  title = {Why {Do} {Smart} {Contracts} {Self}-{Destruct}? {Investigating} the {Selfdestruct} {Function} on {Ethereum}},
  shorttitle = {Why {Do} {Smart} {Contracts} {Self}-{Destruct}?},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2005.07908},
  abstract = {The Selfdestruct function is provided by Ethereum smart contracts to destroy a contract on the blockchain system. However, it is a double-edged sword for developers. On the one hand, using Selfdestruct function enables developers to remove smart contracts (SC) from Ethereum and transfers Ethers when emergency situations happen, e.g. being attacked. On the other hand, this function can increase the complexity for the development and open an attack vector for attackers. To better understand the reasons why SC developers include or exclude the Selfdestruct function in their contracts, we conducted an online survey to collect feedback from them and summarize the key reasons. Their feedback shows that 66.67\% of the developers will deploy an updated contract to the Ethereum after destructing the old contract. According to this information, we propose a method to find the self-destruct contracts (also called predecessor contracts) and their updated version (successor contracts) by computing the code similarity. By analyzing the difference between the predecessor contracts and their successor contracts, we found six reasons that led to the death of the contracts; three of them (i.e., Unmatched ERC20 Token, Confusing Contract and Limits of Permission) might affect the life span of contracts. We developed a tool named LifeScope to detect these problems. LifeScope reports 0 false positives or negatives in detecting Unmatched ERC20 Token and Confusing Contract. In terms of Limits of Permission, LifeScope achieves 85.67\% of F-measure and 0.9014 of AUC. According to the feedback of developers who exclude Selfdestruct functions, we propose suggestions to help developers use Selfdestruct functions in Ethereum smart contracts better.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2005.07908 [cs]},
  month = {May},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2005.07908},
}
@article{song2020cost,
  author = {Yo-Der Song and Tomaso Aste},
  title = {The cost of {Bitcoin} mining has never really increased},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2004.04605},
  abstract = {The Bitcoin network is burning a large amount of energy for mining. In this paper we estimate the lower bound for the global energy cost for a period of ten years from 2010, taking into account changing oil costs, improvements in hashing technologies and hashing activity. Despite a ten-billion-fold increase in hashing activity and a ten-million-fold increase in total energy consumption, we find the cost relative to the volume of transactions has not increased nor decreased since 2010. This is consistent with the perspective that, in order to keep a the Blockchain system secure from double spending attacks, the proof or work must cost a sizable fraction of the value that can be transferred through the network. We estimate that in the Bitcoin network this fraction is of the order of 1\%.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2004.04605 [cs, q-fin]},
  month = {May},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2004.04605},
}
@article{beres2020blockchain,
  author = {Ferenc B{\'e}res and Istv{\'a}n Andr{\'a}s Seres and Andr{\'a}s A. Bencz{\'u}r and Mikerah Quintyne-Collins},
  title = {Blockchain is {Watching} {You}: {Profiling} and {Deanonymizing} {Ethereum} {Users}},
  shorttitle = {Blockchain is {Watching} {You}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2005.14051},
  abstract = {Ethereum is the largest public blockchain by usage. It applies an account-based model, which is inferior to Bitcoin's unspent transaction output model from a privacy perspective. As the account-based models for blockchains force address reuse, we show how transaction graphs and other quasi-identifiers of users such as time-of-day activity, transaction fees, and transaction graph analysis can be used to reveal some account owners. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to propose and implement Ethereum user profiling techniques based on user quasi-identifiers. Due to the privacy shortcomings of the account-based model, recently several privacy-enhancing overlays have been deployed on Ethereum, such as non-custodial, trustless coin mixers and confidential transactions. We assess the strengths and weaknesses of the existing privacy-enhancing solutions and quantitatively assess the privacy guarantees of the Etherum blockchain and ENS. We identify several heuristics as well as profiling and deanonymization techniques against some popular and emerging privacy-enhancing tools.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2005.14051 [cs]},
  month = {May},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2005.14051},
}
@article{da_horta2020whylson,
  author = {Lu{\'i}s Pedro Arrojado Horta and Jo{\~a}o Santos Reis and M{\'a}rio Pereira and Sim{\~a}o Melo Sousa},
  title = {{WhylSon}: {Proving} your {Michelson} {Smart} {Contracts} in {Why3}},
  shorttitle = {{WhylSon}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2005.14650},
  abstract = {This paper introduces WhylSon, a deductive verification tool for smart contracts written in Michelson, which is the low-level language of the Tezos blockchain. WhylSon accepts a formally specified Michelson contract and automatically translates it to an equivalent program written in WhyML, the programming and specification language of the Why3 framework. Smart contract instructions are mapped into a corresponding WhyML shallow-embedding of the their axiomatic semantics, which we also developed in the context of this work. One major advantage of this approach is that it allows an out-of-the-box integration with the Why3 framework, namely its VCGen and the backend support for several automated theorem provers. We also discuss the use of WhylSon to automatically prove the correctness of diverse annotated smart contracts.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2005.14650 [cs]},
  month = {May},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2005.14650},
}
@article{robinson2020layer,
  author = {Peter Robinson and Raghavendra Ramesh},
  title = {Layer 2 {Atomic} {Cross}-{Blockchain} {Function} {Calls}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2005.09790},
  abstract = {The Layer 2 Atomic Cross-Blockchain Function Calls protocol allows composable programming across Ethereum blockchains. It allows for inter-contract and inter-blockchain function calls that are both synchronous and atomic: if one part fails, the whole call graph of function calls is rolled back. Existing atomic cross-blockchain function call protocols are Blockchain Layer 1 protocols, which require changes to the blockchain platform software to operate. Blockchain Layer 2 technologies such as the one described in this paper require no such changes. They operate on top of the infrastructure provided by the blockchain platform software. This paper introduces the protocol and a more scalable variant, provides an initial safety and liveness analysis, and presents the expected overhead of using this technology when compared to using multiple non-atomic single blockchain transactions. The overhead is analysed for three scenarios involving multiple blockchains: the Hotel and Train problem, Supply Chain with Provenance, and an Oracle. The protocol is shown to provide 93.8 or 186 cross-blockchain function calls per second for the Hotel and Train scenario when there are many travel agencies, for the standard and scalable variant of the protocol respectively, given the Ethereum client, Hyperledger Besu's performance of 375 tps, assuming a block period of one second, and assuming all transactions take the same amount of time to execute as the benchmark transactions.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2005.09790 [cs]},
  month = {June},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2005.09790},
}
@article{wu2020kaya,
  author = {Zhenhao Wu and Jiashuo Zhang and Jianbo Gao and Yue Li and Qingshan Li and Zhi Guan and Zhong Chen},
  title = {Kaya: {A} {Testing} {Framework} for {Blockchain}-based {Decentralized} {Applications}},
  shorttitle = {Kaya},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2006.01476},
  abstract = {In recent years, many decentralized applications based on blockchain (DApp) have been developed. However, due to inadequate testing, DApps are easily exposed to serious vulnerabilities. We find three main challenges for DApp testing, i.e., the inherent complexity of DApp, inconvenient pre-state setting, and not-so-readable logs. In this paper, we propose a testing framework named Kaya to bridge these gaps. Kaya has three main functions. Firstly, Kaya proposes DApp behavior description language (DBDL) to make writing test cases easier. Test cases written in DBDL can also be automatically executed by Kaya. Secondly, Kaya supports a flexible and convenient way for test engineers to set the blockchain pre-states easily. Thirdly, Kaya transforms incomprehensible addresses into readable variables for easy comprehension. With these functions, Kaya can help test engineers test DApps more easily. Besides, to fit the various application environments, we provide two ways for test engineers to use Kaya, i.e., UI and command-line. Our experimental case demonstrates the potential of Kaya in helping test engineers to test DApps more easily.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2006.01476 [cs]},
  month = {June},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2006.01476},
}
@article{kundu2020similarities,
  author = {Ashish Kundu and Arun Ayachitula and Nagamani Sistla},
  title = {Similarities and {Learnings} from {Ancient} {Literature} on {Blockchain} {Consensus} and {Integrity}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2006.04487},
  abstract = {In this paper, we have studied how the text of an ancient literature on how their integrity has been preserved for several centuries. Specifically, The Vedas is an ancient literature, which has its text remained preserved without any corruption for thousands of years. As we studied the system that protects the integrity of the text, pronunciation and semantics of the The Vedas, we discovered a number of similarities it has with the current concept of blockchain technology. It is surprising that the notion of de-centralized trust and mathematical encodings have existed since thousands of years in order to protect this work of literature. We have presented our findings and analysis of the similarities. There are also certain technical mechanisms that The Vedic integrity system uses, which can be used to enhance the current digital blockchain platforms in terms of its security and robustness.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2006.04487 [cs]},
  month = {June},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2006.04487},
}
@article{rouhani2020distributed,
  author = {Sara Rouhani and Rafael Belchior and Rui S. Cruz and Ralph Deters},
  title = {Distributed {Attribute}-{Based} {Access} {Control} {System} {Using} a {Permissioned} {Blockchain}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2006.04384},
  abstract = {Auditing provides an essential security control in computer systems, by keeping track of all access attempts, including both legitimate and illegal access attempts. This phase can be useful to the context of audits, where eventual misbehaving parties can be held accountable. Blockchain technology can provide trusted auditability required for access control systems. In this paper, we propose a distributed {\textbackslash}ac\{ABAC\} system based on blockchain to provide trusted auditing of access attempts. Besides auditability, our system presents a level of transparency that both access requestors and resource owners can benefit from it. We present a system architecture with an implementation based on Hyperledger Fabric, achieving high efficiency and low computational overhead. The proposed solution is validated through a use case of independent digital libraries. Detailed performance analysis of our implementation is presented, taking into account different consensus mechanisms and databases. The experimental evaluation shows that our presented system can process 5,000 access control requests with the send rate of 200 per second and a latency of 0.3 seconds.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2006.04384 [cs]},
  month = {June},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2006.04384},
}
@article{karapapas2020ransomware,
  author = {Christos Karapapas and Iakovos Pittaras and Nikos Fotiou and George C. Polyzos},
  title = {Ransomware as a {Service} using {Smart} {Contracts} and {IPFS}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2003.04426},
  abstract = {Decentralized systems, such as distributed ledgers and the InterPlanetary File System (IPFS), are designed to offer more open and robust services. However, they also create opportunities for illegal activities. We demonstrate how these technologies can be used to launch a ransomware as a service campaign. We show that criminals can transact with affiliates and victims without having to reveal their identity. Furthermore, by exploiting the robustness and resilience to churn of IPFS, as well as the decentralized computing capabilities of Ethereum, criminals can remain offline during most procedures, with many privacy guarantees.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2003.04426 [cs]},
  month = {March},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2003.04426},
}
@article{fu2020soteria,
  author = {Wei-Kang Fu and Yi-Shan Lin and Giovanni Campagna and De-Yi Tsai and Chun-Ting Liu and Chung-Huan Mei and Edward Y. Chang and Monica S. Lam and Shih-Wei Liao},
  title = {Soteria: {A} {Provably} {Compliant} {User} {Right} {Manager} {Using} a {Novel} {Two}-{Layer} {Blockchain} {Technology}},
  shorttitle = {Soteria},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2003.10128},
  abstract = {Soteria is a user right management system designed to safeguard user-data privacy in a transparent and provable manner in compliance to regulations such as GDPR and CCPA. Soteria represents user data rights as formal executable sharing agreements, which can automatically be translated into a human readable form and enforced as data are queried. To support revocation and to prove compliance, an indelible, audited trail of the hash of data access and sharing agreements are stored on a two-layer distributed ledger. The main chain ensures partition tolerance and availability (PA) properties while side chains ensure consistency and availability (CA), thus providing the three properties of the CAP (consistency, availability, and partition tolerance) theorem. Besides depicting the two-layer architecture of Soteria, this paper evaluates representative consensus protocols and reports performance statistics.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2003.10128 [cs]},
  month = {March},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2003.10128},
}
@article{frauenthaler2020testimonium,
  author = {Philipp Frauenthaler and Marten Sigwart and Christof Spanring and Stefan Schulte},
  title = {Testimonium: {A} {Cost}-{Efficient} {Blockchain} {Relay}},
  shorttitle = {Testimonium},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2002.12837},
  abstract = {Current blockchain technologies provide very limited means of interoperability. In particular, solutions enabling blockchains to verify the existence of data on other blockchains are either very costly or are not fully decentralized. To overcome these limitations, we introduce Testimonium, a novel blockchain relay scheme that applies a validation-on-demand pattern and the on-chain execution of Simplified Payment Verifications to enable the verification of data across blockchains while remaining fully decentralized. Evaluating the scheme for Ethereum-based blockchains shows that Testimonium achieves a cost reduction of up to 92\% over existing solutions. As such, the scheme lays a strong foundation for generic blockchain interoperability. For instance, it enables the development of an atomic-commit protocol for distributed transactions across blockchains.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2002.12837 [cs]},
  month = {February},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2002.12837},
}
@article{brunjes2020utxo-,
  author = {Lars Brunjes and Murdoch J. Gabbay},
  title = {{UTxO}- vs account-based smart contract blockchain programming paradigms},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2003.14271},
  abstract = {We implement two versions of a simple but illustrative smart contract: one in Solidity on the Ethereum blockchain platform, and one in Plutus on the Cardano platform, giving annotated code excerpts, with full source code also attached. We get a clearer view of the Cardano programming model in particular by introducing a simple but novel mathematical abstraction which we call Idealised Cardano (or more precisely, Idealised EUTxO). For each version of the contract, we trace how the architectures of the underlying platforms and their mathematics affects the natural programming styles and natural classes of errors. We prove some simple but novel results about alpha-conversion and observational equivalence for Cardano, and explain why Ethereum does not have them. We conclude with a wide-ranging and detailed discussion in the light of the examples, mathematical model, and mathematical results so far.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2003.14271 [cs]},
  month = {April},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2003.14271},
}
@article{bessani2020byzantine,
  author = {Alysson Bessani and Eduardo Alchieri and Jo{\~a}o Sousa and Andr{\'e} Oliveira and Fernando Pedone},
  title = {From {Byzantine} {Replication} to {Blockchain}: {Consensus} is only the {Beginning}},
  shorttitle = {From {Byzantine} {Replication} to {Blockchain}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2004.14527},
  abstract = {The popularization of blockchains leads to a resurgence of interest in Byzantine Fault-Tolerant (BFT) state machine replication protocols. However, much of the work on this topic focuses on the underlying consensus protocols, with emphasis on their lack of scalability, leaving other subtle limitations unaddressed. These limitations are related to the effects of maintaining a durable blockchain instead of a write-ahead log and the requirement for reconfiguring the set of replicas in a decentralized way. We demonstrate these limitations using a digital coin blockchain application and BFT-SMaRt, a popular BFT replication library. We show how they can be addressed both at a conceptual level, in a protocol-agnostic way, and by implementing SMaRtChain, a blockchain platform based on BFT-SMaRt. SMaRtChain improves the performance of our digital coin application by a factor of eight when compared with a naive implementation on top of BFT-SMaRt. Moreover, SMaRtChain achieves a throughput \$8{\textbackslash}times\$ and \$33{\textbackslash}times\$ better than Tendermint and Hyperledger Fabric, respectively, when ensuring strong durability on its blockchain.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2004.14527 [cs]},
  month = {April},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2004.14527},
}
@article{somin2020erc20,
  author = {Shahar Somin and Goren Gordon and Alex Pentland and Erez Shmueli and Yaniv Altshuler},
  title = {{ERC20} {Transactions} over {Ethereum} {Blockchain}: {Network} {Analysis} and {Predictions}},
  shorttitle = {{ERC20} {Transactions} over {Ethereum} {Blockchain}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2004.08201},
  abstract = {Following the birth of Bitcoin and the introduction of the Ethereum ERC20 protocol a decade ago, recent years have witnessed a growing number of cryptographic tokens that are being introduced by researchers, private sector companies and NGOs. The ubiquitous of such Blockchain based cryptocurrencies give birth to a new kind of rising economy, which presents great difficulties to modeling its dynamics using conventional semantic properties. Our work presents the analysis of the dynamical properties of the ERC20 protocol compliant crypto-coins' trading data using a network theory prism. We examine the dynamics of ERC20 based networks over time by analyzing a meta-parameter of the network, the power of its degree distribution. Our analysis demonstrates that this parameter can be modeled as an under-damped harmonic oscillator over time, enabling a year forward of network parameters predictions.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2004.08201 [physics]},
  month = {April},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2004.08201},
}
@article{alharby2020blocksim,
  author = {Maher Alharby and Aad Moorsel},
  title = {{BlockSim}: {An} {Extensible} {Simulation} {Tool} for {Blockchain} {Systems}},
  shorttitle = {{BlockSim}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2004.13438},
  abstract = {Both in the design and deployment of blockchain solutions many performance-impacting configuration choices need to be made. We introduce BlockSim, a framework and software tool to build and simulate discrete-event dynamic systems models for blockchain systems. BlockSim is designed to support the analysis of a large variety of blockchains and blockchain deployments as well as a wide set of analysis questions. At the core of BlockSim is a Base Model, which contains the main model constructs common across various blockchain systems organized in three abstraction layers (network, consensus and incentives layer). The Base Model is usable for a wide variety of blockchain systems and can be extended easily to include system or deployment particulars. The BlockSim software tool provides a simulator that implements the Base Model in Python. This paper describes the Base Model, the simulator implementation, and the application of BlockSim to Bitcoin, Ethereum and other consensus algorithms. We validate BlockSim simulation results by comparison with performance results from actual systems and from other studies in the literature. We close the paper by a BlockSim simulation study of the impact of uncle blocks rewards on mining decentralization, for a variety of blockchain configurations.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2004.13438 [cs]},
  month = {April},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2004.13438},
}
@article{gallersdorfer2020authsc,
  author = {Ulrich Gallersd{\"o}rfer and Florian Matthes},
  title = {{AuthSC}: {Mind} the {Gap} between {Web} and {Smart} {Contracts}},
  shorttitle = {{AuthSC}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2004.14033},
  abstract = {Although almost all information about Smart Contract addresses is shared via websites, emails, or other forms of digital communication, Blockchains and distributed ledger technology are unable to establish secure bindings between websites and corresponding Smart Contracts. For a user, it is impossible to differentiate whether a website links to a legitimate Smart Contract set up by owners of a business or to an illicit contract aiming to steal users' funds. Surprisingly, current attempts to solve this issue mostly comprise of information redundancy, e.g., displaying contract addresses multiple times in varying forms of images and texts. These processes are burdensome, as the user is responsible for verifying the correctness of an address. More importantly, they do not address the core issue, as the contract itself does not contain information about its authenticity. To solve current issues for these applications and increase security, we propose a solution that facilitates publicly issued SSL/TLS-certificates of Fully-Qualified Domain Names (FQDN) to ensure the authenticity of Smart Contracts and their owners. Our approach combines on-chain identity assertion utilizing signatures from the respective certificate and off-chain authentication of the Smart Contract stored on the Blockchain. This approach allows to tackle the aforementioned issue and further enables applications such as the identification of consortia members in permissioned networks. The system is open and transparent, as the only requirement for usage is ownership of an SSL/TLS-certificate. To enable privacy-preserving authenticated Smart Contracts, we allow one-way and two-way binding between website and contract. Further, low creation and maintenance costs, a widely accepted public key infrastructure and user empowerment will drive potential adaption of Ethereum Authenticated Smart Contracts (AuthSC).},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2004.14033 [cs]},
  month = {April},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2004.14033},
}
@article{schneidewind2020ethor,
  author = {Clara Schneidewind and Ilya Grishchenko and Markus Scherer and Matteo Maffei},
  title = {{eThor}: {Practical} and {Provably} {Sound} {Static} {Analysis} of {Ethereum} {Smart} {Contracts}},
  shorttitle = {{eThor}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2005.06227},
  abstract = {Ethereum has emerged as the most popular smart contract development platform, with hundreds of thousands of contracts stored on the blockchain and covering a variety of application scenarios, such as auctions, trading platforms, and so on. Given their financial nature, security vulnerabilities may lead to catastrophic consequences and, even worse, they can be hardly fixed as data stored on the blockchain, including the smart contract code itself, are immutable. An automated security analysis of these contracts is thus of utmost interest, but at the same time technically challenging for a variety of reasons, such as the specific transaction-oriented programming mechanisms, which feature a subtle semantics, and the fact that the blockchain data which the contract under analysis interacts with, including the code of callers and callees, are not statically known. In this work, we present eThor, the first sound and automated static analyzer for EVM bytecode, which is based on an abstraction of the EVM bytecode semantics based on Horn clauses. In particular, our static analysis supports reachability properties, which we show to be sufficient for capturing interesting security properties for smart contracts (e.g., single-entrancy) as well as contract-specific functional properties. Our analysis is proven sound against a complete semantics of EVM bytecode and an experimental large-scale evaluation on real-world contracts demonstrates that eThor is practical and outperforms the state-of-the-art static analyzers: specifically, eThor is the only one to provide soundness guarantees, terminates on 95\% of a representative set of real-world contracts, and achieves an F-measure (which combines sensitivity and specificity) of 89\%.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2005.06227 [cs]},
  month = {May},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2005.06227},
}
@article{wu2020ethscope,
  author = {Lei Wu and Siwei Wu and Yajin Zhou and Runhuai Li and Zhi Wang and Xiapu Luo and Cong Wang and Kui Ren},
  title = {{EthScope}: {A} {Transaction}-centric {Security} {Analytics} {Framework} to {Detect} {Malicious} {Smart} {Contracts} on {Ethereum}},
  shorttitle = {{EthScope}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2005.08278},
  abstract = {As one of the representative blockchain platforms, Ethereum has attracted lots of attacks. Due to the potential financial loss, there is a pressing need to detect malicious smart contracts and understand their behaviors. Though there exist multiple systems for smart contract analysis, they cannot efficiently analyze a large number of transactions and re-execute smart contracts to introspect malicious behaviors. In this paper, we urge for a transaction-centric security analytics framework for Ethereum, which provides an efficient way to quickly locate suspicious ones from a large number of transactions and extensible way to detect malicious smart contracts with analyst-provided scripts. We present the system design in the paper, which solves three technical challenges, i.e., incomplete states, scalability and extensibility. We have implemented a prototype system named EthScope to solve these challenges. In particular, the first component Data Aggregator collects and recovers critical blockchain states. The second component Replay Engine is able to \{replay\} arbitrary and a large number of transactions. The third component Instrumentation Framework exposes interfaces for an analyst to dynamically instrument smart contracts and introspect the execution of suspicious transactions. The comprehensive evaluation with six types of attacks demonstrated the effectiveness of our system. The performance evaluation shows that our system can perform a large-scale analysis on suspicious transactions (more than 8 million ones) and has a speed up of around 2,300x compared with the JSTracer provided by Go-Ethereum. To engage the community, we will release our system and a dataset of detected attacks on https://github.com/zjuicsr/ethscope.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2005.08278 [cs]},
  month = {May},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2005.08278},
}
@article{torres2020towards,
  author = {Christof Ferreira Torres and Antonio Ken Iannillo and Arthur Gervais and Radu State},
  title = {Towards {Smart} {Hybrid} {Fuzzing} for {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2005.12156},
  abstract = {Smart contracts are Turing-complete programs that are executed across a blockchain network. Unlike traditional programs, once deployed they cannot be modified. As smart contracts become more popular and carry more value, they become more of an interesting target for attackers. In recent years, smart contracts suffered major exploits, costing millions of dollars, due to programming errors. As a result, a variety of tools for detecting bugs has been proposed. However, majority of these tools often yield many false positives due to over-approximation or poor code coverage due to complex path constraints. Fuzzing or fuzz testing is a popular and effective software testing technique. However, traditional fuzzers tend to be more effective towards finding shallow bugs and less effective in finding bugs that lie deeper in the execution. In this work, we present CONFUZZIUS, a hybrid fuzzer that combines evolutionary fuzzing with constraint solving in order to execute more code and find more bugs in smart contracts. Evolutionary fuzzing is used to exercise shallow parts of a smart contract, while constraint solving is used to generate inputs which satisfy complex conditions that prevent the evolutionary fuzzing from exploring deeper paths. Moreover, we use data dependency analysis to efficiently generate sequences of transactions, that create specific contract states in which bugs may be hidden. We evaluate the effectiveness of our fuzzing strategy, by comparing CONFUZZIUS with state-of-the-art symbolic execution tools and fuzzers. Our evaluation shows that our hybrid fuzzing approach produces significantly better results than state-of-the-art symbolic execution tools and fuzzers.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2005.12156 [cs]},
  month = {May},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2005.12156},
}
@article{das2020better,
  author = {Sourav Das and Nitin Awathare and Ling Ren and Vinay Joseph Ribeiro and Umesh Bellur},
  title = {Better {Late} than {Never}; {Scaling} {Computation} in {Blockchains} by {Delaying} {Execution}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2005.11791},
  abstract = {Proof-of-Work{\textasciitilde}(PoW) based blockchains typically allocate only a tiny fraction (e.g., less than 1\% for Ethereum) of the average interarrival time{\textasciitilde}(\${\textbackslash}mathbb\{I\}\$) between blocks for validating transactions. A trivial increase in validation time{\textasciitilde}(\${\textbackslash}tau\$) introduces the popularly known Verifier's Dilemma, and as we demonstrate, causes more forking and increases unfairness. Large \${\textbackslash}tau\$ also reduces the tolerance for safety against a Byzantine adversary. Solutions that offload validation to a set of non-chain nodes (a.k.a. off-chain approaches) suffer from trust issues that are non-trivial to resolve. In this paper, we present Tuxedo, the first on-chain protocol to theoretically scale \${\textbackslash}tau/{\textbackslash}mathbb\{I\} {\textbackslash}approx 1\$ in PoW blockchains. The key innovation in Tuxedo is to separate the consensus on the ordering of transactions from their execution. We achieve this by allowing miners to delay validation of transactions in a block by up to \${\textbackslash}zeta\$ blocks, where \${\textbackslash}zeta\$ is a system parameter. We perform security analysis of Tuxedo considering all possible adversarial strategies in a synchronous network with end-to-end delay \${\textbackslash}Delta\$ and demonstrate that Tuxedo achieves security equivalent to known results for longest chain PoW Nakamoto consensus. Additionally, we also suggest a principled approach for practical choices of parameter \${\textbackslash}zeta\$ as per the application requirement. Our prototype implementation of Tuxedo atop Ethereum demonstrates that it can scale \${\textbackslash}tau\$ without suffering the harmful effects of naive scaling in existing blockchains.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2005.11791 [cs]},
  month = {May},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2005.11791},
}
@article{albert2020analyzing,
  author = {Elvira Albert and Jes{\'u}s Correas and Pablo Gordillo and Alejandro Hern{\'a}ndez-Cerezo Guillermo Rom{\'a}n-D{\'i}ez and Albert Rubio},
  title = {Analyzing {Smart} {Contracts}: {From} {EVM} to a sound {Control}-{Flow} {Graph}},
  shorttitle = {Analyzing {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2004.14437},
  abstract = {The EVM language is a simple stack-based language with words of 256 bits, with one significant difference between the EVM and other virtual machine languages (like Java Bytecode or CLI for .Net programs): the use of the stack for saving the jump addresses instead of having it explicit in the code of the jumping instructions. Static analyzers need the complete control flow graph (CFG) of the EVM program in order to be able to represent all its execution paths. This report addresses the problem of obtaining a precise and complete stack-sensitive CFG by means of a static analysis, cloning the blocks that might be executed using different states of the execution stack. The soundness of the analysis presented is proved.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2004.14437 [cs]},
  month = {May},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2004.14437},
}
@article{lorenz2020machine,
  author = {Joana Lorenz and Maria In{\^e}s Silva and David Apar{\'i}cio and Jo{\~a}o Tiago Ascens{\~a}o and Pedro Bizarro},
  title = {Machine learning methods to detect money laundering in the {Bitcoin} blockchain in the presence of label scarcity},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2005.14635},
  abstract = {Every year, criminals launder billions of dollars acquired from serious felonies (e.g., terrorism, drug smuggling, or human trafficking) harming countless people and economies. Cryptocurrencies, in particular, have developed as a haven for money laundering activity. Machine Learning can be used to detect these illicit patterns. However, labels are so scarce that traditional supervised algorithms are inapplicable. Here, we address money laundering detection assuming minimal access to labels. First, we show that existing state-of-the-art solutions using unsupervised anomaly detection methods are inadequate to detect the illicit patterns in a real Bitcoin transaction dataset. Then, we show that our proposed active learning solution is capable of matching the performance of a fully supervised baseline by using just 5{\textbackslash}\% of the labels. This solution mimics a typical real-life situation in which a limited number of labels can be acquired through manual annotation by experts.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2005.14635 [cs, stat]},
  month = {May},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2005.14635},
}
@article{lux2020distributed-ledger-based,
  author = {Zolt{\'a}n Andr{\'a}s Lux and Dirk Thatmann and Sebastian Zickau and Felix Beierle},
  title = {Distributed-{Ledger}-based {Authentication} with {Decentralized} {Identifiers} and {Verifiable} {Credentials}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2006.04754},
  abstract = {Authentication with username and password is becoming an inconvenient process for the user. End users typically have little control over their personal privacy, and data breaches effecting millions of users have already happened several times. We have implemented a proof of concept decentralized OpenID Connect Provider by marrying it with Self-Sovereign Identity, which gives users the freedom to choose from a very large pool of identity providers instead of just a select few corporations, thus enabling the democratization of the highly centralized digital identity landscape. Furthermore, we propose a verifiable credential powered decentralized Public Key Infrastructure using distributed ledger technologies, which creates a straightforward and verifiable way for retrieving digital certificates.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2006.04754 [cs]},
  month = {June},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2006.04754},
}
@article{belchior2020survey,
  author = {Rafael Belchior and Andr{\'e} Vasconcelos and S{\'e}rgio Guerreiro and Miguel Correia},
  title = {A {Survey} on {Blockchain} {Interoperability}: {Past}, {Present}, and {Future} {Trends}},
  shorttitle = {A {Survey} on {Blockchain} {Interoperability}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2005.14282},
  abstract = {Blockchain interoperability is emerging as one of the crucial features of blockchain technology, but the knowledge necessary for achieving it is fragmented. This fact makes it challenging for academics and the industry to seamlessly achieve interoperability among blockchains. Given the novelty and potential of this new domain, we conduct a literature review on blockchain interoperability, by collecting 262 papers, and 70 grey literature documents, constituting a corpus of 332 documents. From those 332 documents, we systematically analyzed and discussed 80 documents, including both peer-reviewed papers and grey literature. Our review classifies studies in three categories: Cryptocurrency-directed interoperability approaches, Blockchain Engines, and Blockchain Connectors. Each category is further divided into sub-categories based on defined criteria. We discuss not only studies within each category and subcategory but also across categories, providing a holistic overview of blockchain interoperability, paving the way for systematic research in this domain. Our findings show that blockchain interoperability has a much broader spectrum than cryptocurrencies. The present survey leverages an interesting approach: we systematically contacted the authors of grey literature papers and industry solutions to obtain an updated view of their work. Finally, this paper discusses supporting technologies, standards, use cases, open challenges, and provides several future research directions.},
  urldate = {2020-06-16},
  journal = {arXiv:2005.14282 [cs]},
  month = {May},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2005.14282},
}
@book{rouhani2020distributed-1,
  author = {Sara Rouhani and Rafael Belchior and Rui S. Cruz and Ralph Deters},
  title = {Distributed {Attribute}-{Based} {Access} {Control} {System} {Using} a {Permissioned} {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2006.04384.pdf},
  year = {2020},
  note = {\_eprint: 2006.04384},
}
@book{ilie2020bitcoin,
  author = {Dragos Ioan Ilie and Kostis Karantias and William J. Knottenbelt},
  title = {Bitcoin {Crypto}-{Bounties} for {Quantum} {Capable} {Adversaries}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/186.pdf},
  year = {2020},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2020/186},
}
@book{mariem2020all,
  author = {Sami Ben Mariem and Pedro Casas and Matteo Romiti and Benoit Donnet and Rainer Stutz and Bernhard Haslhofer},
  title = {All that {Glitters} is not {Bitcoin} {\textendash} {Unveiling} the {Centralized} {Nature} of the {BTC} ({IP}) {Network}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.09105.pdf},
  year = {2020},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:2001.09105},
}
@book{kattis2020proof,
  author = {Assimakis Kattis and Joseph Bonneau},
  title = {Proof of {Necessary} {Work}: {Succinct} {State} {Verification} with {Fairness} {Guarantees}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/190.pdf},
  year = {2020},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2020/190},
}
@book{alper2019consensus,
  author = {Handan Kilinc Alper},
  title = {Consensus on {Clock} in {Universally} {Composable} {Timing} {Model}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1348.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1348},
}
@book{li2020phantom,
  author = {Xing Li and Yi Zheng and Kunxian Xia and Tongcheng Sun and John Beyler},
  title = {Phantom: {An} {Efficient} {Privacy} {Protocol} {Using} zk-{SNARKs} {Based} on {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/156.pdf},
  year = {2020},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2020/156},
}
@book{dziembowski2020ethna,
  author = {Stefan Dziembowski and Pawel Kedzior},
  title = {Ethna: {Channel} {Network} with {Dynamic} {Internal} {Payment} {Splitting}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/166.pdf},
  year = {2020},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2020/166},
}
@book{ilie2020committing,
  author = {Dragos Ioan Ilie and William J. Knottenbelt and Iain Stewart},
  title = {Committing to {Quantum} {Resistance}, {Better}: {A} {Speed}-and-{Risk}-{Configurable} {Defence} for {Bitcoin} against a {Fast} {Quantum} {Computing} {Attack}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/187.pdf},
  year = {2020},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2020/187},
}
@book{lee2020replicated-1,
  author = {Jonathan Lee and Kirill Nikitin and Srinath Setty},
  title = {Replicated state machines without replicated execution},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/195.pdf},
  year = {2020},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2020/195},
}
@book{karakostas2020securing-1,
  author = {Dimitris Karakostas and Aggelos Kiayias},
  title = {Securing {Proof}-of-{Work} {Ledgers} via {Checkpointing}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/173.pdf},
  year = {2020},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2020/173},
}
@book{dziembowski2020lower-1,
  author = {Stefan Dziembowski and Grzegorz Fabia{\'n}ski and Sebastian Faust and Siavash Riahi},
  title = {Lower {Bounds} for {Off}-{Chain} {Protocols}: {Exploring} the {Limits} of {Plasma}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/175.pdf},
  year = {2020},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2020/175},
}
@inproceedings{zhou2018erays,
  author = {Yi Zhou and Deepak Kumar and Surya Bakshi and Joshua Mason and Andrew Miller and Michael Bailey},
  title = {Erays: reverse engineering ethereum's opaque smart contracts},
  url = {https://www.usenix.org/system/files/conference/usenixsecurity18/sec18-zhou.pdf},
  booktitle = {27th {USENIX} {Security} {Symposium} ({USENIX} {Security} 18)},
  year = {2018},
  pages = {1371--1385},
}
@book{ali2020improving,
  author = {Faizan Safdar Ali and Alptekin Kupcu},
  title = {Improving {PKI}, {BGP}, and {DNS} {Using} {Blockchain}: {A} {Systematic} {Review}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.00747.pdf},
  year = {2020},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:2001.00747},
}
@book{ali2020peer-to-peer,
  author = {Faizan Ali and Moayad Aloqaily and Omar Alfandi and Oznur Ozkasap},
  title = {Peer-to-{Peer} {Blockchain} based {Energy} {Trading}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.00746.pdf},
  year = {2020},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:2001.00746},
}
@book{brent2018vandal,
  author = {Lexi Brent and Anton Jurisevic and Michael Kong and Eric Liu and Francois Gauthier and Vincent Gramoli and Ralph Holz and Bernhard Scholz},
  title = {Vandal: {A} {Scalable} {Security} {Analysis} {Framework} for {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1809.03981.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1809.03981},
}
@inproceedings{cheng2019ekiden,
  author = {Raymond Cheng and Fan Zhang and Jernej Kos and Warren He and Nicholas Hynes and Noah Johnson and Ari Juels and Andrew Miller and Dawn Song},
  title = {Ekiden: {A} platform for confidentiality-preserving, trustworthy, and performant smart contracts},
  booktitle = {2019 {IEEE} {European} {Symposium} on {Security} and {Privacy} ({EuroS}\&{P})},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2019},
  pages = {185--200},
}
@inproceedings{di_angelo2019survey,
  author = {Monika Di Angelo and Gernot Salzer},
  title = {A survey of tools for analyzing ethereum smart contracts},
  url = {https://publik.tuwien.ac.at/files/publik_278277.pdf},
  booktitle = {2019 {IEEE} {International} {Conference} on {Decentralized} {Applications} and {Infrastructures} ({DAPPCON})},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2019},
}
@book{wang2020distributed,
  author = {Xinying Wang and Olamide Timothy Tawose and Feng Yan and Dongfang Zhao},
  title = {Distributed {Nonblocking} {Commit} {Protocols} for {Many}-{Party} {Cross}-{Blockchain} {Transactions}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.01174.pdf},
  year = {2020},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:2001.01174},
}
@book{kiayias2019coalition-safe,
  author = {Aggelos Kiayias and Aikaterini-Panagiota Stouka},
  title = {Coalition-{Safe} {Equilibria} with {Virtual} {Payoffs}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.00047.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:2001.00047},
}
@book{thyagarajan2020reparo-1,
  author = {Sri Aravinda Krishnan Thyagarajan and Adithya Bhat and Bernardo Magri and Daniel Tschudi and Aniket Kate},
  title = {Reparo: {Publicly} {Verifiable} {Layer} to {Repair} {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.00486.pdf},
  year = {2020},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:2001.00486},
}
@book{shrestha2019user,
  author = {Ajay Kumar Shrestha and Julita Vassileva},
  title = {User {Acceptance} of {Usable} {Blockchain}-{Based} {Research} {Data} {Sharing} {System}: {An} {Extended} {TAM} {Based} {Study}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.00079.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:2001.00079},
}
@article{xiao2019edgetoll,
  author = {Bowen Xiao and Xiaoyi Fan and Sheng Gao and Wei Cai},
  title = {{EdgeToll}: {A} {Blockchain}-based {Toll} {Collection} {System} for {Public} {Sharing} of {Heterogeneous} {Edges}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.12681.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1912.12681 Published: The 3rd International Workshop on Integrating Edge Computing, Caching, and Offloading in Next Generation Networks (INFOCOM workshop IECCO 2019), At Paris, France},
}
@book{albert2019gasol,
  author = {Elvira Albert and Jes{\'u}s Correas and Pablo Gordillo and Guillermo Rom{\'a}n-D{\'i}ez and Albert Rubio},
  title = {{GASOL}: {Gas} {Analysis} and {Optimization} for {Ethereum} {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.11929.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1912.11929},
}
@book{imtiaz2019characterizing,
  author = {Muhammad Anas Imtiaz and David Starobinski and Ari Trachtenberg},
  title = {Characterizing {Orphan} {Transactions} in the {Bitcoin} {Network}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.11541.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1912.11541},
}
@book{lunardi2019impact,
  author = {Roben C. Lunardi and Regio A. Michelin and Charles V. Neu and Avelino F. Zorzo and Salil S. Kanhere},
  title = {Impact of consensus on appendable-block blockchain for {IoT}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.11043.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1912.11043},
}
@book{hu2019characterizing,
  author = {Yining Hu and Suranga Seneviratne and Kanchana Thilakarathna and Kensuke Fukuda and Aruna Seneviratne},
  title = {Characterizing and {Detecting} {Money} {Laundering} {Activities} on the {Bitcoin} {Network}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.12060.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1912.12060},
}
@book{shi2019hopping-proof,
  author = {Hongwei Shi and Shengling Wang and Qin Hu and Xiuzhen Cheng and Junshan Zhang and Jiguo Yu},
  title = {Hopping-{Proof} and {Fee}-{Free} {Pooled} {Mining} in {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.11575.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1912.11575},
}
@book{chung2019performance,
  author = {Grant Chung and Luc Desrosiers and Manav Gupta and Andrew Sutton and Kaushik Venkatadri and Ontak Wong and Goran Zugic},
  title = {Performance {Tuning} and {Scaling} {Enterprise} {Blockchain} {Applications}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.11456.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1912.11456},
}
@book{kurt2019lnbot,
  author = {Ahmet Kurt and Enes Erdin and Mumin Cebe and Kemal Akkaya and A. Selcuk Uluagac},
  title = {{LNBot}: {A} {Covert} {Hybrid} {Botnet} on {Bitcoin} {Lightning} {Network}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.10617.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1912.10617},
}
@book{voron2019dispel,
  author = {Gauthier Voron and Vincent Gramoli},
  title = {Dispel: {Byzantine} {SMR} with {Distributed} {Pipelining}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.10367.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1912.10367},
}
@article{zheng2019overview,
  author = {Zibin Zheng and Shaoan Xie and Hong-Ning Dai and Weili Chen and Xiangping Chen and Jian Weng and Muhammad Imran},
  title = {An {Overview} on {Smart} {Contracts}: {Challenges}, {Advances} and {Platforms}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.10370.pdf},
  doi = {10.1016/j.future.2019.12.019},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1912.10370 Published: Future Generation Computer Systems, 2019},
}
@book{xu2019microchain,
  author = {Ronghua Xu and Yu Chen},
  title = {Microchain: a {Light} {Hierarchical} {Consensus} {Protocol} for {IoT} {System}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.10357.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1912.10357},
}
@book{wei2020creating,
  author = {Hongxin Wei and Wei Feng and Chi Zhang and Yunfei Chen and Yuguang Fang and Ning Ge},
  title = {Creating {Efficient} {Blockchains} for the {Internet} of {Things} by {Coordinated} {Satellite}-{Terrestrial} {Networks}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.01358.pdf},
  year = {2020},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:2001.01358 Published: IEEE Wireless Communications, 2020},
}
@book{li2020bpcex,
  author = {Wulu Li and Lei Chen and Xin Lai and Xiao Zhang and Jiajun Xin},
  title = {{BPCEX}: {Towards} {Blockchain}-based {Privacy}-preserving {Currency} {Exchange}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/004.pdf},
  year = {2020},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2020/004},
}
@book{arun2019cross-chain,
  author = {Arasu Arun and C. Pandu Rangan},
  title = {Cross-{Chain} {Communication} {Using} {Receipts}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1431.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1431},
}
@book{li2019dissecting,
  author = {Yitao Li and Umar Islambekov and Cuneyt Akcora and Ekaterina Smirnova and Yulia R. Gel and Murat Kantarcioglu},
  title = {Dissecting {Ethereum} {Blockchain} {Analytics}: {What} {We} {Learn} from {Topology} and {Geometry} of {Ethereum} {Graph}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.10105.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1912.10105},
}
@book{mavroudis2020snappy,
  author = {Vasilios Mavroudis and Karl W{\"u}st and Aritra Dhar and Kari Kostiainen and Srdjan Capkun},
  title = {Snappy: {Fast} {On}-chain {Payments} with {Practical} {Collaterals}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.01278.pdf},
  year = {2020},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:2001.01278},
}
@book{wan2019hibechain,
  author = {Zhiguo Wan and Wei Liu and Hui Cui},
  title = {{HIBEChain}: {A} {Hierarchical} {Identity}-based {Blockchain} {System} for {Large}-{Scale} {IoT}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1425.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1425},
}
@book{zheng2019confidential,
  author = {Yi Zheng and Howard Ye and Patrick Dai and Tongcheng Sun and Vladislav Gelfer},
  title = {Confidential {Assets} on {MimbleWimble}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1435.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1435},
}
@book{karantias2019compact,
  author = {Kostis Karantias and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos and Dionysis Zindros},
  title = {Compact {Storage} of {Superblocks} for {NIPoPoW} {Applications}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1444.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1444},
}
@book{wang2019byzantine,
  author = {Yongge Wang},
  title = {Byzantine {Fault} {Tolerance} in {Partially} {Connected} {Asynchronous} {Networks}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1460.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1460},
}
@article{zheng2018blockchain,
  author = {Zibin Zheng and Shaoan Xie and Hong-Ning Dai and Xiangping Chen and Huaimin Wang},
  title = {Blockchain challenges and opportunities: {A} survey},
  volume = {14},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Hong-Ning_Dai/publication/328271018_Blockchain_challenges_and_opportunities_a_survey/links/5bd2706f92851c6b278f31eb/Blockchain-challenges-and-opportunities-a-survey.pdf},
  number = {4},
  journal = {International Journal of Web and Grid Services},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Publisher: Inderscience Publishers (IEL)},
  pages = {352--375},
}
@article{conti2018survey,
  author = {Mauro Conti and E Sandeep Kumar and Chhagan Lal and Sushmita Ruj},
  title = {A survey on security and privacy issues of bitcoin},
  volume = {20},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.00916.pdf},
  number = {4},
  journal = {IEEE Communications Surveys \& Tutorials},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Publisher: IEEE},
  pages = {3416--3452},
}
@article{tasca2017taxonomy,
  author = {Paolo Tasca and Claudio J Tessone},
  title = {Taxonomy of blockchain technologies. {Principles} of identification and classification},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1708.04872.pdf},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1708.04872},
  year = {2017},
}
@inproceedings{zheng2017overview,
  author = {Zibin Zheng and Shaoan Xie and Hongning Dai and Xiangping Chen and Huaimin Wang},
  title = {An overview of blockchain technology: {Architecture}, consensus, and future trends},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Hong-Ning_Dai/publication/318131748_An_Overview_of_Blockchain_Technology_Architecture_Consensus_and_Future_Trends/links/59d71faa458515db19c915a1/An-Overview-of-Blockchain-Technology-Architecture-Consensus-and-Future-Trends.pdf},
  booktitle = {2017 {IEEE} {International} {Congress} on {Big} {Data} ({BigData} {Congress})},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {557--564},
}
@inproceedings{meiklejohn2015privacy-enhancing,
  author = {Sarah Meiklejohn and Claudio Orlandi},
  title = {Privacy-enhancing overlays in bitcoin},
  url = {https://fc15.ifca.ai/preproceedings/bitcoin/paper_5.pdf},
  booktitle = {International {Conference} on {Financial} {Cryptography} and {Data} {Security}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {127--141},
}
@book{zhang2019mpro,
  author = {William Zhang and Sebastian Banescu and Leodardo Pasos and Steven Stewart and Vijay Ganesh},
  title = {{MPro}: {Combining} {Static} and {Symbolic} {Analysis} for {Scalable} {Testing} of {Smart} {Contract}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1911.00570.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1911.00570},
}
@article{genkin2018privacy,
  author = {Daniel Genkin and Dimitrios Papadopoulos and Charalampos Papamanthou},
  title = {Privacy in decentralized cryptocurrencies},
  volume = {61},
  url = {http://web.eecs.umich.edu/ genkin/papers/privacy-cryptocurrencies.pdf},
  number = {6},
  journal = {Communications of the ACM},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Publisher: ACM},
  pages = {78--88},
}
@article{ober2013structure,
  author = {Micha Ober and Stefan Katzenbeisser and Kay Hamacher},
  title = {Structure and anonymity of the bitcoin transaction graph},
  volume = {5},
  url = {https://www.mdpi.com/1999-5903/5/2/237/pdf},
  number = {2},
  journal = {Future internet},
  year = {2013},
  note = {Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute},
  pages = {237--250},
}
@article{henry2018blockchain,
  author = {Ryan Henry and Amir Herzberg and Aniket Kate},
  title = {Blockchain access privacy: challenges and directions},
  volume = {16},
  url = {https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Amir_Herzberg/publication/326855148_Blockchain_Access_Privacy_Challenges_and_Directions/links/5b80adb292851c1e12304c11/Blockchain-Access-Privacy-Challenges-and-Directions.pdf},
  number = {4},
  journal = {IEEE Security \& Privacy},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Publisher: IEEE},
  pages = {38--45},
}
@article{moser2013anonymity,
  author = {Malte Moser},
  title = {Anonymity of bitcoin transactions},
  url = {https://www.wi.uni-muenster.de/sites/wi/files/public/department/itsecurity/mbc13/mbc13-moeser-paper.pdf},
  year = {2013},
}
@article{bojja_venkatakrishnan2017dandelion,
  author = {Shaileshh Bojja Venkatakrishnan and Giulia Fanti and Pramod Viswanath},
  title = {Dandelion: {Redesigning} the bitcoin network for anonymity},
  volume = {1},
  url = {https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3084459&ftid=1881137&dwn=1&CFID=169921178&CFTOKEN=aaf9049dde936e5e-822B7F80-BACC-AE00-467AFC9F6FB98477},
  number = {1},
  journal = {Proceedings of the ACM on Measurement and Analysis of Computing Systems},
  year = {2017},
  note = {Publisher: ACM},
  pages = {22},
}
@book{moser2019effective,
  author = {Malte M{\"o}ser and Arvind Narayanan},
  title = {Effective {Cryptocurrency} {Regulation} {Through} {Blacklisting}},
  url = {https://maltemoeser.de/paper/blacklisting-regulation.pdf},
  year = {2019},
}
@book{yu2019coded,
  author = {Mingchao Yu and Saeid Sahraei and Songze Li and Salman Avestimehr and Sreeram Kannan and Pramod Viswanath},
  title = {Coded {Merkle} {Tree}: {Solving} {Data} {Availability} {Attacks} in {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1139.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1139},
}
@inproceedings{ziegeldorf2015coinparty,
  author = {Jan Henrik Ziegeldorf and Fred Grossmann and Martin Henze and Nicolas Inden and Klaus Wehrle},
  title = {Coinparty: {Secure} multi-party mixing of bitcoins},
  url = {https://www.henrikziegeldorf.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/ziegeldorf2015coinparty.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th {ACM} {Conference} on {Data} and {Application} {Security} and {Privacy}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2015},
  pages = {75--86},
}
@inproceedings{brown-cohen2019formal,
  author = {Jonah Brown-Cohen and Arvind Narayanan and Alexandros Psomas and S Matthew Weinberg},
  title = {Formal barriers to longest-chain proof-of-stake protocols},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1809.06528.pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2019 {ACM} {Conference} on {Economics} and {Computation}},
  publisher = {ACM},
  year = {2019},
  pages = {459--473},
}
@book{quintyne-collins2019short,
  author = {Mikerah Quintyne-Collins},
  title = {Short {Paper}: {Towards} {Characterizing} {Sybil} {Attacks} in {Cryptocurrency} {Mixers}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1111.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1111},
}
@book{wang2019chainsplitter,
  author = {Gang Wang and Zhijie Jerry Shi and Mark Nixon and Song Han},
  title = {{ChainSplitter}: {Towards} {Blockchain}-based {Industrial} {IoT} {Architecture} for {Supporting} {Hierarchical} {Storage}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1138.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1138},
}
@book{perez-sola2019lockdown,
  author = {Cristina P{\'e}rez-Sol{\`a} and Alejandro Ranchal-Pedrosa and Jordi Herrera-Joancomart{\`i} and Guillermo Navarro-Arribas and Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro},
  title = {{LockDown}: {Balance} {Availability} {Attack} against {Lightning} {Network} {Channels}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1149.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1149},
}
@book{wang2019sok,
  author = {Gang Wang and Zhijie Jerry Shi and Mark Nixon and Song Han},
  title = {{SoK}: {Sharding} on {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1178.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1178},
}
@book{khalil2018commit-chains,
  author = {Rami Khalil and Alexei Zamyatin and Guillaume Felley and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Arthur Gervais},
  title = {Commit-{Chains}: {Secure}, {Scalable} {Off}-{Chain} {Payments}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/642.pdf},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2018/642},
}
@book{bogatov2019anonymous,
  author = {Dmytro Bogatov and Angelo De Caro and Kaoutar Elkhiyaoui and Bj{\"o}rn Tackmann},
  title = {Anonymous {Transactions} with {Revocation} and {Auditing} in {Hyperledger} {Fabric}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1097.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1097},
}
@book{niu2019analysis,
  author = {Jianyu Niu and Chen Feng and Hoang Dau and Yu-Chih Huang and Jingge Zhu},
  title = {Analysis of {Nakamoto} {Consensus}, {Revisited}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1225.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1225},
}
@inproceedings{conoscenti2019hubs,
  author = {Marco Conoscenti and Antonio Vetr{\`o} and Juan Carlos De Martin},
  title = {Hubs, {Rebalancing} and {Service} {Providers} in the {Lightning} {Network}},
  volume = {7},
  url = {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/ielx7/6287639/8600701/08839024.pdf},
  booktitle = {{IEEE} {Access}},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2019},
  pages = {132828--132840},
}
@book{zamyatin2019sok,
  author = {Alexei Zamyatin and Mustafa Al-Bassam and Dionysis Zindros and Eleftherios Kokoris-Kogias and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Aggelos Kiayias and William J Knottenbelt},
  title = {{SoK}: {Communication} {Across} {Distributed} {Ledgers}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1128.pdf},
  publisher = {IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, 2019: 1128},
  year = {2019},
}
@book{wang2019proof-of-stake,
  author = {Xuechao Wang and Govinda Kamath and Vivek Bagaria and Sreeram Kannan and Sewoong Oh and David Tse and Pramod Viswanath},
  title = {Proof-of-{Stake} {Longest} {Chain} {Protocols} {Revisited}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1910.02218.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1910.02218},
}
@book{cojocaru2019bitcoin,
  author = {Alexandru Cojocaru and Juan Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Fang Song and Petros Wallden},
  title = {The {Bitcoin} {Backbone} {Protocol} {Against} {Quantum} {Adversaries}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1150.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1150},
}
@book{chen2019axiomatic,
  author = {Xi Chen and Christos Papadimitriou and Tim Roughgarden},
  title = {An {Axiomatic} {Approach} to {Block} {Rewards}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.10645.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1909.10645},
}
@book{xu2019redactable,
  author = {Jing Xu and Xinyu Li and Lingyuan Yin and Bingyong Guo and Han Feng and Zhenfeng Zhang},
  title = {Redactable {Proof}-of-{Stake} {Blockchain} with {Fast} {Confirmation}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1110.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1110},
}
@book{gundlach2019hydra,
  author = {Rowel G{\"u}ndlach and Jaap-Henk Hoepman and Remco Hofstad and Tommy Koens and Stijn Meijer},
  title = {Hydra: {A} {Multiple} {Blockchain} {Protocol} for {Improving} {Transaction} {Throughput}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1910.06682.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1910.06682},
}
@book{amoussou-guenou2019fairness,
  author = {Yackolley Amoussou-Guenou and Antonella Del Pozzo and Maria Potop-Butucaru and Sara Tucci-Piergiovanni},
  title = {On {Fairness} in {Committee}-based {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1910.09786.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1910.09786},
}
@book{thai2019backpackers,
  author = {Phuc D Thai and Hong-sheng Zhou and Jonathan Katz and Lei Fan and Thang N Dinh},
  title = {{BackPackers}: {A} {New} {Network} {Paradigm} for {Secure} and {High}-performance {Blockchains}},
  url = {https://www.fractalblock.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/BackPackers_Layer-0-Scaling.pdf},
  year = {2019},
}
@book{birmpas2019fairness,
  author = {Georgios Birmpas and Elias Koutsoupias and Philip Lazos and Francisco J. Marmolejo-Coss{\'i}o},
  title = {Fairness and {Efficiency} in {DAG}-based {Cryptocurrencies}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1910.02059.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1910.02059},
}
@book{homoliak2019security,
  author = {Ivan Homoliak and Sarad Venugopalan and Qingze Hum and Daniel Reijsbergen and Richard Schumi and Pawel Szalachowski},
  title = {The {Security} {Reference} {Architecture} for {Blockchains}: {Towards} a {Standardized} {Model} for {Studying} {Vulnerabilities}, {Threats}, and {Defenses}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1910.09775.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1910.09775},
}
@book{ford2019rationality,
  author = {Bryan Ford and Rainer B{\"o}hme},
  title = {Rationality is {Self}-{Defeating} in {Permissionless} {Systems}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1910.08820.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1910.08820},
}
@book{lee2019sims,
  author = {Jeonghyuk Lee and Jungyeon Hwang and Jaekyung Choi and Hyunok Oh and Jihye Kim},
  title = {{SIMS} : {Self} {Sovereign} {Identity} {Management} {System} with {Preserving} {Privacy} in {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1241.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1241},
}
@book{gupta2019cdag,
  author = {Himanshu Gupta and Dharanipragada Janakiram},
  title = {{CDAG}: {A} {Serialized} {blockDAG} for {Permissioned} {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1910.08547.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Publication Title: arXiv preprint arXiv:1910.08547},
}
@book{fan2019large-scale,
  author = {Lei Fan and Jonathan Katz and Hong-Sheng Zhou},
  title = {A {Large}-{Scale} {Proof}-of-{Stake} {Blockchain} in the {Open} {Setting}},
  url = {https://www.fractalblock.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/iching_consensus_protocol.pdf},
  year = {2019},
}
@book{bernardo2019mi-cho-coq,
  author = {Bruno Bernardo and Rapha{\"e}l Cauderlier and Zhenlei Hu and Basile Pesin and Julien Tesson},
  title = {Mi-{Cho}-{Coq}, a framework for certifying {Tezos} {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.08671.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1909.08671},
}
@book{allombert2019introduction,
  author = {Victor Allombert and Mathias Bourgoin and Julien Tesson},
  title = {Introduction to the {Tezos} {Blockchain}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.08458.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1909.08458},
}
@book{chee2019ocean,
  author = {Raymond Chee and Kartik Chitturi and Edouard Dufour-Sans and Kyle Soska},
  title = {{OCEAN}: {A} {Built}-{In} {Replacement} for {Mining} {Pools}},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2019/1081.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {Published: Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/1081},
}
@book{tholoniat2019certifying,
  author = {Pierre Tholoniat and Vincent Gramoli},
  title = {Certifying {Blockchain} {Byzantine} {Fault} {Tolerance}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.07453.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1909.07453},
}
@book{ramanan2019baffle,
  author = {Paritosh Ramanan and Kiyoshi Nakayama and Ratnesh Sharma},
  title = {{BAFFLE} : {Blockchain} based {Aggregator} {Free} {Federated} {Learning}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.07452.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1909.07452},
}
@book{wang2019oracle-supported,
  author = {Haijun Wang and Yi Li and Shang-Wei Lin and Cyrille Artho and Lei Ma and Yang Liu},
  title = {Oracle-{Supported} {Dynamic} {Exploit} {Generation} for {Smart} {Contracts}},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.06605.pdf},
  year = {2019},
  note = {\_eprint: arXiv:1909.06605},
}
@misc{noauthornodatebyzantine,
  author = {},
  title = {Byzantine agreement in the full- information model in o(log n) rounds - {Google} {Search}},
  url = {https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-d&q=Byzantine+agreement+in+the+full-+information+model+in+o%28log+n%29+rounds},
  urldate = {2020-06-25},
}
@misc{noauthornodatebyzantine-1,
  author = {},
  title = {Byzantine agreement in the full-information model in {O}(log n) rounds {\textbar} {Proceedings} of the thirty-eighth annual {ACM} symposium on {Theory} of {Computing}},
  url = {https://people.csail.mit.edu/vinodv/BA.pdf},
  urldate = {2020-06-25},
}
@article{li2020ghast,
  author = {Chenxing Li and Fan Long and Guang Yang},
  title = {{GHAST}: {Breaking} {Confirmation} {Delay} {Barrier} in {Nakamoto} {Consensus} via {Adaptive} {Weighted} {Blocks}},
  shorttitle = {{GHAST}},
  url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/2006.01072},
  abstract = {Initiated from Nakamoto's Bitcoin system, blockchain technology has demonstrated great capability of building secure consensus among decentralized parties at Internet-scale, i.e., without relying on any centralized trusted party. Nowadays, blockchain systems find applications in various fields. But the performance is increasingly becoming a bottleneck, especially when permissionless participation is retained for full decentralization. In this work, we present a new consensus protocol named GHAST (Greedy Heaviest Adaptive Sub-Tree) which organizes blocks in a Tree-Graph structure (i.e., a directed acyclic graph (DAG) with a tree embedded) that allows fast and concurrent block generation. GHAST protocol simultaneously achieves a logarithmically bounded liveness guarantee and low confirmation latency. More specifically, for maximum latency \$d\$ and adversarial computing power bounded away from 50{\textbackslash}\%, GHAST guarantees confirmation with confidence \${\textbackslash}ge 1-{\textbackslash}varepsilon\$ after a time period of \$O(d{\textbackslash}cdot {\textbackslash}log(1/{\textbackslash}varepsilon))\$. When there is no observable attack, GHAST only needs \$3d\$ time to achieve confirmation at the same confidence level as six-block-confirmation in Bitcoin, while it takes roughly \$360d\$ in Bitcoin.},
  urldate = {2020-07-01},
  journal = {arXiv:2006.01072 [cs]},
  month = {June},
  year = {2020},
  note = {arXiv: 2006.01072},
}
@article{kermarrec2000reliable,
  author = {Anne-Marie Kermarrec and Laurent Massoulie and Ayalvadi Ganesh},
  title = {Reliable probabilistic communication in large-scale information dissemination systems},
  volume = {105},
  journal = {Microsoft Research Cambridge, Tech. Rep},
  year = {2000},
}
@inproceedings{gupta2002efficient,
  author = {Indranil Gupta and Anne-Marie Kermarrec and Ayalvadi J. Ganesh},
  title = {Efficient epidemic-style protocols for reliable and scalable multicast},
  booktitle = {21st {IEEE} {Symposium} on {Reliable} {Distributed} {Systems}, 2002. {Proceedings}.},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {180--189},
}
@misc{noauthornodateepidemic,
  author = {},
  title = {Epidemic algorithms for replicated database maintenance. - {Google} {Scholar}},
  url = {https://scholar.google.at/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=Epidemic+algorithms+for+replicated+database+maintenance.&btnG=},
  urldate = {2020-06-30},
}
@article{eugster2004epidemics,
  author = {P. Th Eugster and R. Guerraoui and A.-M. Kermarrec and L. Massoulie},
  title = {From {Epidemics} to {Distributed} {Computing}},
  volume = {37},
  number = {ARTICLE},
  journal = {IEEE Computer},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {60--67},
}
@article{van_renessenodateusing,
  author = {Robbert Van Renesse},
  title = {Using {Randomized} {Techniques} to {Build} {Scalable} {Intrusion}-{Tolerant} {Overlay} {Networks}},
}
@inproceedings{dasnodateswim,
  author = {Abhinandan Das and Indranil Gupta and Ashish Motivala},
  title = {{SWIM}: {Scalable} {Weakly}-consistent {Infection}-style process group {Membership}},
  shorttitle = {{SWIM}},
  booktitle = {Proc. of the {Int}. {Conf}. on {Dependable} {Systems} and {Networks} {DSN} {O2}},
  pages = {303--312},
}
@article{malkhi2003diffusion,
  author = {Dahlia Malkhi and Yishay Mansour and Michael K. Reiter},
  title = {Diffusion without false rumors: {On} propagating updates in a {Byzantine} environment},
  volume = {299},
  shorttitle = {Diffusion without false rumors},
  number = {1-3},
  journal = {Theoretical Computer Science},
  year = {2003},
  note = {Publisher: Elsevier},
  pages = {289--306},
}
@book{minsky2002spreading,
  author = {Yaron Moshe Minsky and Fred B. Schneider},
  title = {Spreading rumors cheaply, quickly, and reliably},
  publisher = {Citeseer},
  year = {2002},
}
@article{pavlovicnodatescalable,
  author = {Matej Pavlovic},
  title = {Scalable {Byzantine} {Fault}-{Tolerant} {Gossip}},
}
@article{haeupler2015simple,
  author = {Bernhard Haeupler},
  title = {Simple, fast and deterministic gossip and rumor spreading},
  volume = {62},
  number = {6},
  journal = {Journal of the ACM (JACM)},
  year = {2015},
  note = {Publisher: ACM New York, NY, USA},
  pages = {1--18},
}
@inproceedings{chen2010optimal,
  author = {Jen-Yeu Chen and Gopal Pandurangan},
  address = {Thira, Santorini, Greece},
  title = {Optimal gossip-based aggregate computation},
  isbn = {978-1-4503-0079-7},
  url = {http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=1810479.1810504},
  doi = {10.1145/1810479.1810504},
  language = {en},
  urldate = {2020-06-27},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 22nd {ACM} symposium on {Parallelism} in algorithms and architectures - {SPAA} '10},
  publisher = {ACM Press},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {124},
}
@inproceedings{patra2011error-free,
  author = {Arpita Patra},
  title = {Error-free multi-valued broadcast and {Byzantine} agreement with optimal communication complexity},
  booktitle = {International {Conference} {On} {Principles} {Of} {Distributed} {Systems}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {34--49},
}
@misc{noauthornodateprobabilistic,
  author = {},
  title = {probabilistic broadcast byzantine - {Google} {Scholar}},
  url = {https://scholar.google.at/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=probabilistic+broadcast+byzantine&btnG=},
  urldate = {2020-06-27},
}
@inproceedings{maurer2012byzantine,
  author = {Alexandre Maurer and S{\'e}bastien Tixeuil},
  title = {On byzantine broadcast in loosely connected networks},
  booktitle = {International {Symposium} on {Distributed} {Computing}},
  publisher = {Springer},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {253--266},
}
@article{alvisi2007how,
  author = {Lorenzo Alvisi and Jeroen Doumen and Rachid Guerraoui and Boris Koldehofe and Harry Li and Robbert Van Renesse and Gilles Tredan},
  title = {How robust are gossip-based communication protocols?},
  volume = {41},
  number = {5},
  journal = {ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review},
  year = {2007},
  note = {Publisher: ACM New York, NY, USA},
  pages = {14--18},
}
@inproceedings{hoefler2017corrected,
  author = {Torsten Hoefler and Amnon Barak and Amnon Shiloh and Zvi Drezner},
  title = {Corrected gossip algorithms for fast reliable broadcast on unreliable systems},
  booktitle = {2017 {IEEE} {International} {Parallel} and {Distributed} {Processing} {Symposium} ({IPDPS})},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2017},
  pages = {357--366},
}
@article{aysal2009broadcast,
  author = {Tuncer Can Aysal and Mehmet Ercan Yildiz and Anand D. Sarwate and Anna Scaglione},
  title = {Broadcast gossip algorithms for consensus},
  volume = {57},
  number = {7},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Signal processing},
  year = {2009},
  note = {Publisher: IEEE},
  pages = {2748--2761},
}
@inproceedings{karp2000randomized,
  author = {Richard Karp and Christian Schindelhauer and Scott Shenker and Berthold Vocking},
  title = {Randomized rumor spreading},
  url = {citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.33.6750&rep=rep1&type=pdf},
  booktitle = {Proceedings 41st {Annual} {Symposium} on {Foundations} of {Computer} {Science}},
  publisher = {IEEE},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {565--574},
}
@techreport{budish2018economic,
  author = {Eric Budish},
  title = {The economic limits of bitcoin and the blockchain},
  url = {https://faculty.chicagobooth.edu/eric.budish/research/Economic-Limits-Bitcoin-Blockchain.pdf},
  institution = {National Bureau of Economic Research},
  year = {2018},
}